Unit 2 natural resources lecture 2

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  • 1. | Jul 2012| © 2012 UPES
  • 2. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 3.  Derived from Latin word ‘Foris’ meaning outside Forests are extensive wild natural self sustained wooded tracts of land with a biotic community predominated by woody vegetation consisting of trees and shrubs with a closed canopy. Forest lands are ‘all lands bearing vegetation dominated by trees of any size, exploited or not, capable of producing wood or other forest products.’ (Food and Agriculture Organization ‘FAO’ of UNO) Ecologists define forests as ‘ an ecosystem having a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation’ Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 4.  Forestry: Branch of Science which is connected with establishment, protection, management and exploitation of forests. Silviculture=Syviculture is branch of forestry connected with cultivation and breeding of forest plants Out of 13393mha land of the world, 4416 mha is covered with forests. Out of 32,87,263 sq km of land in India, 6,37,293 sq km is covered by forests. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 5. They are of 4 major types Tropical forests Montane Subtropical forests Temperate forests Alpine Forests Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 6.  Ecological/Environmental Uses Local use/Consumptive uses Commercial/ productive uses Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 7.  Protects soil Retention of sub soil water Prevention of Floods or watershed protection Increase in Rainfall Increase in atmospheric humidity Maintains local climate Reduces atmospheric pollution Maintains ecological balance Maintains hydrological cycle Provides shelter to wild animals Prevents soil erosion Lank bank (maintains soil structure and nutrients) Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 8.  Food Fodder for cattle Fuelwood and charcoal for cooking and heating Poles, bamboos for making homes Timber Fibre for weaving baskets, nets, ropes Apiculture ( rearing of bees) for honey Sericulture for silk Medicinal plants Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 9.  Most of the products of consumptive uses ( above) are also sold and are a source of income Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFPs) like gums, resins, fruits, fibre are collected and sold by local people. ( Minor Forest Produce) Major Timber Extraction for construction, industrial uses, paper, pulp etc. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 10. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 11. Loss or continual degradation of forest habitat due to either natural or human related causes is known as deforestation.Agriculture, urban sprawl, unsustainable forestry practices, mining and petroleum extraction all contribute to human caused deforestationNatural deforestation can be linked to tsunamis, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, glaciation, desertification etc. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 12.  Population Pressure Agricultural Expansion Industrial Development Lack of ethics and awareness Shifting cultivation Fuel requirements Raw materials for industrial use Development projects Growing food needs Overgrazing Forest fires Etc. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 13.  It threatens the existence of many wildlife species due to destruction of their natural habitat. Biodiversity is lost and along with that genetic diversity is eroded. Hydrological cycle gets affected, thereby influencing rainfall. Problems of soil erosion and loss of soil fertility (soil degradation). In hilly areas it often leads to landslides. More carbon is added to the atmosphere and global warming is enhanced. Changes in climatic conditions Destruction of an important sink of pollutants of the environment Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 14.  Prevention of Deforestation controlling unregulated expansion of agriculture and cattle ranching at the expense of forestscontrolling unregulated grazing and destruction of green coverControlling unregulated fuel wood collection and timber harvesting Awareness among people ( Chipko Movement 1973, appiko movement, 1983) Forest Management Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 15.  Reforestation Afforestation Social forestryFarm forestry ( agro forestry)Rural forestry ( community forestry)Urban forestryExtension forestry Forest Conservation Act 1980 Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 16.  December 1972- commencement of movement by bishnoi women after flash floods and landslides ( alaknanda & bhagirathi in 1971) March 1973- under leadership of Gauri Devi women embraced trees Sunderlal Bahuguna popularized the movement with Chandiprasad bhatt The term CHIPKO was popularized through folk songs of Ghanshyam Sailani ( chipko activist) Leaders of chipko movement believe in 5 Fs- food, fodder, fuel, fibre, fertilizer Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 17. Main features of Chipko Andolan Based on Gandhian thoughts- non violence The movement remained non political though supported by political parties Raised fundamental issues of conservation of natural resources Was a totally voluntary movement Concerned with ecological balance of nature Concerned with the concept of ecology as permanent economy Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 18.  Informal agreement between local communities and Forest Department began in 1972, in Midnapore, West Bengal JFM identifies and respects the local community’s rights and benefits that they need from forest resources Under JFM Scheme, Forest Protection Committees (FPCs) from local community members are formed FPCs participate in restoration of green cover and protect the area from being over exploited Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 19. BIODIVERSITYJul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 20.  Biodiversity = Biological diversity It is the variability among living organisms It refers to the variety of all living organisms and their natural habitats found in a defined area. Term biodiversity was coined by E.O. Wilson in 1985 (Father of biodiversity) 14 Different definitions of BiodiversityThe intrinsically in-built plus the externally imposed variability in and among living organisms existing in terrestrial, marine and other ecosystems at a specific period of time. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 21.  In the convention on Biological Diversity (1992),biodiversity has been defined as the variability among living organisms from all sources including inter alia terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystem and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 22. The diversity of population and species and their interaction is assessed and evaluated at different levels Genetic diversity ( Diversity within species)Refers to variation of genes within species Species diversity (Diversity between species)Refers to a variety of species within a region Ecosystem DiversityRefers to diversity of ecological complexes or biotic communities in a given area. