BIODIVERSITY• Biodiversity is variety of life on earth.• “The abundance of various species of plant, animal & microorganism in natural environment of specific region or country.”• “Biodiversity include variability of genes, variety of species and population in different ecosystem.”
BiodiversityThe variety of plants and animals and otherliving things in a particular area or region.Biodiversity is important because plant andanimal species interact and depend uponone another for food, shelter, oxygen, andsoil enrichment.
Biodiversity is a term referring to the variety of living things that make up our environment. Each different life form is connected in some way to the survival of all other life forms in a given area. Every plant, animal, fungi and microscopic organism is part of this network, forming what is known as an ecosystem. The more biodiversity that exists, the better for all.
This shipment of Leopards , Jackals and wild cats from the Himalayas was estimated to be worth $14.5 million.Many of our grea land animals are under threat of extinction frompoaching. One single such seizure contained cheetah skins representing 10% of the entire world population (Reuter - NZ Herald 28-5-97).
Magnitude of BiodiversityThe total number of species in this planet is estimated to be about 14 million.Value of BiodiversityBiodiversity provide us food, timber, fiber, medicine, fuel etc.1. Sources of Food:Plants: There are about 3000 species of food plants out of which only 150species are commercialized.Plant provide wide variety of food like maize, wheat, rice.Animal: Man consume meat from mainly nine species of animal like cattle, ship, pig, goat, water buffaloes, chickens, duck, geese and turkeys.Fishes are now regarded as a domesticated animal because of development ofaquaculture.Curd, cheese milk are obtained from dairy farms.
Constructive and unconstructive human impact: Left Bali. Cultivated regions organically interspersed with palms and forest. Right Chile.Mismanaged logging results in erosion and deforestation. Human impact can both enhance diversity and stimulate productivity
Forest provide oxygen to consumers and play a very important role in maintaining ecosystem
The fossil and living forms of Wollemia. Wollemia flowers produce viable seedlings (New Scientist 6 Dec1997)
Each specific habitat type such as wetlands requires a dedicated sector of the conservation effort.Coral reefs are the rainforests of the oceans; the Great Barrier Reef, for example, contain 3,000 animal species
Medicinal Value : Some species explored for drug and medicine.
• 2. Sources of Fats and Oil• Now a days most commonly used oil seed plant like mustard , ground nut, palm oil. The other oil like soyabean, binola(cotton seed) , sunflower are becoming popular.• 3. Fibres: major fiber yielding varieties are cotton, flax, jute, sisal, coir, abaca.
4. New disease resistant varities:Some commercial species of food plants are susceptible tocertain disease. These species can be made resistant toparticular disease by cross bred.Eg. Potato has been made resistant to late blight by derivinga resistant strain from solanum demissum.5. Drug and MedicineA number of herb has been used to cure various ailments.Various plant contain valuable drugs. Eg. Rosy Periwinkleplant is used for treatment of cancer.Tulsi has the property of antibacterial. Quienene is usedfor the treatment of malaria.The importance of herbal plant for ailment of variousdisease was discussed our ancient Scriciptual Ayurveda.
6. Beautification Value Biodiversity provide lots of aesthetic and beautification value. Humanbeing is fond of maintaining garden, keeping pets, ecotourism.We go to various hill station, national park , zoological garden , sanctuariesto watch scenic beauties.7. Cultural BenefitSince the ancient time our culture and festival were associated with variousplant and animals. Eg. Banyan tree, peepal, tulsi has been worshipped bywomen of India. Banana tree some animal like cow is considered ourmother.Some animal and plant considered as a national symbol like Peacoack, Tiger,Lotus, Banyan.
Ecological role of BiodiversityProtection of Water resourceForest and plant cover in water catchments area help• To maintain hydrological cycle.• Regulating and stablising water runoff.• Acting as a buffer against natural calamities like flood and drought.• Forest increase the water table.• Regeneration of natural spring.• Eg. Wet land and forest act as a water purifying system• while mangroves trap silt reducing impact of sea waves, tides or• Tsunami.
Soil Formation and protectionClearing of forest lead to• Salinization of soil, leaching of nutrient• Erosion of top soil• Reducing of land productivity• Soil can be preserve by maintaining biodiversity, retaining moisture, preventing erosion.• Plant body provide organic matter to soil through decay.• - Root system facilitate microbial activity and increase porosity of soil.
