TECHNICAL ARTICLE WRITING
CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNICATION

01/28/14

1
WHY TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION
• Directs the flow of scientific and technical information
from the labs to the different stak...
WHAT is a technical communication
•We can define technical communication as the flow of technical
and scientific informati...
WHAT is a technical article
• It is a written composition treating scientific or a technical
subject distinctly.
• It is a...
PURPOSE OF TECHNICAL ARTICLE
• To Inform
• To Instruct
• To Propose
• To recommend
• To Persuade

CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL
...
Requirements
•There are two requirements of effective technical comm.
• Subject competence
• Linguistic competence.
•Subje...
• Linguistic competence is the possession of appropriate
language skills and the ability to present scientific facts and
i...
TYPES OF ARTICLES
• Scientific Article
• Technical Article
• Research Paper

CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNICATION

01/28/...
Scientific Article
•Theoretical in the treatment of the subject. It is an attempt to bring
out the research from the labor...
Research Paper
•It is a highly specific kind of writing generally addressed to a small
body of people directly concerned w...
Scientific articles
•Follows consistent format
•Contains same major sections names may vary
•Technical vocabulary, special...
Features of technical articles:
Scientific Attitude
•It is the attitude of objectivity, impartiality and directness.
•Tech...
General Guide lines
•Define the audience and the purpose
•Create a work plan to write the article
•Collect and evaluate ne...
Source material
•Scientific articles transfer new research and findings
to other people.
•You should locate appropriate so...
The criteria for proper identification
•The area of your investigation
•Audience needs and expectations
•Background of you...
Literature Review
• Essential segment of any credible research
• To keep yourself updated about the latest research
• Cond...
More about technical article
•Explain with tangible examples.
•Realize that your reader is not an expert.
•Quote & note yo...
FOCUS on
•Clear statement of the problem, the proposed solution's,
and results.
•Describes what has been done before and w...
Title
Title should contain the idea of the paper/article.
•Avoid all but the most readily understood abbreviations.
•Avoid...
Introduction
•Introduction sets up my expectations for the rest of
your paper
•The introduction must motivate your work by...
ABSTRACT
It is a stand alone entity
Parts of abstract
• Purpose of research
• Methodology
• Findings
• Recommendation and ...
ABSTRACT
•Since the abstract will be used by search engines, be sure
that terms that identify your work (keywords) are fou...
Structuring a Technical Article
•
•
•
•
•

Problem
Approach/Architecture
Methodology/Implementation/Realization
Finding/Re...
• Architecture of proposed system(s) to achieve this, model
should be more generic than your own peculiar
implementation. ...
Summary and Future Work
• Focuses on the main result.
• Gives the scope and areas for implementation.
• Directs towards ne...
While writing an article
•Write the problem section first.
•Then write the approach, result and recommendation
sections.
•...
Guidelines for Experimental Papers
•Papers that introduce a new learning "setting" or type of
application.
•Papers describ...
• Papers introducing a new algorithm should conduct
experiments comparing to state-of-the-art algorithms for the
same or s...
• Descriptions of the software and data sufficient to replicate the
experiments must be included in the paper.
• Conclusio...
Conference Review Process for technical
articles/papers
•It is hard to generalize the review process for conferences,
but ...
Any good conference will strive to provide at least three
reviews, however, since conferences operate under tight
deadline...
Graphic presentation of information
•Graphic aids help to simplify complex information
•Graphics lend visual impact and co...
Types of Graphics

Uses

Tables

Show numerical data and related
information

Graphs/line charts

Show trends in data

Bar...
SOME EXAMPLES

CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNICATION

01/28/14

34
123
27

26

25

e
t
a
d

Se rie s1

24

23

46.3

46.4

46.5

46.6

46.7

46.8

dollar value

CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL
COMM...
123

1
2

CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNICATION

01/28/14

36
123
27

date]

