IntroductionFor a nation to progress economically, socially as well aspolitically development process in various field arenecessary. This has been true and super power could dothis at tremendous rate , the third world is in the processof such development. This is one side of coin . Let us alsohave to look another side of coin . What are the cost ofsuch development not in terms of money but equally orrather more valuable in terms of its impact onenvironment.The two things i.e development and environment is linkedwith each other. The process of development is bound tohave its impact on environment. Agricultural, industry & mining have been very harmfulimpact on our environment. Such impact led to degradationof our land, forest, water, air and biological diversity andreleases noxious substance.
In our country in the post independent period our ideas were dominated by developmental growth and we did not have a culture of pollution control. Even late Prime minister. Jawahar Lal Nehru wrote in 1957 “ We have large scale project which are carefully examined by our engineer I wonder however, how much thought is given before the project is launched to have an ecological survey of the area and to find out what the effect would be to the drainage system or to flora and fauna of the area. It would be desirable to have an ecological survey before project is launched thus avoid to imbalance of nature. It is desirable to have an idea of possible impact of any development plan on our environment. In order to have sustainable development it is necessary that before we embark on a project, we have to assess the effects of its development on the environment . Such as assessment is known as the Envir onmental Impact Assessment.
EIA is potentially one of the most valuable, interdisciplinary and objective decision making tool with respect to alternative route for development process, technology and project site. The objective of EIA is to ensure that development is sustained with minimum environmental degradation. The ministry of Environment & Forest ( Government of India) has been assigned the responsibility for appraisal of project with regard to environment implication.
The ministry of Environment & Forest ( Government ofIndia) has been assigned the responsibility for appraisal ofproject with regard to environment implication.Three general criteria have been suggested to identify aproject that is likely to have “significant” effects. Theseare:Size of the Project : Whither it transcend the localsignificance.a) Location of the Project – distance from Biosphere reserve, National Park, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Seashore, site of scientific interest, human habitation, important monument.b) Adver se Impact : Pollutions and other adver se impact on envir onment.
Defining EIA It means the identification or evaluation of any proposeddevelopment project on our environment i,e air, water, soil& living. The primary purpose of EIA is to encourageconsideration of the environment in planning and decision-making and finally to arrive at actions that are moreenvironmentally compatible. It presents a clear & concise picture of all benefits & costsassociated with alternative courses of action & provides amechanism for merging the concerns for environment &economics in the process of decision-making.
INDIAN SCENARIO:Environmental clearance on the basis of Environmental Impact Assessmentis mandatory for various developments projects in most part of the worldtoday. In India, this was introduced as an administrative measures in 1978-79, initially for river valley projects and extending later to industrial projects.There are about 29 categories of projects (annexure-1) for whichEnvironmental Clearance was made mandatory by the Environmental ImpactAssessment (EIA)Notification issued in January 1994 under the Environment Protection Act,1986(4). Certain activities permissible under the coastal regulation zoneNotification 1991 also require clearance.Environmental Clearance is granted by the Impact Assessment in theMinistry of Environment and Forest.This power has been delegated to the State governments in the case of co-generation power plants of any capacity, gas/ naphtha based and coal basedpower plants with fluidized bed technology of up to 500 MW capacity andconventional coal based power plants of up to 250 MW capacity exceptwhen located within 25 Km. of the boundary of reserved forests, biospherereserves and critically polluted areas or within 50 km. of inter-stateboundary.
Types of EIA Classified under two categories:• Rapid Assessment &• Comprehensive Assessmento Rapid Assessment is the initial feasiility study carried out for aminimum period of 3 months.o After it gets appraisal from MOEF , the next phase, comprehensiveassessment is carried out.o It is carried out for a period of 16 months.
RAPID ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT(REIA):Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment can be defined as the study , which isdone for quick assessment of likely adverse impacts.Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment studies will be conducted at theinitiation of the new activity. In some cases this study may be required for theexpansion of existing unit or change in the current manufacturing process( if thepollution load is to exceed the existing one ).Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment study covers one season baselinedata for various environmental components viz. Air , Noise, water, land,Biological and Socio-economic including parameters of human interest.
Comprehensive Environmental Impact AssessmentComprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment is basically a study whichincludes collection of data for various components for four seasons i.e. Monsoon,Post-monsoon, Winter and Summer. Comprehensive Environmental ImpactAssessment report has to be submitted after the evaluation of RapidEnvironmental Impact Assessment report, if so asked by the Impact AssessmentAgency.The various methods used in the EIA are Adhoc Method, Overlays methods,Checklists, Matrix , network and Integrated Method- combination of Matrix,Network analysis model and a computer aided systematic approach. A typical EIAstudy including an industry includes.1.Field data collection for various Environmental parameters.2.Assessment of various liquid, solid and gaseous pollutants generated from theplant and existing pollution control devices.3.Assessment of various impacts from these pollutants on Environment.4.Consideration of various statutory guidelines and standards prescribed byCentral Pollution Control Board and Ministry of Environment and Forests.5.Formulation of detailed Environment Management Plan (EMP) to mitigate /control the various impacts and bring them within the standards limits.