Nutrient Storage and CyclingAll the nutrient are recycled in nature. These nutrient found in air,water, soil.Plant take up these nutrient from air, water, soil which enter in theanimals body through food chain. After the death of plant andanimal these nutrient come back in the environment throughdecomposition process which is carried out by bacteria and fungi.Some bacteria and fungi convert the atmospheric nitrogen intonitrate, nitrite through biological nitrogen fixation . For eg. Rizobium Legumious relationship.Rizobium is one of the main N2 – fixing bacteria living in thenodules of root of leguminous plants.
iv) Maintaining Climate StabilityVegetation affect climate at macro and micro level. Denseforest promote rainfall by recycling of water vapour.v) Reducing PollutionDifferent kind of bateria , fungi and protozoa are well knownfor the decomposition and break down of micro – organism.These microorganism absorb the pollutant like sewage,garbage and oil spills. Natural and artificial wetland arebeing used to filter effluent to remove nutrient.
vi) Maintenance of EcosystemAll species are equally important in our ecosystem. Disruption of onespecies can lead to destruction of whole ecosystem. According tofood chain and food web all species of plant and animal are interrelatedwith each other.For e.g Plant ---- deer------lionIf the population of lion is destroyed the population of deer canincrease in excess and overpopulation of deer will eat up wholegrasses in grassland ecosystem thus making into degradedecosystem.If the population of deer decreased it can lead to overgrowth of plantthat will lead to competition between the various species of plants andin this way whole ecosystem can be degraded.
• Forest regulate O2 and CO2 cycle.• Forest play important role in recycling of nutrient.
vii) Surviving from natural Calamities• Natural calamities like floods, drought, cyclone, typhoon, forest fire, land slide are mostly unpredictable event and proved to be hazardous for all human being.• Natural calamities cause loss of lives, properties and building.• Forest act as a buffer against all these calamities it control floods, cyclone and typhoon.
• Mangroves• are salt-tolerant forest ecosystems found mainly in tropical and sub-tropical inter- tidal regions of the world. They are trees or shrubs that have the common trait of growing in shallow and muddy salt water or brackish waters, especially along quiet shorelines and in estuaries.• They exhibit remarkable capacity for salt water tolerance.
Other Services of Biodiversity– Activity of Earth warm areate the soil and increase the nutrient content in the soil.– Soil bacteria increase the availability of atmospheric N2 to the plants.– Microbes degrade complex organic matter to simpler form.– Help in pollination For eg. Bat pollinate wild bananas , guava, same way bees pollinate flower.– Bacteria or microorganism increase the moisture holding capacity of soil.
Value of Biodiversity ( Wild Life onservation)• If people ignore the need for wildlife conservation today endangered species will soon become extinct. Many other species will also face extinction if this will happen human being will loose great value that cant be replaced.• Wildlife is important to people for the following reason i.e• Economic Value• Scientific Value• Beauty• Survival Value
Scientific Value The study of wildlife provide valuable knowledge about various life process.Such studies has helped scientist to understand how the human body function.Scientist have also gain medical knowledge and discovered important medical produced by studying wildlife. In addition by observing the effect ofenvironmental pollution on wild animal scientist have learned how pollution affect human life.
II) Survival Value Every species of wildlife play a very important role inmaintaining the balance in ecosystem. Thus the loss of any species can threatned the survival of all life including human being. Eg. Kelp ------- Sea Urchin ------------- Sea Otter
Classification of Biodiversity 1. Species diversity( Diversity of Species within community )The biotic component of ecosystem is consist of large number of plant and animal species which interact with each other and also interact with each other and also interact with abiotic component. The richness of species in an ecosystem is called species diversity.It is a variety in number and richness of species of a region .For Eg. In grassland ecosystem there exist different species of plant and animal.
2. Genetic Diversity It include amount of genetic variability among individual of same species or among different species. In our ecosystem there exist large varities of species which slightly differ from each other inone or more characteristics such as size, shape, resistance against pest, insect, pest disease. It refer to variation of genes within species.Diversity in number and type of genes as well as chromosomes present in different species.
