Environemntal studies unit 1


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Environemntal studies unit 1

  1. 1. Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the HumanEnvironmentThe United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (alsoknown as the Stockholm Conference) was an internationalconference convened under United Nations auspices held inStockholm Sweden, from June 5-16,1972.It was the UNs first major conference on international environmentalissues, and marked a turning point in the development ofinternational environmental politics.It is widely recognized as the beginning of modern political andpublic awareness of global environmental problems.The meeting agreed upon a Declaration containing 26 principlesconcerning the environment and development; an Action Plan with109 recommendations, and a Resolution.
  2. 2. Two issue were addresses :1. The use of CFCs (haloalkanes), which seemed to be responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer.2. Global warming was mentioned.1. Apart from increasing awareness of environmental issues among public and governments (for example, many governments subsequently created :- Ministries for the Environment and/or national agencies for environmental monitoring and regulation)- the Stockholm Conference laid framework for future environmental cooperation; led to the creation of global and regional environmental monitoring networks and the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme.
  3. 3. United Nations Environment ProgrammeThe UN Environment Programme (or UNEP) coordinates United Nationsenvironmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementingenvironmentally sound policies and encourages sustainable developmentthrough sound environmental practices.It was founded as a result of theUnited Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 and isheadquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.UNEP also has six regional offices and various country offices.UNEP is the designated authority of the United Nations system in
  4. 4. UNEP activities cover a wide range of issues regarding the atmosphere,marine and terrestrial ecosystems.Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth thatis retained by the Earths gravity.It contains roughly (by molar content/volume) 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95%oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, trace amounts of othergases, and a variable amount (average around 1%) of water vapor. Thismixture of gases is commonly known as air.The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultravioletsolar radiation and reducing international environmental conventions,promoting environmental science temperature extremes between day andnight.
  5. 5. Atmospheric gases scatter blue light more than other wavelengths, givingthe Earth a blue halo when seen from space.Nitrogen78.0842%Oxygen20.9463%Argon0.93422%Carbon dioxide0.0384%Water vaporabout 1%Other0.002%Layer of Atmosphere•Troposphere•Stratosphere•Mesosphere•Thermosphere•Exosphere
  6. 6. The Global Environmental Problem / Environmental Disaster/ Accident•Global Warming And Green House Effect•Ozone Layer Depletion•Acid Rain•Climate Change•Environmental Pollution•Nuclear Disaster ( Hiroshima and Nagashaki)•Bhopal Gas Tragedy 1984•Chernobyl Disaster
  7. 7. Chernobyl disasterThe Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear reactor accident in theChernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union. It was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the onlyinstance so far of level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale,resulting in a severe release of radioactivity into the environmentfollowing a massive power excursion which destroyed the reactor.Thirty people died in the explosion, but most deaths from the accidentwere attributed to falloutOn 26 April 1986 at 01:23:44 a.m. (UTC+3) reactor number four at theChernobyl plant, near Pripyat in the Ukrainian SSR, exploded.Further explosions and the resulting fire sent a plume of highlyradioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensivegeographical area.Nearly thirty to forty times more fallout was released than had been by theatomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  8. 8. The plume drifted over extensive parts of the western Soviet Union,Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Northern Europe, and easternNorth America.Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated,resulting in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people.According to official post-Soviet data,[2] about 60% of the radioactivefallout landed in Belarus.The 2005 report prepared by the Chernobyl Forum, led by theInternational Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) andWorld Health Organization (WHO),attributed 56 direct deaths (47 accident workers, and nine children withthyroid cancer),and estimated that there may be 4,000 extra cancer cases among theapproximately 600,000 most highly exposed and 5,000 among the 6million living nearby.