26

Series1
Series2

25

Series3
Series4

24

23
1

2

dollar value
CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNICATION

...
Bauxite crushed to powder

Mixed with hot solution of caustic soda

Aluminum hydroxide dissolved in caustic soda

Solution...
Flow charts
Vehicular
pollution

Toxic
fumes

Carbon
Mono oxide
Hydro
carbons

Reduction
in oxygen
carrying
capacity
of bl...
TREE DIAGRAM
ROCKS

Igneous

Fine
Grained
extrusive

sedimentary

Elastic
Or
fragmental

Metamorphic

Dynamo
thermal
dynam...
Things to remember
• Use strong verbs instead of lots of nouns and simple terms rather
than fancy-sounding ones. Examples:...
• Avoid in-line enumeration like: "Packets can get (a) lost, (b)
stolen, (c) wet.“
• Brackets are always surrounded by a s...
Footnotes
•A footnote is a note of reference or comment written at the end of the
page.
It serves the following purposes:
...
Bibliography
•It refers to a descriptive list of sources which have been consulted
to write an article or a report.
•It in...
THANKS AND GOOD LUCK
CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNICATION

01/28/14

45
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Technical article writing

  1. 1. TECHNICAL ARTICLE WRITING CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 1
  2. 2. WHY TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION • Directs the flow of scientific and technical information from the labs to the different stakeholders. • Helps in dissemination of new ideas, views and suggestions in the relevant technical fields at multiple level. • Leads to unification between the activities of an individual or a work team towards a common technical work. • Ensures free exchange of information and ideas • Promotes and maintains technical awareness. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 2
  3. 3. WHAT is a technical communication •We can define technical communication as the flow of technical and scientific information and perception between various members of scientific or professional community. •It includes all the methods, means, media and channels. •Effective technical comm. Is a purposive symbolic communication, which helps in understanding of ‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the scientific, technical and natural phenomenon. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 3
  4. 4. WHAT is a technical article • It is a written composition treating scientific or a technical subject distinctly. • It is a systematic account of the result of some investigation, research, fieldwork and other activities. • It explores one area of interest and presents an objective analysis and interpretation of facts, findings, inferences, suggestions, recommendations and suggestions and conclusions CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 4
  5. 5. PURPOSE OF TECHNICAL ARTICLE • To Inform • To Instruct • To Propose • To recommend • To Persuade CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 5
  6. 6. Requirements •There are two requirements of effective technical comm. • Subject competence • Linguistic competence. •Subject competence is the knowledge of the relevant subject and ability to analyze fact or information for clear presentation. •As technical communication is the transfer of scientific and technical information and understanding from one person to another person and it deals with specific and technical subject matter. •Technical subject matter includes any topic or subject that falls within the general field of science and technology. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 6
  7. 7. • Linguistic competence is the possession of appropriate language skills and the ability to present scientific facts and information clearly and objectively. • It includes the ability to use appropriate devices to present scientific data. NOTE: Lack of these skills may also lead to ineffective or incomplete communication. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 7
  8. 8. TYPES OF ARTICLES • Scientific Article • Technical Article • Research Paper CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 8
  9. 9. Scientific Article •Theoretical in the treatment of the subject. It is an attempt to bring out the research from the laboratory to the world. •The language may be technical but has to be made understood in simple words. Technical Article •Less theoretical in the treatment of subject. Concentrates on the practical aspects of the subject . •It relates the ideas that resulted from a research that can be used to improve the life and society. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 9
  10. 10. Research Paper •It is a highly specific kind of writing generally addressed to a small body of people directly concerned with the object of that study. •Not published in newspapers only in journals. •A good research paper has a clear statement of the problem the paper is addressing, the proposed solution(s), and results achieved. •It describes clearly what has been done before on the problem, and what is new. •The goal of a paper is to describe novel technical results CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 10
  11. 11. Scientific articles •Follows consistent format •Contains same major sections names may vary •Technical vocabulary, specialized terminology, and graphic aids are used. •Objective and factual. General literary articles •No proper format is followed •General and simple words are used. •The discussions do not have a scientific basis and cannot be biased CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 11
  12. 12. Features of technical articles: Scientific Attitude •It is the attitude of objectivity, impartiality and directness. •Technical comm. is impartial, unemotional and objective. •The attention of the writer is concentrated on the facts only. Use of scientific and technical vocabulary CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 12
  13. 13. General Guide lines •Define the audience and the purpose •Create a work plan to write the article •Collect and evaluate necessary data. •Examine the latest research on the topic. •Prepare research notes •Prepare a list of references and bibliography •Develop an outline •Write a rough draft •Revise the document •Finalize & write the final draft. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 13