Genetic variation within the White-cheeked osella.Geneticvariation within a species can express itself in many ways. TheWhite-cheeked Rosella, for example, is made up of four varieties, each with its own distinct colour combination and markings.
Ecosystem Diversity Different type of forest, grassland, ocean, pond, lake represent diverseecosystem which contain different variety of plant and animal.
India as Mega Biodiversity 47000 species of plant 89451 species of animalIndia is considered as a Mega Diversity region because it has wide variety of endemic flora and fauna.
FloraIndia can be divided into 8 distcint floristic region namely Western Himalaya • Eastern Himalaya • Assam • Indus plain • Ganga Plain • Deccan • Malabar • AndamanThe Western Himalaya region extend from Kashmir to Kumaon.
FaunaAs India has such a huge variety in climate andphysical condition it has a great variety of fauna numbering 89,451 species. Mammals include Majestic Eelephant, IndiaBison,Ggreat Indian Rhinocerous, Wild Sheep of Himalaya, Swamp Deer, Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Kashmir Stag . Forest and wetland are inhabited by bird like pheasant, geese, duck, cranes, horn bils and sunbird. River habour crocodile and ghariyals.
Hots –Pots BiodiversityThe area that are extremely rich in biodiversity that harbour a great diversity of endemicspecies and at the same time they have been significantly degraded by human activities. Hots – pots region must satisfy the following conditionIt must support 15000 endemic plant species. It must support 70 % of its original habitat Indias Hots – Pots are Eastern Himalaya & Western Ghaat
HOTSPOTSYou might find life everywhere, but biodiversityis not spread equally around the globe. Checkout the "hotspots" - Earths biologically richest and most endangered ecosystems.
Endemic Species:The species which areconfined to a certainregion. It may becontinent, country, stateor even small ecosystem.
Loss of BiodiversityA number of species of plant and animal are going to extinct. Many species have been extinct. Different factor are responsible for extinction of various species like -habitat loss and fragmentation -disturbance and degradation, - pollution, -introduction of exotic species -intensive agricultural , forestry -overexploitation of natural resources.
Habitat loss and fragmentation• -Increasing population is leading to urbanization and industrialization which require more land every year. There is destruction of natural habitat through filing of wetland , cutting tree, ploughing grassland , burning forest.• There is destruction of natural habitat through filling of wetlands , cutting tree, ploughing grassland and burning forest.
Disturbance and degradation Natural disturbance like -flood, earthquake, forest fire, - pest infestation like coast attack Man made disturbance - like felling of trees, litter accumulation- pollution lead to degradation of habitat and loss of biodiversity.
biodiversity is sensitive to both pollution and destructive fishing practices, such as drift net fishing, and frank overfishing of the worlds oceans•
Selective Forestry: Due to profit motive there is tendency to grow economically lucrative tree for economic benefit. Eg. Saal, Teak, Equalyptus . Due to this tendency other species are driven away from the area.
Over Exploitation Due to overexploitation of natural resourcessome time many species become endangeredand vulnerable which may extinct in nearfuture.Intensive AgricultureGrassland , forest and wetland are destroyed tomake way for cultivation of land. Destruction ofbiodiversity mainly caused by excessive use ofchemical fertilizer and pesticides. Applicationof Hybrid varities of plant which are geneticallymodified that resulted loss of traditionalvarities.
• Poaching• Trade pay large amount of money to poacher and smuggler. Trade for live specimen , furs, hides, skin. Although strict law have been made yet these product are widely traded.• Extinction of Species• Extinction mean total elimination or dying out of species from earth.• Some organism are more susceptible then other to extinction.• Some species are prone to dying due to drastic environmental changes or population characteristics. Following species may be extinct due to
• Increasing monoculture Growing only one kind of crop also lead to extinction of various species. Instead of practicing monoculture we should promote mixed farming, intercropping, crop rotation, mixed cropping.• Introduction of exotic or foreign species• Sometimes foreign or alien species are introduced on land for economic gain. They gain ground and drive away the local species.
• Pollution• Excessive use of pesticides pollute the water which prove harmful to certain species. Runoff fertilizer may lead to Eutrophication.• Air pollution, Soil Pollution and Water pollution cause deleterious impact on various species of flora and fauna.• Disease• Pathogen may attack certain species and destroy entire population. The incidence of disease in wild species is on rise due to human activities.
