THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYERThe Evolution of the Montreal ProtocolBecause of the risks posed by ozone depletion, leaders from many countries decided to craft aworkable solution. Since 1987, 191 nations - almost every country in the world - have ratified alandmark environmental treaty, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the OzoneLayer. The Protocols chief aim is to reduce and eventually eliminate the production and use ofman-made ozone depleting substances (ODS). By agreeing to the terms of the Montreal Protocol,signatory nations - including the United States - committed to take actions to protect the ozonelayer, hoping in the long-term to reverse the damage that had been done by the use of ozonedepleting substances.The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was designed to reduce theproduction and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance inthe atmosphere, and thereby protect the earth’s fragile ozone Layer. The original MontrealProtocol was agreed on 16 September 1987 and entered into force on 1 January 1989.The Montreal Protocol includes a unique adjustment provision that enables the Parties to theProtocol to respond quickly to new scientific information and agree to accelerate the reductionsrequired on chemicals already covered by the Protocol. These adjustments are then automaticallyapplicable to all countries that ratified the Protocol. Since its initial adoption, the MontrealProtocol has been adjusted five times. Specifically, the Second, Fourth, Seventh, Ninth, Eleventhand Nineteenth Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted, in accordance with theprocedure laid down in paragraph 9 of Article 2 of the Montreal Protocol, certain adjustmentsand reductions of production and consumption of the controlled substances listed in the Annexesof the Protocol. These adjustments entered into force, for all the Parties, on 7 March 1991, 23September 1993, 5 August 1996, 4 June 1998, 28 July 2000 and 14 May 2008, respectively.In addition to adjusting the Protocol, the Parties to the Montreal Protocol have amended theProtocol to enable, among other things, the control of new chemicals and the creation of afinancial mechanism to enable developing countries to comply. Specifically, the Second, Fourth,Ninth and Eleventh Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted, in accordance withthe procedure laid down in paragraph 4 of Article 9 of the Vienna Convention, four Amendmentsto the Protocol – the London Amendment (1990), the Copenhagen Amendment (1992), theMontreal Amendment (1997) and the Beijing Amendment (1999). Unlike adjustments to theProtocol, amendments must be ratified by countries before their requirements are applicable tothose countries. The London, Copenhagen, Montreal and Beijing Amendments entered into forceon 10 August 1992, 14 June 1994 10 November 1999 and 25 February 2002 respectively, onlyfor those Parties which ratified the particular amendments.In addition to adjustments and amendments to the Montreal Protocol, the Parties to the Protocolmeet annually and take a variety of decisions aimed at enabling effective implementation of this
important legal instrument. Through the 22nd Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol,the Parties have taken over 720 decisions.
KYOTO PROTOCOLThe Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement created under the United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Kyoto, Japan in 1997.Under the Kyoto Protocol international treaty, developed countries must take domestic action toreduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Protocol recognizes that developed countries must takethe lead in international action, because they are responsible for most of the worlds pastemissions. Each developed countrys target was negotiated and agreed internationally.The Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce the collective greenhouse gas emissions of developed countryParties by at least five per cent below 1990 levels during 2008 to 2012—referred to as the firstcommitment period.Participating countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have committed to cut emissions ofnot only carbon dioxide, but of also other greenhouse gases, being:Methane (CH4)Nitrous oxide (N2O)Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)If participant countries continue with emissions above the targets, then they are required toengage in emissions trading; i.e. buying "credits" from other participant countries who are able toexceed their reduction targets in order to offset.
Acidic lakesLittle Echo Pond in Franklin, New York. Little Echo Pond has a pH of 4.2 due to acid rainLaguna Caliente, Poas Volcano, Central Costa Rica ph little over 0Río Tinto is notable for being very acidic (pH 2) and its deep reddish hue due to mining activity,spain