  14. 14. Source material •Scientific articles transfer new research and findings to other people. •You should locate appropriate source material •Sources may be magazines, journals, book, media, internet etc. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 14
  15. 15. The criteria for proper identification •The area of your investigation •Audience needs and expectations •Background of your subject •Focus of your result •Purpose of your article •Scope of your article CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 15
  16. 16. Literature Review • Essential segment of any credible research • To keep yourself updated about the latest research • Conduct a literature review by browsing through relevant magazines, journals or books. • It should be relevant and believable. Topic sentence • The main idea. • It should be very effective as it enhance readability. • The rest of the sentences are an explanation or the development of the idea contained in the topic sentence. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 16
  17. 17. More about technical article •Explain with tangible examples. •Realize that your reader is not an expert. •Quote & note your sources. Make sure you create a document that reveals sources that are authorities on the matter and that are recognized in a field. •Proofread your work, always. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 17
  18. 18. FOCUS on •Clear statement of the problem, the proposed solution's, and results. •Describes what has been done before and what is new. •Describe the results in sufficient details. •Identifying the novel aspects and significance of the results. •What improvements and impact do they suggest. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 18
  19. 19. Title Title should contain the idea of the paper/article. •Avoid all but the most readily understood abbreviations. •Avoid common phrases like "novel", "performance evaluation" and "architecture”. •Use adjectives that describe the distinctive features of your work, e.g., reliable, scalable, high-performance, etc. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 19
  20. 20. Introduction •Introduction sets up my expectations for the rest of your paper •The introduction must motivate your work by pinpointing the problem you are addressing and then give an overview of your approach. •Introduction can be divided into three parts Past and current status of the problem. What you propose to do. What can be expected as a result •Repeating the abstract in the introduction is a waste of space. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 20
  21. 21. ABSTRACT It is a stand alone entity Parts of abstract • Purpose of research • Methodology • Findings • Recommendation and conclusion CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 21
  22. 22. ABSTRACT •Since the abstract will be used by search engines, be sure that terms that identify your work (keywords) are found there. •Avoid use of "in this paper" in the abstract. What other paper would you be talking about here? CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 22
  23. 23. Structuring a Technical Article • • • • • Problem Approach/Architecture Methodology/Implementation/Realization Finding/Result/Evaluation Recommendation and conclusion/Future scope •The body should contain sufficient motivation, with example scenarios, illustrating figures, followed by a crisp generic problem statement model, i.e., functionality, particularly, etc. •The paper may or may not include formalisms. General evaluations of your algorithm or architecture, e.g., material proving the algorithm go here, not in the evaluation section. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 23
  24. 24. • Architecture of proposed system(s) to achieve this, model should be more generic than your own peculiar implementation. Always include at least one figure. • Realization: contains actual implementation details when implementing architecture isn't totally straightforward. Mention briefly implementation language, platform, location, dependencies on other packages and minimum resource usage if pertinent. • Evaluation: How does it really work in practice? Provide real or simulated performance metrics, end-user studies, mention external technology adopters, if any, etc. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 24
  25. 25. Summary and Future Work • Focuses on the main result. • Gives the scope and areas for implementation. • Directs towards new direction or strengthens the present hypothesis. Acknowledgements Bibliography Appendix • detailed protocol descriptions • proofs with more than two lines • other low-level but important details CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 25
  26. 26. While writing an article •Write the problem section first. •Then write the approach, result and recommendation sections. •The conclusions comes next. •Write the introduction last since it glosses the conclusions in one of the last paragraphs. •Finally, write the abstract. •Last, give your paper a title. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 26
  27. 27. Guidelines for Experimental Papers •Papers that introduce a new learning "setting" or type of application. •Papers describing a new algorithm should be • Clear • Precise • Comparable • Performance measureable. •Another useful way of describing an algorithm is to define the space of hypotheses that it searches when optimizing the performance measure. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 27
  28. 28. • Papers introducing a new algorithm should conduct experiments comparing to state-of-the-art algorithms for the same or similar problems. • Unusual performance criteria should be carefully defined and justified. • All experiments must include measures of uncertainty of the conclusions. • These typically take the form of confidence intervals, statistical tests, or estimates of standard error. • Proper experimental methodology should be employed. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 28