• Following species may be extinct due to•• Large body size : Elephant, Rhinoceros, and in the post Dinosaur.• Small population size and low reproductive rate• Eg. Blue Whale, Giant Panda• Higher status of trophic level• Eg. Bengal Tiger and Bold Headed Eagle
• Fixed Migratory route and habitat• Some bird has fixed migratory route any disturbing in its route may lead to extinction of the species. Eg. Whooping Crane• Narrow Range distribution or small geographical range• Lack of Genetic variability
• Endangered Species:• These are species whose number has been reduced alarmingly. Their habitat has been reduced drastically and they are immediate danger of extinction.• Vulnerable Species• These are the species that are under constant threat and may become endangered if the same condition persist.• Rare Species• These are the species which are at risk of danger but these are not endanger species. Rare species are not endangered. They may scattered thinly over an extensive range.
Threatened Species Any species which falls any of above three categories is known as threatned species.Some species that have been put under the category of endanger are Mammal : Black buck, Asiatic Lion, Bengal Tiger, Dolphin, Red Panda, Red Fox Bird : Indian Peafowl, Mute Swan, Eastern Crane, Monal, Great Indian Bustard, peacock pheasant, Black eagle vulture Reptiles : Marsh crocodile, Monitor Lizard, Trunk Turtle Amphibian: Indian Salamander, Viviparous foos
Conservation of Biodiversity Conservation of Biodiversity is one of the mostimportant challenged faced by environmentalist today. Step for protection of Bio-diversity have taken at national and state level , governmental, NGOs and institutional level. To protect and enhanced biodiversity and atthe same time to satisfy the need of people for natural resources is daunting task.
• It is necessary to maintain a balance between utilization of natural resources and conservation of natural resources. Conservation mean wise and judicious use of natural resources so that not only our present generation but future generation will also meet their needs. Conservation means most efficient and most benefit utilization of natural resources.In order to conservation of species we should promote Sustainable Development.
• What is Sustainable Development?• It may be defined that meets the need of present generation without compromising the ability of future generation.• It implies natural resources management that is economically viable in short run but environmentally sustainable in long run.• It emphasize rational utilization of natural resources and conservation practices through identification of problem area that require alternative management practices.
• CONSERVATION• In-situ conservation• Ex- situ conservation• In-situ Conservation:• In- situ conservation means the conservation of the species in it natural ecosystem. In –order to promote in –situ conservation protected area have been developed like national park, sanctuaries and biosphere reserve etc.
National ParkIt is habitat oriented. It has been developed for the conservation of habitat of particular species.
• Activities like forestry, grazing and cultivation are not permitted here.• No private ownership of land is allowed here.• National park usually devoted to habitat and betterment of particular wild species like Tiger, Lion• Limited human activities is allowed in buffer zone but no biotic interference is tolerated.
Sanctuary• This is more generally species oriented as for Great Indian Bustard and Pitcher Plant• Human activities like collection of fuel , fodder, litter are allowed but they should not interfere life of animal.
• Biosphere Reserve• Biosphere programme have been launched under MAB (Man and Biosphere Reserve Programme in 1971.• It is ecosystem oriented. It is a special category of protected area of land devoted to totality of all term of life.
• It may be divided into three categories1. Core Zone :This area is legally protected and remain undisturbed.2. Buffer ZoneIt can be used educational activities and research.
3. Transition Zone• Here is active co-operation between reserve manager and local inhabiatant. All kind of activities can take place here provided that they do not disturb the harmony of Biosphere.
Biosphere reserves of India• Name of the site1. Nilgiri – Silent Valley and Siruvani hills (TamilNadu, Kerala and Karnataka)2. Nanda Devi – Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, Almora Districts (Uttaranchal)3. Nokrerk - Part of Gora Hills (Meghalaya4. Manas - Assam
6. Gulf of Mannar : Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka (Tamil Nadu) Great Nicobar7. Similpal - Orissa8. DibruSaikhowa - Arunachal Pradesh
• Ex-situ Conservation• Conservation of the species from outside their natural habitat . In other word it is conservation in captivity under human care.• The endangered species of animals are collected and bred under controlled condition in Zoo, Farm and Aquarium. Plant Species are kept in botanical garden