The E-bomb - A Weapon ofElectrical Mass Destruction
The Author:                    Carlo Kopp is a Computer                    Scientist, Electrical and                    Sy...
Introduction:Desert Storm Counter-C3 operations reliedon air power and precision guidedmunitionsFuture campaigns will requ...
E-bomb Technology Base:Power source - explosively pumped FluxCompression Generator (FCG)FCG pioneered by Los Alamos Labs d...
The Physics of the FCG:Fast explosive compresses a magnetic fieldCompression transfers mechanical energyinto the magnetic ...
FCG start current is provided  by an external source:capacitor banksmall FCGMHD devicehomopolar generator
FCG Internals:Armature - copper tube / fast explosiveStator - helical heavy wire coilInitiator - plane wave explosive lens...
FCG Operation:External power source pumps FCG windingwith start currentWhen start current peaks, explosive lensefired to i...
High Power Microwave (HPM)         Sources:Higher lethality than low frequency FCG fields, many device types: Relativistic...
Vircator Physics:Relativistic electron beam punches throughfoil or mesh anode”Virtual” cathode formed by space chargebubbl...
Lethality Issues in E-bomb         Warheads:Diversity of target set makes prediction oflethality difficultDifferent implem...
Coupling Modes:Front Door Coupling through antennas.  Destroys RF semiconductor devices in  transmitters and receiversBack...
Semiconductor Vulnerability:Semiconductor components using CMOS,RF Bipolar, RF GaAs, NMOS DRAMprocesses are destroyed by e...
Damage Mechanisms:Low frequency pulses produced by FCGcreate high voltage spikes on fixed wiringinfrastructureMicrowave ra...
Example Scenario:10 GigaWatt 5 GHz HPM E-bomb initiatedat several hundred metres altitudeFootprint has diameter of 400 - 5...
Maximising Bomb Lethality:Lethality is maximised by maximising the  power coupled into the target set  maximise peak power...
HPM E-bomb Lethality:Microwave bombs are potentially more lethal due better coupling and more focussed effects chirping al...
Targeting E-bombs: fixed installations (buildings, radar and comms sites ) - conventional methods radiating mobile / hidde...
Delivery of E-bombs:  Warhead comprises priming current source,  FCG (cascade) and Vircator tube  Missile installations mu...
Delivery Options:dumb bombs have a CEP of 100 - 1000 ft(free fall delivery)GPS aided bombs have a CEP of 40 ft(free fall b...
Defences Against E-bombs:Destroy the delivery vehicle or launchplatformElectromagnetically harden important assetsHide imp...
Vulnerability Reduction        (Hardening):convert computer rooms in to Faraday cagesuse optical fibres for dataisolate po...
Susceptibility Reduction   (Preventing Attack):redundant topologyUE reduction - stringent electromagneticcontrol regimeLow...
Proliferation:E-bombs use non-strategic materials andmanufacturingUS and CIS capable of deploying E-bombsin next half deca...
Military Applications of the          E-bomb      Doctrine and Strategy
1.Electronic Combat  The objective is to paralyse the opponent’s  C3I and IADS as quickly as possible  The E-bomb enables ...
2.Strategic WarfareThe Warden “Five Rings” model was tested  and proven during Desert Storm:  Leadership and C3 targets hi...
E-bomb Advantages in     Strategic WarfareNot lethal to humansNegligible collateral damageHigh tempo campaigns possible du...
3.Theatre WarfareOffensive Counter Air operations - disableaircraft in flight, on the ground and destroytheir supporting i...
4.Punitive MissionsThe E-bomb is a useful punitive weapon asit can cause much economic and militarydamage with no loss of ...
Conclusions:E-bomb is a WEMDHigh payoff in using E-bombs againstfundamental infrastructure, resulting insubstantial paraly...
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E bomb

  1. 1. The E-bomb - A Weapon ofElectrical Mass Destruction
  2. 2. The Author: Carlo Kopp is a Computer Scientist, Electrical and Systems Engineer, Defence Analyst and Trade JournalistCarlo has been publishing in the militaryaviation trade press since 1980, and his paperson doctrine have been published by the RoyalAustralian Air Force since 1992
  3. 3. Introduction:Desert Storm Counter-C3 operations reliedon air power and precision guidedmunitionsFuture campaigns will require more suitableweapons to achieve shock effect over largetarget sets with small attacking forcesElectromagnetic bombs (E-bombs) canperform such a role
  4. 4. E-bomb Technology Base:Power source - explosively pumped FluxCompression Generator (FCG)FCG pioneered by Los Alamos Labs duringthe 1950sFCG can produce tens of MegaJoules intens to hundreds of microsecondsPeak current of an FCG is 1000 X that of atypical lightning stroke
  5. 5. The Physics of the FCG:Fast explosive compresses a magnetic fieldCompression transfers mechanical energyinto the magnetic fieldPeak currents of MegaAmperesdemonstrated in many experiments
  6. 6. FCG start current is provided by an external source:capacitor banksmall FCGMHD devicehomopolar generator
  7. 7. FCG Internals:Armature - copper tube / fast explosiveStator - helical heavy wire coilInitiator - plane wave explosive lenseJacket - prevents disintegration duemagnetic forces
  8. 8. FCG Operation:External power source pumps FCG windingwith start currentWhen start current peaks, explosive lensefired to initiate explosive burnExplosive pressure expands armature andcreates moving shortMoving armature compresses magneticfield
  9. 9. High Power Microwave (HPM) Sources:Higher lethality than low frequency FCG fields, many device types: Relativistic Klystrons Magnetrons Slow Wave Devices Reflex Triodes Virtual Cathode Oscillators (vircators)
  10. 10. Vircator Physics:Relativistic electron beam punches throughfoil or mesh anode”Virtual” cathode formed by space chargebubble behind anodePeak power of tens of GW for 100s of nsecAnode typically melts in about 1 usecCheap and simple to manufactureWide bandwidth allows chirping ofoscillation
  11. 11. Lethality Issues in E-bomb Warheads:Diversity of target set makes prediction oflethality difficultDifferent implementations of likeequipment have differing hardnessCoupling efficiency is critical to lethality
  12. 12. Coupling Modes:Front Door Coupling through antennas. Destroys RF semiconductor devices in transmitters and receiversBack Door Coupling through power/data cabling, telephone wiring Destroys exposed semiconductor devices Punches through isolation transformers.