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 23. Concept defined by Norman Myers, 1988They are regions which harbor a great diversity of endemic speciesRefers to areas Which are rich in general diversity Which have high degree of endemism Area with higher incidence of endangered and threatened species of fauna and floraRegions having rich biodiversity, high levels of endemism and are under immediate threat of species extinction and habitat destruction (IUCN/UNEP,1986) Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 24. To qualify as a hotspot, a region Must support 1500 endemic plant species/0.5% of global total Must have lost more than 70% of its original habitat25 hotspots in the worldBiggest Hotspot lies over Indo-Myanmar region & covers 2 million sq. km. of areaHOTSPOTS OF INDIA Eastern Himalayas (cradle of civilization) Western ghats Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 25. Some countries situated in tropical areas possess major portion of world’s species diversity.12 such countries are called hotspot zones of biodiversity or Megadiversity countries which harbour 70% of world’s species diversityIndia is a megadiversity country Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 26. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 27.  Consumptive value Productive value Social value Aesthetic value Ethical and moral value Optional value Ecosystem services Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 28.  Food: Sources of Food: Plants: There are about 3000 species of food plants out of which only 150 species are commercialized. Plant provide wide variety of food like maize, wheat, rice. Animal: Man consume meat from mainly nine species of animal like cattle, ship, pig, goat, water buffaloes, chickens, duck, geese and turkeys. Fishes are now regarded as a domesticated animal because of development of aquaculture. Curd, cheese milk are obtained from dairy farms. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 29. Sources of Fats and OilNow a days most commonly used oil seed plant like mustard , ground nut, palm oil. The other oil like soyabean, binola(cotton seed) , sunflower are becoming popular.Fibres: major fiber yielding varieties are cotton, flax, jute, sisal, coir, abacaNew disease resistant varities: Some commercial species of food plants are susceptible to certain disease. These species can be made resistant to particular disease by cross bred. Eg. Potato has been made resistant to late blight by deriving a resistant strain from solanum demissum. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 30. Drug and Medicine A number of herb has been used to cure various ailments. Various plant contain valuable drugs. Eg. Rosy Periwinkle plant is used for treatment of cancer. Tulsi has the property of antibacterial. Quinine is used for the treatment of malaria. The importance of herbal plant for ailment of various disease was discussed our ancient Scriptual Ayurveda. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 31.  Tusk------------------- elephant Musk -------------------musk deer Lac ------------------------lac insect Silk ------------------------silk worm Fur of many animals Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 32.  Since the ancient time our culture and festival were associated with various plant and animals. Eg. Banyan tree, peepal, tulsi has been worshipped by women of India. Some animal like cow is considered our mother. Some animal and plant considered as a national symbol like Peacock, Tiger, Lotus, Banyan. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 33.  Biodiversity provide lots of aesthetic and beautification value. Human being is fond of maintaining garden, keeping pets, ecotourism. We go to various hill station, national park , zoological garden , sanctuaries to watch scenic beauties. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 34.  Live and let live . It means that we may or may not use a species but knowing the very fact that this species exist in nature give us pleasure. Feel sorry for Passenger pigeon and Dodo bird is no more on earth Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 35.  These value include the potentials of biodiversity that are presently unknown and need to be explored. For eg potential cure for AIDS &cancer are in the depth of ocean ecosystem and tropical rainforest. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 36.  Protection of Water resource Forest and plant cover in water catchments area help• To maintain hydrological cycle.• Regulating and stablising water runoff.• Acting as a buffer against natural calamities like flood and drought.• Forest increase the water table.• Regeneration of natural spring.Eg. Wet land and forest act as a water purifying system while mangroves trap silt reducing impact of sea waves, tides or Tsunami. Soil formation and protection Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 37.  Soil formation and protectionClearing of forest lead to• Salinization of soil, leaching of nutrient• Erosion of top soil• Reducing of land productivity• Soil can be preserve by maintaining biodiversity, retaining moisture, preventing erosion.• Plant body provide organic matter to soil through decay.• Root system facilitate microbial activity and increase porosity of soil Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 38.  Nutrient Storage and Cycling• All the nutrient are recycled in nature. These nutrient found in air, water, soil.• Plant take up these nutrient from air, water, soil which enter in the animals body through food chain. After the death of plant and animal these nutrient come back in the environment through decomposition process which is carried out by bacteria and fungi.• Some bacteria and fungi convert the atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate, nitrite through biological nitrogen fixation . For eg. Rizobium Legumious relationship.• Rizobium is one of the main N2 – fixing bacteria living in the nodules of root of leguminous plants. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 39.  Maintaining Climate Stability• Vegetation affect climate at macro and micro level. Dense forest promote rainfall by recycling of water vapour. Reducing Pollution• Different kind of bateria , fungi and protozoa are well known for the decomposition and break down of micro – organism.• These microorganism absorb the pollutant like sewage, garbage and oil spills. Natural and artificial wetland are being used to filter effluent to remove nutrient. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 40.  