  9. 9. Chernobyl after the disaster. Reactor 4 (image center). Turbine building(image lower left). Reactor 3 (center right)
  10. 10. The Bhopal disasterThe Bhopal disaster was an industrial disaster that occurred in the city ofBhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, resulting in the immediate deaths of morethan 3,000 people, according to the Indian Supreme Court.A more probable figure is that 8,000 died within two weeks, and it isestimated that the same number have since died from gas related diseases.However, testimonies from doctors who provided medical assistance duringthe tragedy claim over 15,000 were dead in the first month and approximately20,000 in total.The incident took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3,1984, in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.A Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant released 40 tonnes ofmethyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, killing approximately 3,800 people instantly.The Bhopal disaster is frequently cited as the worlds worst industrial disaster
  11. 11. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and NagasakiThe Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosionover Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from thehypocenter.The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacksat the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by theUnited States at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman onAugust 6 and 9, 1945.After six months of intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities,the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshimaon Monday, August 6, 1945, followed on August 9 by the detonation ofthe "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki.
  12. 12. The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000in Nagasaki by the end of 1945, roughly half on the days of thebombings. Since then, thousands more have died from injuries or illnessattributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs.In both cities, the overwhelming majority of the dead were civilians.Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japanannounced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing theInstrument of Surrender on September 2, officially ending thePacific War and therefore World War II.(Germany had signed its Instrument of Surrender on May 7, ending thewar in Europe.) The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan adoptingThree Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding that nation from nucleararmament.[4]
  13. 13. Causes of Global Warming
  14. 14. Causes of Global Warming
  15. 15. Defination of EnvironmentThe term environment means which surrounding around us and isconsidered as composite term for the condition in which organismlive.Environment is the sum total of all social, economical, biological,physical ad chemical factor which constitute the surrounding of theman who is both the creator and moulder of the environment.As we look around at the area in which we live, we see that oursurroundings were originally a natural landscape such as a•Forest• a river• a mountain• a desert,• or a combination of these elements.
  16. 16. Most of us live in landscapes that have been heavily modified by humanbeings, in villages, towns or cities.But even those of us who live in cities get our food supply from Surroundingvillages and these in turn are dependent on natural landscapes such as•Forests•Grasslands• rivers, seashores,• for resources such as water for agriculture•fuel wood, fodder, and fish.Thus our daily lives are linked with our surroundings and inevitably affectsthem.We use water to drink and for other day-to-day activities.We breathe airwe use resources which food is made and we depend on the community ofliving plants and animals which form a web of life, of which we are also a part.
  17. 17. Everything around us forms our environment and our lives depend on keepingits vital systems as intact as possible.Our dependence on nature is so great that we cannot continue to live withoutprotecting the earth’s environmental resources.Thus most traditions refer to our environment as ‘Mother Nature’ and mosttraditional societies have learned that respecting nature is vital for theirlivelihoods.This has led to many cultural practices that helped traditional societies protectand preserve their natural resources.Respect for nature and all living creatures is not new to India
  18. 18. All our traditions are based on these values.Emperor Ashoka’s edict proclaimed that all forms of life are important forour well being in Fourth Century BC.Over the past 200 years however, modern societies began to believe thateasy answers to the question of producing more resources could beprovided by means of technological innovations.For example, though growing more food by using fertilizers andpesticides, developing better strains of domestic animals and crops,irrigating farmland through mega dams and developing industry, led torapid economic growth, the ill effects of this type of development, led toenvironmental degradation.
  19. 19. The industrial development and intensive agriculture that provides thegoods for our increasingly consumer oriented society uses up largeamounts of natural resources such as water, minerals, petroleum products,wood, etc.Nonrenewable resources, such as minerals and oil are those which will beexhausted in the future if we continue to extract these without a thought forsubsequent generations.Renewable resources, such as timber and water, are those which can beused but can be regenerated by natural processes such as re-growth orrainfall.
  20. 20. But these too will be depleted if we continue to use them faster than naturecan re-place them.For example, if the removal of timber and firewood from a forest is fasterthan the re growth and regeneration of trees, it can-not replenish thesupply.And loss of forest cover not only depletes the forest of its resources, suchas timber and other non-wood products, but affect our water resourcesbecause an intact natural forest acts like a sponge which holds water andreleases it slowly.