Annexture -1LIST OF PROJECTS REQUIRING ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE FROMTHE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT:•Nuclear power and related projects such as heavy water plants,nuclear fuel complex, rare earth•River valley projects including hydel power, major irrigation and theircombination including flood control•Ports, harbours, airports (except minor ports and harbours)•Petroleum refineries including crude and products pipelines•Chemical fertilizers (nitrogenous and phosphatic other than singlesuperphosphate)•Pesticides (technical)•Petroleum complexes ( both olefinic and aromatic ) andpetrochemicals intermediates such as DMT, Caprolactam, LAB etc. andproduction of basic plastic such as LDPE, HDPE, PP,PVC•Bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals•Exploration for oil and gas and their production , transportation andstorage
• 10. Synthetic rubber• Asbestos and asbestos products• Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives• Primary metallurgical industries ( such as production of iron and steel, aluminum, copper, zinc, lead and ferro-alloys)Chlor alkali industry• Integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw materials required in the manufacture of paints• Viscose staple and filament yarn• Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of lead antimony alloy• All tourism projects between 200m-500 meters of high water line and at locations with an elevation of more than 1000 meters with investment of more than 5 crore• Thermal power plants• Mining projects ( with lease more than 5 hectares )
•Highway projects except projects relating to improvement workincluding widening and strengthening of roads with marginal landacquisition along the existing alignment provided it does not passthrough ecologically sensitive areas such as National Parks,Sanctuaries . Tiger Reserves, Reserve Forests•Tarred roads in the Himalayas and forest areas•Distilleries•Raw skins and hides•Pulp, paper and Newsprint•Dyes•Cement•Foundries (individual )•Electroplating
METHODOLOGY FOR EIA EIA involves three steps:1. Identification of environmental impacts2. Prediction of environmental impacts3. Evaluation of environmental impacts Identification is carried out with the help of checklist, matrices &networks.oChecklists present a list of environmental parameters to be investigatedfor possible impacts.oMatrices are 2D checklists in which cause-effect relationship areestablished.o Networks illustrate cause-condition effect linkages & provide the mostcomprehensive approach for impact identification.
Prediction Prediction of environmental impacts requires the greatest degree of scientific application. It involves projecting the baseline environmental setting into the future, with & without the project, and performing necessary calculations for predicting real impacts of the proposed development.Evaluation: The evaluation step calls for conversion of predicted values for various environmental parameters to a comparable set of units using some system of normalisation. Ideally, the environmental impacts should be expressed in monetary units for easy and objective comparasion with other costs and benefits of the project. In practice, assigning monetary values to intangible parameters is quite difficult. Therefore various methods involving numerical rating & ranking and scaling of environmental impacts are used.
Component of EIAThe Following Impacts of the Project should be Assessed:• Air: - Changes in ambient levels and ground level concentrations due to total emissions from point, line and area sources. - Effects on soils, materials, vegetation, and human health.• Noise: - Changes in ambient levels due to noise generated from equipment and movement of vehicles.- Effect on fauna and human health.• Water: - Availability to competing users.- Changes in quality.- Sediment transport.- Ingress of saline water.
• Land: - Changes in land use and drainage pattern.- Changes in land quality including effects of waste disposal.- Changes in shoreline/riverbank and their stability .•Biological: - Deforestation /tree-cutting and shrinkage of animal habitat.- Impact on fauna and flora (including aquatic species, and migratory path/route of animals.- Impact on breeding and nesting grounds.• Socio-Economic: - Impact on the local community including demographic changes.- Impact on economic status.- Impact on human health.- Impact of increased traffic.
Risk AssessmentHazard IdentificationMaximum credible accident (MCA) analysisConsequence analysis of failure and accidentsHazard and operability studiesEnvironment Management Plan- Delineation of mitigation measures including prevention and control ofeach environmental component and rehabilitation & resettlement
Alternatives, Delineation of Mitigation Measuresand EIA Report For every project alternatives should be identified & Environmentalattributes compared. Alternatives should cover both project location & processtechnologies. Once alternatives has been reviewed, a mitigation plan should bedrawn up and is supplemented with an Environmental ManagementPlan to guide the proponent towards “Environmental Improvement”. An EIA report should provide clear information to the decisionmaker on the different environmental scenarios without the project,with the project. Uncertainties should be clearly reflected in the EIA report.