  29. 29. • Descriptions of the software and data sufficient to replicate the experiments must be included in the paper. • Conclusions drawn from a series of experimental runs should be clearly stated. Graphical display of experimental data can be very effective. • Supporting tables of exact numerical results from experiments should be provided in an appendix. • Limitations of the algorithm should be described in detail. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 29
  30. 30. Conference Review Process for technical articles/papers •It is hard to generalize the review process for conferences, but operate according to these basic rules: 1. The paper is submitted to the technical program chair(s) mostly in PostScript or PDF formats. 2. The technical program chair assigns the paper to one or more technical program committee(TPC) members, also called expert committee. The TPC member usually provides a review, but may also be asked to find between one and three reviewers who are not members of the TPC. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 30
  31. 31. Any good conference will strive to provide at least three reviews, however, since conferences operate under tight deadlines and not all reviewers deliver as promised. 3.The technical program chair then collects the reviews and sorts the papers according to their average review scores. • The TPC (or, rather, the subset that can make the meeting), then meets in person or by phone conference. • Then the paper is selected to be presented in the conference. NOTE: The identity of this TPC member is kept secret. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 31
  32. 32. Graphic presentation of information •Graphic aids help to simplify complex information •Graphics lend visual impact and condense large no. of information into a small space. •One picture is worth a thousand words. •Should choose the correct graphics depending on the nature of data, like graph, charts, etc. •Represented in logical way and should supplement information. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 32
  33. 33. Types of Graphics Uses Tables Show numerical data and related information Graphs/line charts Show trends in data Bar charts/diagrams Show comparative data/relative magnitude Flow diagrams Show the steps of a process Flow charts Summarize complex processes Tree diagrams Present classifications CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 33
  34. 34. SOME EXAMPLES CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 34
  35. 35. 123 27 26 25 e t a d Se rie s1 24 23 46.3 46.4 46.5 46.6 46.7 46.8 dollar value CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 35
  36. 36. 123 1 2 CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 36
  37. 37. 123 27 date] 26 Series1 Series2 25 Series3 Series4 24 23 1 2 dollar value CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 37
  38. 38. Bauxite crushed to powder Mixed with hot solution of caustic soda Aluminum hydroxide dissolved in caustic soda Solution pumped into large tanks for filtering impurities With slow cooling,aluminium hydroxide settle out in the form of fine crystals Crystals washed to remove caustic soda CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 38
  39. 39. Flow charts Vehicular pollution Toxic fumes Carbon Mono oxide Hydro carbons Reduction in oxygen carrying capacity of blood Sickness/ death smog cancer CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 39
  40. 40. TREE DIAGRAM ROCKS Igneous Fine Grained extrusive sedimentary Elastic Or fragmental Metamorphic Dynamo thermal dynamic Coarse grained chemical thermal CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 40
  41. 41. Things to remember • Use strong verbs instead of lots of nouns and simple terms rather than fancy-sounding ones. Examples: make assumption assume is a function of depends on is an illustration illustrates, shows is a requirement requires, need to Utilizes uses • Use hyphens for concatenated words: "end-to-end architecture", "real-time operating system“. • Numbers ten or less are spelled out: "It consists of three fields", not "3 fields". • Use. Eq. 7, not Equation (7). CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 41
  42. 42. • Avoid in-line enumeration like: "Packets can get (a) lost, (b) stolen, (c) wet.“ • Brackets are always surrounded by a space: • "The experiment(Fig. 7)shows" is wrong; • "The experiment (Fig. 7) shows" is correct • Never start a sentence with "and". • Don't use colons (:) in mid-sentence. • Don't start sentences with "That's because". • "i.e." and "e.g." are always followed by a comma. • "respectively" is preceded by a comma, as in "The light bulbs lasted 10 and 100 days, respectively." CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 42
  43. 43. Footnotes •A footnote is a note of reference or comment written at the end of the page. It serves the following purposes: •Indicates the source of a fact, opinion or quotation •Explains unfamiliar or difficult terms •Elucidates, elaborates or validates an idea or point •Provides additional data, makes acknowledgements Method •Name of the author [in normal order], book title, edition, location of publisher, publishing co. year of publication, page no. •H.C.Perkin, Air Pollution: Its origin and control, New York: McGraw Hill,1974,pg.42-69 •S.P.Kumar,”Effects of air pollution", The Hindu, Jan 29,2002 CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 43
  44. 44. Bibliography •It refers to a descriptive list of sources which have been consulted to write an article or a report. •It includes all the sources-books, journals, magazines, websites, articles etc. •Organized alphabetically listing the authors name in the reverse order. Method •Crystal, David. English as a global language. Cambridge; Cambridge university press,1997. •Hudson, Henry o. The Glass House. Washington; Prentice Hall,1948. CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 44
  45. 45. THANKS AND GOOD LUCK CENTRE FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 01/28/14 45

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