  21. 21. Deforestation leads to floods in the monsoon and dry rivers once the rainsare over.Understanding and making ourselves more aware of our environmentalassets and problems is not enough.We, each one of us, must become increasingly concerned about our envi-ronment and change the way in which we use every resource.Unsustainable utilization can result from overuse of resources, because ofpopulation increase, and because many of us are using more resources thanwe really need.Most of us indulge in wasteful behavior patterns without ever thinking abouttheir environmental impacts.
  22. 22. Thus, for all our actions to be environmentally positive we need to look froma new perspective at how we use resources.Importance of EnvironmentEnvironment is not a single subject.It is an integration of several subjects that include both Science and SocialStudies.To understand all the different aspects of our environment we need tounderstand- biology, chemistry-physics, geography,-resource management, economics-and population issues.Thus the scope of envi-ronmental studies is extremely wide and covers someaspects of nearly every major discipline.
  23. 23. We live in a world in which natural resources are limited.Water, air, soil, minerals, oil, the products we get from forests,grasslands, oceans and from agriculture and livestock, are all apart of our life support systems.Without them, life itself would be impossible.As we keep increasing in numbers and the quantity of resourceseach of us uses also increases, the earth’s re- source base mustinevitably shrink.
  24. 24. The earth cannot be expected to sustain this expanding level of utilization ofresources.We waste or pollute large amounts of nature’s clean water; we create moreand more material like plastic that we dis-card after a single use.Increasing amounts of waste cannot be managed by natural processes.These accumulate in our environment, leading to a variety of diseases andother adverse environmental impacts now seriously affecting all our lives.
  25. 25. Air pollution leads to respiratory diseases, water pollution to gastro-intestinaldiseases, and many pollutants are known to cause cancer.Improving this situation will only happen if each of us begins to take actions inour daily lives that will help preserve our environmental resources.We cannot expect Governments alone to manage the safeguarding of theenvironment, nor can we expect other people to prevent environmentaldamage.We need to do it ourselves.It is a responsibility that each of us must take on as
  26. 26. Aesthetic/Recreational value of nature:The aesthetic and recreational values that nature possessesenlivens our existence on earth.This is created by developing National Parks and WildlifeSanctuaries in relatively undisturbed areas.The beauty of nature encompasses every aspect of the living andnon-living part of our earth.One can appreciate the magnificence of a mountain, the power of thesea, the beauty of a forest, and the vast expanse of the desert.
  27. 27. NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESSAs the earth’s natural resources are dwindling and our environment isbeing increasingly degraded by human activities, it is evident thatsomething needs to be done.Responsibility of Government:We often feel that managing all this is something that the governmentshould do.But if we go on endangering our environment, there is no way in whichthe Government can perform all these clean-up functions.
  28. 28. •It is the prevention of environment degradation in which we must alltake part that must become a part of all our lives.•Just as for any disease, prevention is better than cure.•To prevent ill-effects on our environment by our actions, iseconomically more viable than cleaning up the environment once it isdamaged.•Individually we can play a major role in environment management.•This can only be made possible through mass public awareness.•Mass media such as newspa- pers, radio, television, strongly influencepublic opinion.•However, someone has to bring this about. If each of us feels stronglyabout the environment, the
  29. 29. Practice and promote issues such as-saving paper, saving water-reducing use of plastics-practicing the 3Rs principle of reduce, reuse, recycle,-and proper waste disposal.• Join local movements that support activities such as-saving trees in your area- go on nature treks,-recycle waste- buy environmentally friendly products.• Practice and promote good civic sense-such as no spitting or tobacco chewing- no throwing garbage on the road-no smoking in public places-No defecating in public places.• Take part in events organized on World Environment Day, Wildlife Week, etc.• Visit a National Park or Sanctuary, or spend time in whatever nature you havenear your home.