Maintenance of Ecosystem• All species are equally important in our ecosystem. Disruption of one species can lead to destruction of whole ecosystem. According to food chain and food web all species of plant and animal are interrelated with each other. For e.g Plant ---- deer--- ---lion• If the population of lion is destroyed the population of deer can increase in excess and overpopulation of deer will eat up whole grasses in grassland ecosystem thus making into degraded ecosystem.• If the population of deer decreased it can lead to overgrowth of plant that will lead to competition between the various species of plants and in this way whole ecosystem can be degraded. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 41.  Surviving from natural calamities• Natural calamities like floods, drought, cyclone, typhoon, forest fire, land slide are mostly unpredictable event and proved to be hazardous for all human being.• Natural calamities cause loss of lives, properties and building.• Forest act as a buffer against all these calamities it control floods, cyclone and typhoon. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 42. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 43.  Destruction of Habitat is a serious threat to wildlife for the reasonsa. Absence of cover and shelter- that exposes animals to predators and vagaries of natureb. Reduction in area of movement which retards their reproductive capacityc. Absence of food due to destruction of wild plantsd. Building roads and railways through forests reduces area of movemente. Pollution of water and air along with acid rain affect all forms of lifef. Destruction of habitat of scavengers Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 44.  Hunting : Excessive hunting of wild animals is of 3 typesa. Subsistence hunting for food and safetyb. Sport hunting for recreation or amusementc. Commercial hunting for obtaining musk, ivory, fur etc. Dams and reservoirsa. Block route of fishes and prevent their reproductionb. Submerge natural flora Legal lapse : failure for enforcement of laws to protect life forms Ignorance : about the importance of maintaining flora and fauna Trade: rare animals are being poached and captured for trade Introduction of exotic speciesa. Extinction of dodo of mauritius due to introduction of pigsb. Water hyacinth and lantana camara in India Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 45. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 46.  Threatened species are those that are likely to become extinct if immediate steps are not taken for their conservation A record of threatened species is maintained by International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Morges, Switzerland. It is called the Red Data Book. Criteria used for categorization of endangered species in the booka. The present and past distributionb. Decline in no. or population in the course of timec. Abundance and quality of natural habitatd. Biology and potential value of the species Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 47. According to the degree of danger to the threatened species Endangered species (E)Species in danger of extinction if current casual factors continue to operate eg. Habitat destrution, more death rate than birth rate etc. Example: Tiger, great indian bustard, rhino, red panda musk deer Vulnerable species (V)Species having sufficient population at present but is depleting fast and are likely to enter the category of endangered species in near future. Example: spotted deer, black buck, golden langur, leopard cat. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 48.  Rare species ( R)They have small population in the world and are at great risk and may come under attack from a new predator, pathogen or exotic organism. Example: Indian desert cat, wild yak, snow loris Indeterminate species (I)These are in danger of extinction but a specific cause cannot be assigned. Example : Mexican Prairie Dog, Short eared rabbit of sumatra, 3 banded armadillo of brazil Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 49. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 50.  Conservation of biodiversity is the scientific management of biosphere in such a way that it remains at the optimum level, yielding greatest sustainable benefit to the present generation while retaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations. Maintaining ecological processes and life supporting systems at optimum level Preserve diversity of species and germplasm (genetic diversity) of world’s organisms. Ensure a continuous (everlasting) and sustainable supply of materials for all the human beings and their industries Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 51. World conservation strategy was formulated in 1980 Non disturbance or disturbance to the minimum when it is essential. Protection of threatened species. Priority to monotypic forms (only one species of a genus or a family) Priority to endangered species over vulnerable over rare species. In-situ and ex-situ conservation. Management of life support system ( air, water, land) Conservation of currently useful organisms germplasm like food crops, timber plants. Conservation of wild relatives of economically useful organisms. Protection of natural habitats of wild relatives of useful organisms. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 52.  Safe guarding critical habitats of wild animals Preservation of whole ecosystem of threatened species Protection of unique ecosystems on priority basis Establishment of national parks and sanctuaries for wildlife protection Non disturbance of routes of migratory animals and their resting places Avoidance of over exploitation of useful products of wildlife Regulation of hunting and international trade of wildlife Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 53. In 1992, Earth Summit held in Rio de Janerio resulted in Convention on Biodiversity ( became effective from 29.12.1993)Three major objectives identified Sustainable use of Biodiversity Conservation of biodiversity Justified sharing of benefits due to use of genetic resources Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 54.  International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) , 1948, Morges , Switzerland World wildlife fund (WWF) , 1961, Glands, Switzerland (Symbol- Giant Panda) World Wildlife Fund (WWF) India, 1969, Bombay Convention on International Trade in Endangered species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) , 1975 Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 55.  In situ Conservation Strategies Ex situ Conservation Strategies Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  • 56. Biodiversity Conservation Management System In situ conservation Ex situ conservation Protected area networkSacred Biosphere National Sacred Seed Botanicalforests reserves Parks, wildl plants and bank, field gardens, aand ife home gene rborata, zosacred sanctuaries gardens banks, cryo- oslakes preservation and tissue cultureTerrestrial Marine Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES