| Jul 2012|   © 2012 UPES
CONTENTS     Jul 2012      Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
A resource is anything we get from the environment to meet our     needs and desires, which has a dependability through ti...
 Air for breathing Water for drinking Land for living and growing food Forests for timber and paper Ores for metals ...
 Form of energy and/or matter which is essential for the  functioning of organisms, populations and ecosystems.  (Ramade,...
 The 5 basic ecological variables – energy, matter, space, time  and diversity are sometimes combinedly called natural  r...
 Forest resources Water resources Mineral resources Food resources Energy resources Land resources        Jul 2012  ...
Classification 1 Biotic ResourcesThese are living resources e.g. plants, wildlife etc. Abiotic ResourcesThese are non-li...
Classification 2 Inexhaustible ResourcesThese resources are not changed or exhausted by mans activities and are abundantl...
Classification 3 : According to Odum Renewable ResourcesThose resources that can be replenished through rapid natural cyc...
Classification 3 : According to Odum                cont…Non renewable resources are divided into 2 categories Recyclable...
Classification 4Classification of resources based on quality, mutability and reusability.Refer black board/notes        Ju...
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
There are four basic reasons of the depletion of natural resources.1.Rapid population increase2.Pollution3.High consumptio...
 There has been a tremendous increase in India ‘s  population and it will be about 130 billion by the next  decade. An i...
 At present, the world population is 3600 million and is  increasing by two percent every year. The industrialized count...
 The developed countries consume less but their  resources are enough. The population and per capita consumption have a ...
 We are deteriorating our environment due to increasing  population. We are polluting lakes, streams, rivers by  sewage, ...
 Recent researches have revealed that the proportion of  pesticides in our body has deleterious effects on heart and  liv...
 Due to tremendous increase of population, most of the  natural resources are being consumed. The high rate of consumpti...
 Due to excessive consumption of minerals of the soil by  cropping or soil erosion or other natural events, fertility of ...
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
The protection of various resources from unwanted destruction is called  conservation.OrConservation is an intelligent and...
Now it is known that the world resources of minerals , oils and natural gas are limited. Mineral resources are of followin...
There are three important conservation approaches which should be taken in to consideration: To reduce wastes and to mini...
Forests are important natural resources. It is most important natural habitat for wild life.It is also utilized by farmers...
If a forest is cut down, energy stored in the wood is lost and most   of the nutrients of the system are lost.Such defores...
Wild life provides recreational and economic benefits to man.Recreational and economic benefits are closely related to eac...
Many species of wild life have become extinct or in the way of extinction. Until now around 106 species of animals and 139...
Conservation of wildlife Protection of natural habitat of wildlife Favourable conditions for multiplication of wildlife...
Water is most important for the life of living organisms such as plants, animals and man.It is also essential for agricult...
Firstly, there is no proper utilization and distribution of water and  secondly water quality is deteriorating.To day ther...
Recommendations for water conservation Cropping patterns need a major change Balanced geographical distribution of pumps...
The top layer of the earth is called soil, which is very fertile because it contains minerals and humus.Soil is natural ha...
Trees check the force of strong winds which causes the fertile  soil to move from its original place. Thus trees act as wi...
Soil conservation ( used by W.J. Spilllman of USA in 1930) Agronomic methods: Contour farming/contour furrowing/strip cro...
The ocean covers nearly three fourth of earth’s surface. Ocean has  sufficed many needs of man from the time immemorial.Th...
FOREST RESOURCESJul 2012 Jul 2012                      © 2012 UPES
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Unit 2 natural resources lecture 1

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Unit 2 natural resources lecture 1

  1. 1. | Jul 2012| © 2012 UPES
  2. 2. CONTENTS Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  3. 3. A resource is anything we get from the environment to meet our needs and desires, which has a dependability through time.OrAny material which is required or used to sustain life or livelihood is termed as a resource.OrResources are all those requirements of organisms, population and communities which tend help in accumulation of energy by increased availability. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  4. 4.  Air for breathing Water for drinking Land for living and growing food Forests for timber and paper Ores for metals Oil, coal and natural gas for producing energy Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  5. 5.  Form of energy and/or matter which is essential for the functioning of organisms, populations and ecosystems. (Ramade, 1984) In the case of humans, a natural resource refers to any form of energy or matter essential for the fulfillment of physiological, socio-economic and cultural needs both at the individual level and that of the community The 5 basic ecological variables – energy, matter, space, time and diversity are sometimes combinedly called natural resources. These natural resources are maintaining ecological balance among themselves. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  6. 6.  The 5 basic ecological variables – energy, matter, space, time and diversity are sometimes combinedly called natural resources. These natural resources are maintaining ecological balance among themselves. Any stock or reserves that can be drawn from nature is a natural resources. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  7. 7.  Forest resources Water resources Mineral resources Food resources Energy resources Land resources Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  8. 8. Classification 1 Biotic ResourcesThese are living resources e.g. plants, wildlife etc. Abiotic ResourcesThese are non-living resources e.g. land, minerals etc. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  9. 9. Classification 2 Inexhaustible ResourcesThese resources are not changed or exhausted by mans activities and are abundantly available for ever e.g. solar energy, wind energy, power from tides etc. Exhaustible ResourcesThese resources are limited in nature and are non-maintainable e.g. coal, petrol etc. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  10. 10. Classification 3 : According to Odum Renewable ResourcesThose resources that can be replenished through rapid natural cycles. Examples :1)Oxygen in air which is replenished through photosynthesis, 2)Freshwater that is replenished through water cycle Non- Renewable ResourcesThose resources that cannot be replenished through natural processes. These are available in limited amounts and cannot be increased. Examples: Fossil fuels, salts, metals etc. continued… Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  11. 11. Classification 3 : According to Odum cont…Non renewable resources are divided into 2 categories Recyclable ResourcesThese are non renewable resources which can be collected after they are used and can be recycled. Eg. Non energy mineral resources which occur in earth’s crust and deposits of fertilizer nutrients. Non- Recyclable ResourcesThese are non-renewable resources which cannot be recycled in anyway. Eg. Fossil fuels and uranium which provide 90% of our energy requirements. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  12. 12. Classification 4Classification of resources based on quality, mutability and reusability.Refer black board/notes Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  13. 13. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  14. 14. There are four basic reasons of the depletion of natural resources.1.Rapid population increase2.Pollution3.High consumption of resources4.Deterioration of land Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  15. 15.  There has been a tremendous increase in India ‘s population and it will be about 130 billion by the next decade. An increase in population will decrease all types of natural resources and consequently result in environmental pollution. Ultimately, there will be short supply or detoriating quality of natural resources. This is because increase in population will increase the demand of natural resources and environment. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  16. 16.  At present, the world population is 3600 million and is increasing by two percent every year. The industrialized countries have annual growth rate of 0.5 to 1%. The developing countries have annual growth rate of 2 to 3%. The per capita use of energy and mineral resources shows a difference between the developed countries of the world. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  17. 17.  The developed countries consume less but their resources are enough. The population and per capita consumption have a considerable impact on the environment. The world can not meet the continuous increased demand for natural resources. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  18. 18.  We are deteriorating our environment due to increasing population. We are polluting lakes, streams, rivers by sewage, industrial wastes, heat radioactive materials, detergents, fertilizers and pesticides. Besides these , we are releasing a number of toxic materials into our surroundings. The uncontrolled use of pesticides has disturbed the entire food chains by which animals including man is affected. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  19. 19.  Recent researches have revealed that the proportion of pesticides in our body has deleterious effects on heart and liver and higher concentration may cause several other diseases including cancer. Many gases e.g. carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide are known to cause respiratory troubles. The unplanned and uncontrolled industrial growth may adversely affect or destroy the health of the society. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  20. 20.  Due to tremendous increase of population, most of the natural resources are being consumed. The high rate of consumption has disturbed our ecosystem. But on the other hand, many of the natural resources are essential to man for the basic needs. Many industries require raw materials which are essential for the advancement of the country. However there is no doubt that high consumption will affect adversely the quality of our environment either by unwise use of natural resources or by increasing pollution. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  21. 21.  Due to excessive consumption of minerals of the soil by cropping or soil erosion or other natural events, fertility of the soil is lost and land deteriorates gradually. Sometimes draught also results in deterioration of land and many nutrients of the top soil are destroyed and their fertility is lost. As a result of cropping; mineral cycling of soil nutrients is greatly reduced. Erosion has also depleted soil fertility because most of the mineral remain in the upper part of the soil and they are easily removed by wind or washed away by water. For the proper economic development land for cropping, forest, recreation, urban land, transportation and wild life are needed but they are reduced day by day. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  22. 22. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  23. 23. The protection of various resources from unwanted destruction is called conservation.OrConservation is an intelligent and judicious management of resources, optimum utilization without depleting the basic stock. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  24. 24. Now it is known that the world resources of minerals , oils and natural gas are limited. Mineral resources are of following types: Metallic mineralsUnder this category are mainly iron, non-ferrous metals, silver and gold are important. Non-metallic mineralsThese are called non-metallic or industrial minerals include a wide variety of substances which comprise the building materials such as rock and gravels, cement and clay. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  25. 25. There are three important conservation approaches which should be taken in to consideration: To reduce wastes and to minimize the demand By changing the way of life, and To increase and reclamation and recycling of materials. Use of substitutes should be encouraged. Shifting from scarce to abundant metals.Solid wastes should be reutilized for their energy content and it is possible to recycle the materials and the reserve is to be met by reclamation.Increasing the amount of reclamation, the total demand can be met with a decrease in the consumption of new materials. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  26. 26. Forests are important natural resources. It is most important natural habitat for wild life.It is also utilized by farmers for commercial and recreational purposeForests plays very important role in keeping the atmospheric balance by consuming CO2 and releasing O2; the latter is essential for life.So, the removal of plants and trees would disturb the composition of natural air. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  27. 27. If a forest is cut down, energy stored in the wood is lost and most of the nutrients of the system are lost.Such deforestation leaves a poor soil ,which can support agriculture only for short time, because the harvesting of the first few crops removes the other remaining nutrients and renders its uses.Deforestation causes other disastrous results also. Removal of trees exposes the surface of the land resulting into erosion.Soil is then washed away. Soil erosion is particularly more on hill sides where heavy rain sweeps soil downhill to choke rivers.Social forestry can play a very important role to check flood and draught , which affect 34-68 million hectares of land respectively. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  28. 28. Wild life provides recreational and economic benefits to man.Recreational and economic benefits are closely related to each other. For e.g. Fishing and hunting provide entrainment and economic benefit to man.Wild life includes 350 species of mammals, 1200 species of birds and more than 20,000 species of insects.The causes of decline of wildlife in India are many, wild elephants were captured and trained for use in war; rhinos were killed for making shield.Forests were cleared for the development of agriculture, industry and other developmental projects. Wild animals were mercilessly were killed, which resulted in decline of their number and they are facing extinction now. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  29. 29. Many species of wild life have become extinct or in the way of extinction. Until now around 106 species of animals and 139 species of birds have become extinct due to the climate and geographical changes and by the hunting of man and about 600 species of birds are going to be extinct if they are not protected.Well planned projects for the conservation of forests and wild life are executed with the aid from several world organizations.Due to the help from these organization a lot of species mainly lion, tiger and rhino have been saved.In 1973, a project for saving tiger was started which yielded very satisfactory results.Under the wildlife protection act hunting of wild animals is banned such as elephants, lion, leopard and crocodile . Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  30. 30. Conservation of wildlife Protection of natural habitat of wildlife Favourable conditions for multiplication of wildlife All threatened species should be protected eg. Tiger project International trade in wildlife to be regulated Ban on hunting/illegal hunting Public interest and awareness in conservation of wildlife should be promoted. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  31. 31. Water is most important for the life of living organisms such as plants, animals and man.It is also essential for agriculture, industries drinking and many other purposes.It has been estimated that the annual production of water through rain is about 370000 cubic kilometer and total water which is used annually is about 10,000 cubic kilometer.Still there is shortage of water and there are two man reason of its shortage . Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  32. 32. Firstly, there is no proper utilization and distribution of water and secondly water quality is deteriorating.To day there is great problem about water pollution. Many of the wastes of human society are disposed of in the river, lake and ocean and water becomes polluted and not fit for drinking and other purposes. Common effects on water bodies are:• Addition of poisonous substances• Addition of suspended particles• Reduction of oxygen• Heating of water Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  33. 33. Recommendations for water conservation Cropping patterns need a major change Balanced geographical distribution of pumps and pumping rate should be fixed Irrigation canals should be brick lined Irrigation methods like sprinkling and drip irrigation can save water Industries should be encouraged to reuse their own water after treatment New techniques should be evolved to reduce domestic demand Check on over irrigation Check on excessive use of fertilizers/pesticides so that underground water is not polluted Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  34. 34. The top layer of the earth is called soil, which is very fertile because it contains minerals and humus.Soil is natural habitat for plants and animals.It provides water and nutrients to the living organisms.Soil is damaged through tree cutting running water and wind. It has been estimated that from 1959 to 1969 there was a loss of 16.9 lacs of hectare of land. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  35. 35. Trees check the force of strong winds which causes the fertile soil to move from its original place. Thus trees act as wind breakers.Roots of the soil bind the soil firmly. This prevents the soil erosion from rain and floods and fertile soil is checked from damagePlants and animals when die are decomposed by bacteria and fungi, which increase the fertility of soil.Soil fertility can be restored by supplementing manures and fertilizers Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  36. 36. Soil conservation ( used by W.J. Spilllman of USA in 1930) Agronomic methods: Contour farming/contour furrowing/strip cropping/mulching/crop rotation/green manuring/cover crops. Forestry methods: Afforestation/pasture development/ pasture improvement/controlled grazing/planting of shelter belts Mechanical/engineering methods: Contour bunding/contour terracing/diversion of channels/flood control measures Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  37. 37. The ocean covers nearly three fourth of earth’s surface. Ocean has sufficed many needs of man from the time immemorial.The rapid growth of human population and the advancement of industrialization have exerted great pressure on ocean resources and ocean environment.According to a study about 35 km3 of sewage and 3.5 km3 of industrial wastes is released annually into the coastal waters of India. In addition, the offshore oil installations have added another stress on the ocean environment.The task of harnessing the potential of ocean resources for the development purposes is of great importance. We should harness necessary resources of ocean when our land resources are in short supply.Much awareness needs to be generated by national and international agencies including United nations on conservation of ocean’s wealth. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  38. 38. FOREST RESOURCESJul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  39. 39. NEXT CLASS… Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  40. 40. NEXT CLASS… Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES

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