  30. 30. Institutions in EnvironmentThere have been several Government and Non- governmentorganizations that have led to environmental protection in our country.They have led to a growing interest in environmental protection andconservation of nature and natural resources.The traditional conservation practices that were part of ancient India’sculture have however gradually disappearedAmong the large number of institutions that deal with environmentalprotection and conservation, a few well-known organizations includegovernment organisations such as the BSI and ZSI, and NGOs such asBNHS, WWF-I, etc.
  31. 31. Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)Mumbai: the BNHS began as a small society of six members in 1883.The influence on wildlife policy building, research, popular publications andpeoples action have been unique features of the multifaceted society.Undoubtedly its major contribution has been in the field of wildlife research.It is India’s oldest conservation research based organization.
  32. 32. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-I), New Delhi:The WWF-I was initiated in 1969 in Mumbai after which theheadquarters were shifted to Delhi with several branch offices all overIndia.The early years focused attention on wildlife education andawareness.It runs several programs including the Nature Clubs of India programfor school children and works as a think tank and lobby force forenvironment and development issues.
  33. 33. Center for Science and Environment (CSE),New Delhi:Activities of this Center include organizing campaigns, holding workshopsand conferences, and producing environment related publications.It published a major document on the ‘State of India’s Environment’, the firstof its kind to be produced as a Citizen’s Report on the Environment.The CSE also publishes a popular magazine, ‘Down to Earth’, which is aScience and Environment fortnightly.It is involved in the publication of material in the form of books, posters,video films and also conducts workshops and seminars on biodiversityrelated issues.
  34. 34. CPR Environmental Education Centre, Madras:The CPR EEC was set up in 1988. It con-ducts a variety of programs tospread environmental awareness and creates an interest in conservationamong the general public. It focussed attention on NGOs, teachers, women, youth and children togenerally promote conservation of nature and natural resources.Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Ahmedabad:The Centre for Environment Education, Ahmedabad was initiated in 1989.It has a wide range of programs on the environment and produces a varietyof educational material.CEE’s Training in Environment Education {TEE}program has trained manyenvironment educators.
  35. 35. Uttarkhand Seva Nidhi (UKSN), Almora:The Organization is a Nodal Agency which supports NGOs in need of fundsfor their environment related activities.Its major program is organizing and training school teachers to use its localespecific Environment Education Workbook Pro -gram.The main targets are linked with sustain- able resource use at the villagelevel through training school children.Its environment education program covers about 500 schools.Kalpavriksh, Pune:This NGO, initially Delhi based, is now working from Pune and is active inseveral other parts of India. Kalpavriksh works on a variety of fronts: education and awareness;investigation and research; direct action and lobbying; and litigation withregard to environment and development issues. I
  36. 36. Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun:This Institution was established in 1982, as a major training establishment forForest Officials and Research in Wildlife Management. Its most significantpublication has been ‘Planning A Wildlife Protected Area Network forIndia’ (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988). The organization has over the yearsadded an enormous amount of information on India’s biological wealthBotanical Survey of India (BSI):The Botanical Survey of India (BSI) was established in 1890 at the RoyalBotanic Gardens, Calcutta. However it closed down for several years after1939 and was reopened in 1954.Zoological Survey of India (ZSI):The ZSI was established in1916. Its mandate was to do a systematic surveyof fauna in India.It has over the years collected ‘type specimens’ on the bases of which ouranimal life has been studied over the years.Its origins were collections based at the Indian Museum at Calcutta, whichwas established in 1875.
  37. 37. People in EnvironmentThere are several internationally known environmental thinkers. Among thosewho have made landmarks, the names that are usually mentioned are CharlesDarwin, Ralph Emerson, Henry Thoreau, John Muir, Aldo Leopald, RachelCarson and EO Wilson.Each of these thinkers looked at the environment from a completely differentperspective.Charles Darwin wrote the ‘Origin of Species’, which brought to light the closerelationship between habitats and species.It brought about a new thinking of man’s relationship with other species thatwas based on evolution.Alfred Wallace came to the same conclusions during his work.
