1.
C Bitwise Operators
Bitwise operators are used to manipulate one or more bits from integral operands like
char, int, short, long, here we will see the basics of bitwise operators, and some useful
tips for manipulating the bits to achieve a task. Bitwise operators operate on
individual bits of integer (int and long) values. This is useful for writing lowlevel
hardware or OS code where the ordinary abstractions of numbers, characters, pointers,
and so on, are insufficient. Bit manipulation code tends to be less "portable". Code is
"portable" if without any programmer intervention it compiles and runs correctly on
different types of computers. The bit wise operations are commonly used with
unsigned types. These operators perform bit wise logical operations on values. Both
operands must be of the same type and width: the resultant value will also be this type
and width. A bitwise operator works on each bit of data. Bitwise operators are used in
bit level programming the Bitwise operators supported by C language are listed in the
following table.
Assume variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then:
Operator Description Example
&
Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the
result if it exists in both operands.
(A & B) will give 12 which
is 0000 1100

Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in
either operand.
(A  B) will give 61 which is
0011 1101
^
Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set
in one operand but not both.
(A ^ B) will give 49 which is
0011 0001
~
Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary
and has the effect of 'flipping' bits.
(~A ) will give 61 which is
1100 0011 in 2's complement
form due to a signed binary
number.
<<
Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands
value is moved left by the number of bits
specified by the right operand.
A << 2 will give 240 which
is 1111 0000
>>
Binary Right Shift Operator. The left
operands value is moved right by the number
of bits specified by the right operand.
A >> 2 will give 15 which is
0000 1111
Bitwise OR – 
Bitwise OR operator  takes 2 bit patterns, and perform OR operations on each pair of
corresponding bits. The following example will explain it.
1010
1100

OR 1110

The Bitwise OR, will take pair of bits from each position, and if any one of the bit is
1, the result on that position will be 1.
2.
Bitwise AND – &
Bitwise AND operator &, takes 2 bit patterns, and perform AND operations with it.
1010
1100

AND 1000

The Bitwise AND will take pair of bits from each position, and if only both the bit is
1, the result on that position will be 1
One’s Complement operator – ~
One’s complement operator (Bitwise NOT) is used to convert each “1bit to 0bit”
and “0bit to 1bit”, in the given binary pattern. It is a unary operator i.e. it takes only
one operand.
1001
NOT

0110

Bitwise XOR – ^
Bitwise XOR ^, takes 2 bit patterns and perform XOR operation with it.
0101
0110

XOR 0011

The Bitwise XOR will take pair of bits from each position, and if both the bits are
different, the result on that position will be 1. If both bits are same, then the result on
that position is 0.
Bit a Bit b a & b a  b a ^ b ~a
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 0 0
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int a=5,b=3;
printf("%dn",ab);
printf("%dn",a&b);
printf("%dn",a^b);
getch();
}
3.
Right Shift
a = 0000 0011 = 3
(a<<=1) = 00000110 = 6
(a<<=2) = 00011000 = 24
(a<<=3) = 11000000 = 192
Left Shift
a=11000000 =192
(a>>=1) = 01100000 = 96
(a>>=2) = 00011000 = 24
(a>>=3) = 0000 0011 = 3
a = 12
b = 10

a in Binary : 0000 0000 0000 1100
b in Binary : 0000 0000 0000 1010

a  b : 0000 0000 0000 1110
a & b : 0000 0000 0000 1000
a ^ b : 0000 0000 0000 0110
a  b : 0000 0000 0000 1110 = 14
a & b : 0000 0000 0000 1000 = 8
a ^ b : 0000 0000 0000 0110 = 6
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