Algorithm and flowchart(1)


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Algorithm and flowchart(1)

  1. 1. C Programming, Basic Fundamental of Programming C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE BASIC FUNDAMENTAL OF PROGRAMMING Topics Covered: 1. Software 2. Program 3. Types of Software 4. Programming language and it’s type 5. Translator 6. Algorithm 7. Flow chart 8. Editor  Software: A group of programs that are put into a computer to operate and control its activities is called software.  Program: Program is collection of group of multiple executable statements which are combined to give the result.  Types of software: The software may be classified into two categories: 1. System software: System software is a group of general program use to help users to manage computer resources and to run their application program effectively. These are complex program and are developed and supplied by computer vendors. Operating system, compiler, linker, loader, editor, etc. are system software. 2. Application software: Application software is a set of program to perform operation for a specific application. Word, Excel, Access, Photoshop, etc. are application software  Programming language and it’s type: Programming language is a language used to give instruction to computer. Each computer language has its own syntax. From last few years many programming languages are developed for different purpose such as COBOL is developed for the business application, FORTRAN is developed for the scientific calculation and other purpose. We can classify the programming language in mainly following category: 1. Machine language: o Computes are made of two-state electronic components, which can understand only pulse (ON or 1) or no pulse (OFF or 0) conditions. Therefore, all instructions and data should be written using binary codes 1 and 0. The binary code is called the machine code or machine language. o It is also known as the binary language, or 1st generation language. o All computers are not same in design so machine language is also different for different computers. o Advantages: I. The execution of program developed in machine language is fast than other language. o Disadvantages: I. It is difficult to write, and understand the various combinations of 1 and 0 so to write code for machine language is slow and difficult. II. Every computer has its own machine language so program developed for one computer cannot be used in other computer. Prof.Suneel Dogra SD College Hoshiarpur 8/12/2013 i
  2. 2. C Programming, Basic Fundamental of Programming 2. Assembly language: - o It assembly language special symbols or code for different purpose (for operator, constant, etc.). o It is based on the machine language so the program developed for the machine is different for different computer o To convert assembly language into machine language special translator is need known as Assembler. o The execution of program written in assembly language is faster than the higher-level language but slower than machine level language. o To write and understand a program in assembly is slow and difficult but easier than the machine level language. o It is also known as second level language or 2nd generation language. o It is also one of the types of low-level language. 3. High level language: - o These languages consists a set of words and symbols and we can write a program using it, which is similar to English like language. o It is mainly consider the problem to be solved rather than computer instruction. o It is user-centered rather than machine-centered. o C, C++, COBOL, PASCLE, FORTRAN are examples of the high level language. o It is also known as 3rd generation language. o Advantages: - I. It is not machine dependent so program written for one computer can be run on different computer. II. It is easy to understand and write. III. Error can be easily detected and removed. o Disadvantages: - I. It is slower than the assembly language and machine language. II. It requires special software to convert code from High-level language to machine code that is known as Translator. 4. Fourth generation language: - o It is a high level language that requires significantly fewer instructions to accomplish a particular task then third generation language so programmer can develop the program faster than 3rd generation language. o Visual Basic is a example of Fourth generation language.  Translator: - To convert your assembly level program or higher-level language program into machine level language program, there is use of special software or program that is known as Translator. Translator can be divided into three categories: (1) Assembler: - Assembler is a program, which converts your assembly language program into machine language. (2) Compiler: - Complier is a program, which checks the syntax error in your program and converts your program into machine language from higher-level language. If there is any error in any line of program compiler give error message and doesn’t covert your program into machine level language. But it is faster than the interpreter. (3) Interpreter: - Prof.Suneel Dogra SD College Hoshiarpur 8/12/2013 ii
  3. 3. C Programming, Basic Fundamental of Programming Interpreter is a program which checks your program line by line and after checking first line it converts into machine language and execute it so it is useful for the line by line tracing of your program. It is slower than compiler.  Editor: - Editor is a system program allows adding, deleting and manipulating the text. It provides several commands to add, delete and manipulate the text. It provides also the facility of save, save as, print as well as facility to copy, cut, paste, select, find, replace, delete the text. In market several editors are available such as DOS editor, notepad, WordPad, etc. Many programming complier also provides the facility of editor such as C editor, VB editor, etc which includes the facility to compile, execute, trace program. Prof.Suneel Dogra SD College Hoshiarpur 8/12/2013 iii