  38. 38. Ralph Emerson spoke of the dangers of commerce to our environmentway back in the 1840s.Henry Thoreau in the 1860s wrote that the wilder ness should bepreserved after he lived in the wild for a year.He felt that most people did not care for nature and would sell it off for asmall sum of money.John Muir is remembered as having saved the great ancient sequoia treesin California’a forests.In the 1890s he formed the Sierra club, which is a major conservation NGOin the USA.Aldo Leopald was a forest official in the US in the 1920s. He designed theearly policies on wilderness conservation and wildlife management.
  39. 39. In the 1960s Rachel Carson published several articles that causedimmediate worldwide concern on the effects of pesticides on nature andmankind.She wrote a well known book called ‘Silent Spring’ which even led to achange in Government policy and public awareness.EO Wilson is an entomologist who envisioned that biological diversity wasa key to human survival on earth.He wrote ‘Di-versity of Life’ in 1993, which was awarded a prize for thebest book published on environmental issues.His writings brought home to the world the risks to mankind due to manmade disturbances in natural ecosystems that are leading to the rapidextinction of species at the global level.
  40. 40. There have been a number of individuals who have been instrumental inshaping the environmental history in our country.Some of the wellknown names in the last century include environmentalists,scientists, administrators, legal experts, educationists and journalists.Salim Ali’s name is synonymous with ornithology in India and with theBombay Natural History Society (BNHS).He also wrote several great books including the famous ‘Book of IndianBirds’.His autobiography, ‘Fall of a Sparrow’ should be read by every natureenthusiast.He was our country’s leading conservation scientist and influencedenvironmental policies in our country for over 50 years.
  41. 41. Indira Gandhi as PM has played a highly significant role in thepreservation of India’s wildlife.It was during her period as PM, that the network of PAs grew from 65 to298!The Wildlife Protection Act was formulated during the period when she wasPM and the Indian Board for Wildlife was extremely active as shepersonally chaired all its meetings.S P Godrej was one of India’s greatest support-ers of wildlife conservationand nature awareness programs.M S Swaminathan is one of India’s foremost agricultural scientists andhas also been concerned with various aspects of biodiversityconservation both of cultivars and wild biodiversity.Madhav Gadgil is a well known ecologist in India..
  42. 42. M C Mehta is undoubtedly India’s most famous environmental lawyer.His most famous and long drawn battles supported by the Supreme Courtinclude protecting the Taj Mahal,cleaning up the Ganges River banning intensive shrimp farming on the coast,initiating Government to implement environmental education in schools andcolleges, and a variety of other conservation issues.Anil Agarwal was a journalist who wrote the first report on the ‘State of India’sEnvironment’ in 1982.He founded the Center for Science and Environment which is an activeNGO that supports various environ-mental issues.Medha Patkar is known as one of India’s champions who has supported thecause of downtrodden tribal people whose environment is being affected bythe dams on the Narmada river.
  43. 43. Sunderlal Bahugna’s Chipko Movement has become an internationallywell-known example of a highly successful conservation action programthrough the efforts of local people for guarding their forest resources.His fight to prevent the construction of the Tehri Dam in a fragileearthquake prone setting is a battle that he continues to wage.
  44. 44. Environmental studies is the systematic study of human interaction with theirenvironment.It is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment,built environments, social environments, organizational environments, and thesets of relationships between them.Environmental studies is distinct from ecology and environmental science.Current environmental problems have evolved into a complex set ofinterdisciplinary issues involving ecological, political, economic, social, as wellas physical and biological considerations.Modern environmental studies must include the study of the urban environmentas well as the natural environment.
  45. 45. EE ObjectivesParticipation - to provide individuals, groups and societies withopportunities to be actively involved in exercising their skills of environmentalcitizenship and be actively involved at all levels in working towardssustainable development.Knowledge - to help individuals, groups and societies gain a variety ofexperiences in, and a basic understanding of, the knowledge and actioncompetencies required for sustainable developmentValues - to help individuals, groups and societies acquire feelings ofconcern for issues of sustainability as well as a set of values upon whichthey can make judgments about appropriate ways of acting individually andwith others to promote sustainable development
  46. 46. Skills - to help individuals, groups and societies acquire the actioncompetence or skills of environmental citizenship - in order to be able toidentify and anticipate environmental problems and work with others toresolve, minimize and prevent themAwareness - to create an overall understanding of the impacts and effectsof behaviors and lifestyles - on both the local and global environments, andon the short-term and long-term.
  48. 48. NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION•All major natural resources in the country are in grave danger of irreparable damage.•A society cannot survive if its natural resources are rendered unfit for use by its people.•The only hope of salvaging this grave situation is by making the young aware that they need to proactively begin to protect the environment they will inherit.•Science and Technology can help in a limited way but cannot deliver it. •The moral and ethical education for changing people’s attitude•To protect children living in polluted regions, environmental education represents a relevant means of prevention
  49. 49. •It is need for the hour to propose the environmental education with the essential elements of moral philosophy.•For conceptual changeEssential components Of The environmental education•Alerting the public to the need to achieve global sustainable development and the likely consequences of failing to do so.•Focusing the educational curricula for global sustainable development by incorporating the know –how and skills and also the moral imperatives.
  50. 50. Curriculum developmentReasons for including moral education in engineering Curricula:• •As future planners• designers,• builders and decision makers• students shoulder special responsibility in protecting the integrity of nature and the natural environment.
  51. 51. •Albert Einsteins statement“Science withoutphilosophy is just mechanics”.
  52. 52. Environmental Law Supreme Court of IndiaThe Supreme Court of India has become one of the mostprogressive courts in the world when it comes to environmentalprotection.Closing down companies that continue to pollute the environmentas well as making it mandatory for TV and radio stations to runenvironmental programme.MC Metta is at the forefront of the development of public interestenvironmental law globally.
  53. 53. MAHESH CHANDRA MEHTA• M C Mehta is undoubtedly India’s most famous environmental lawyer.• His most famous and long drawn battles supported by the Supreme Court include protecting the Taj Mahal,• cleaning up the Ganges River• banning intensive shrimp farming on the coast,• initiating Government to implement environmental education in schools and colleges, and a variety of other conservation issues.
  54. 54. Mahesh Chandra Mehta
  55. 55. MEDHA PATKAR• Medha Patkar is known as one of India’s champions who has supported the• cause of downtrodden tribal people whose environment is being affected by the dams on the Narmada river.
  56. 56. SUNDER LAL BAHUGUNASunderlal Bahuguna (born 9 January 1927) is a noted environmentalist, Chipko movement leader and a follower of Mahatma Gandhis philosophy of Non-violence and Satyagraha. For years he has been fighting for the preservation of forests in theHimalayas, first as a member of the Chipko movement in 1970s, andlater spearheaded the Anti-Tehri Dam movement starting 1980s, toearly 2004[3]. He was one of the early environmentalists of India and
  57. 57. SUNITA NARAYAN• Sunita Narain is an Indian environmentalist and political activist as well as a major proponent of the Green concept of sustainable development. Narain has been with the India-based Centre for Science and Environment since 1982. She is currently the director of the Centre and the director of the Society for Environmental Communications and publisher of the fortnightly magazine, Down To Earth.
  58. 58. RAJENDRA KUMAR PACHAURI• Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (born August 20, 1940) has served as the chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) since 2002. He is also been director general of TERI, a research and policy organization in India, and chancellor of TERI University. He has also been the chairman of the governing council of the National Agro Foundation (NAF), as well as the chairman of the board of Columbia Universitys International Research Institute for Climate and Society. Pachauri has been outspoken about climate change. He is now serving as the head of Yales Climate and Energy Institute (YCEI).• At the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony when the award was shared between Al Gore and the IPCC on December 10, 2007, Pachauri represented the IPCC.[2][3]