Public Hearing Law requires that the public must be informed andconsulted on a proposed development after the completion ofEIA report. It includes:1.Bonafiede local resident2.Local associations3.Environmental groups4.Any other person located at te project site
Decision Making Decision making process involve consultation between theproject proponent and the impact assessment authority(assisted by an expert group if necessary) The decision on environmental clearance is arrived atthrough a number of steps including evaluation of EIA andEMP
Monitoring the Clearance Conditions Monitoring should be done during both construction andoperation phase of a project. This is to observe whether the predictions made in the EIAreports were correct or not. Monitoring will enable the regulatory agency to review thevalidity of predictions and the conditions of implementationof the Environmental Management Plan.
The EIA processThe environment impact assessment consists of eight steps with each stepequally important in determining the overall performance of the projectThe eight steps of the EIA process are presented in brief below:Screening: First stage of EIA, which determines whether the proposed project,requires an EIA and if it does, then the level of assessment required.Scoping: This stage identifies the key issues and impacts that should befurther investigated. This stage also defines the boundary and time limit of thestudy.Impact analysis: This stage of EIA identifies and predicts the likelyenvironmental and social impact of the proposed project and evaluates thesignificance.Mitigation: This step in EIA recommends the actions to reduce and avoid thepotential adverse environmental consequences of development activities.
Reporting: This stage presents the result of EIA in a form of a report tothe decision-making body and other interested parties.Review of EIA: It examines the adequacy and effectiveness of the EIAreport and provides the information necessary for decision-making.Decision-making: It decides whether the project is rejected, approved orneeds further change.Post monitoring: This stage comes into play once the project iscommissioned. It checks to ensure that the impacts of the project do notexceed the legal standards and implementation of the mitigationmeasures are in the manner as described in the EIA report.The overview of the EIA process is represented in figure
Sustainable development (SD) may be defined as the developmentthat meets the needs of the present without compromising the abilityof the future generations to meet their needs.For rich countries- SD may mean steady reductions in wasteful levelof consumption of energy and other natural resources throughimprovements in efficiency and through changes in lifestyle.For poorer countries- SD would mean the commitment of resourcestowards continued improvement in living standards.The Supreme Court of India, in the Narmada Case, observed,“ Sustainable Development means what type of development cantake place, which can be sustained by nature/ecology with orwithout mitigation”
Johannesburg World Summit on SustainableDevelopment (WSSD)Was held in September 2002Participation was from governments, NGO’s, Businesses, and other groupsAmong many other things, the number of people living on less than onedollar a day, the number of people suffering from hunger and the number ofpeople without sustainable access to drinking water and basic sanitationare to be reduced by half by 2015.
Johannesburg World Summit on SustainableDevelopment (WSSD) cont…Three priorities in WSSD implementation have been identified as:•Improve policy coherence•A sustainable management of natural resources; indicators to measurebiodiversity implementation are being developed, strategies to protectessential sources of biodiversity, such as seas and soils, are beingdesigned; and•The promotion of sustainable consumption and production; make adecisive contribution towards meeting the WSSD goal to ensure the soundmanagement of chemicals.
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA)•LCA is defined as ‘an objective process to evaluate the environmentalburdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifyingenergy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and toevaluate and implement opportunities to enhance environmentalimprovements.’•The standardization of these methods has been promoted by the ISO (theInternational organization for standardization). ISO has published astandard 14040 that gives the brad lines on how to perform LCA Studies.•LCA can be used as a scientific tools for gathering quantitative data toinventory, weigh and rank the environmental burden of products, processesand services.•It is the cradle to grave concept.
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) FRAMEWORKMETHODOLOGY LCA Framework Goal and scope specification Direct Application Interpretation •Product Development Inventory •Strategic Planning Analysis •Public Policy making •Marketing •Others Impact Assessment
Reduce/ReductionReduce/Reduction: to make something smaller or use less, resulting in a smalleramount of waste."Source reduction" is reducing waste before you purchase it, or by purchasingproducts that are not wasteful in their packaging or use.A key part of waste "reduction" is "conservation"—using natural resourceswisely, and using less than usual in order avoid waste.You can practice reduction by selecting products that do not have to be added tolandfills or the waste stream in general. This is really easy to do...First and foremost, buy and use lessStart making wise "package" selections.Refuse store bags!
REUSEYou can "reuse" materials in their original form instead of throwingthem away, or pass those materials on to others who could use them too!Remember, one mans trash is another mans treasure!Here are some examples of reuse...•Take along washable cups or travel mugs instead of disposables; a lot ofrestaurants and stores will be glad to fill or refill your own mug.•When you do use disposables like plastic cups, plates, utensils, and plasticfood storage bags, dont throw them away! Wash and reuse them—most ofthem will last for a long time with many uses. They may not cost much toreplace, but it doesnt make any more sense to throw away those things than itdoes to throw away your bicycle after one use.
RecycleDon’t just toss everything in the trash. Lots of things(like cans, bottles, paper, and cardboard) can beremade into either the same kind of thing or newproducts. Making new items from recycled ones alsotakes less energy and fewer resources than makingproducts from brand new materials.