  13. 13. Semiconductor Vulnerability:Semiconductor components using CMOS,RF Bipolar, RF GaAs, NMOS DRAMprocesses are destroyed by exposure tovolts to tens of volts of electrical voltageHigh speed - high density semiconductorsare highly vulnerable due small junctionsizes and low breakdown voltages
  14. 14. Damage Mechanisms:Low frequency pulses produced by FCGcreate high voltage spikes on fixed wiringinfrastructureMicrowave radiation from HPM devicescreates high voltage standing waves onfixed wiring infrastructureMicrowave radiation from HPM devicescan couple directly through ventilationgrilles, gaps between panels, poor interfaceshielding - producing a spatial standingwave inside the equipment cavity
  15. 15. Example Scenario:10 GigaWatt 5 GHz HPM E-bomb initiatedat several hundred metres altitudeFootprint has diameter of 400 - 500 metreswith field strengths of kiloVolts/metre
  16. 16. Maximising Bomb Lethality:Lethality is maximised by maximising the power coupled into the target set maximise peak power and duration of warhead emission (large FCG/Vircator) maximise efficiency of internal power transfer in weapon maximise coupling efficiency into target set
  17. 17. HPM E-bomb Lethality:Microwave bombs are potentially more lethal due better coupling and more focussed effects chirping allows weapon to couple into any in-band resonances circular polarisation of antenna allows coupling with any aperture orientation reducing detonation altitude increases field strength at the expense of footprint size
  18. 18. Targeting E-bombs: fixed installations (buildings, radar and comms sites ) - conventional methods radiating mobile / hidden targets (ships, mobile SAMs) - use ESM or ELS non radiating mobile / hidden targets - use Unintentional Emissions (UE)UE results from Van Eck radiation and LAN/comms wiring emissions, Characteristic signatures allow identification of target type and location
  19. 19. Delivery of E-bombs: Warhead comprises priming current source, FCG (cascade) and Vircator tube Missile installations must supply 100% of weapon priming energy from own supply Bomb installations - weapon can be precharged before release from aircraftA free fall E-bomb is more lethal than a missile borne HPM warhead as a larger proportion of the weapon is the warhead
  20. 20. Delivery Options:dumb bombs have a CEP of 100 - 1000 ft(free fall delivery)GPS aided bombs have a CEP of 40 ft(free fall but guided)Standoff missiles have a CEP of 40 ft(GPS inertial with propulsion)Cruise Missiles have a CEP 10-40 ft(eg USAF AGM-86 derivative)
  21. 21. Defences Against E-bombs:Destroy the delivery vehicle or launchplatformElectromagnetically harden important assetsHide important assets
  22. 22. Vulnerability Reduction (Hardening):convert computer rooms in to Faraday cagesuse optical fibres for dataisolate power feeds with transient arrestorsuse non-electrical power feed schemesuse electromagnetic “air lock”shielding must be comprehensive
  23. 23. Susceptibility Reduction (Preventing Attack):redundant topologyUE reduction - stringent electromagneticcontrol regimeLow Probability of Intercept (LPI) Commsand Radardecoy emitters
  24. 24. Proliferation:E-bombs use non-strategic materials andmanufacturingUS and CIS capable of deploying E-bombsin next half decadepossession of drawings and samples wouldallow Third World manufacture of E-bombsUSAF estimated US$1,000-2,000 per roundfor FCG manufacture at US labour ratesCounterproliferation regimes will beineffective
  25. 25. Military Applications of the E-bomb Doctrine and Strategy
  26. 26. 1.Electronic Combat The objective is to paralyse the opponent’s C3I and IADS as quickly as possible The E-bomb enables rapid attrition of enemy electronic assets over large areas The E-bomb offers important force multiplication effects compared to the use of conventional weaponsThe E-bomb is a Weapon of Electrical Mass Destruction
  27. 27. 2.Strategic WarfareThe Warden “Five Rings” model was tested and proven during Desert Storm: Leadership and C3 targets highly vulnerable Economic vitals - finance, stock markets, manufacturing, petroleum, oil/gas are highly vulnerable Transport infrastructure - signalling, navaids, vehicle ignition systems vulnerable Population - radio and TV receivers Military forces in the field - eqpt vulnerable
  28. 28. E-bomb Advantages in Strategic WarfareNot lethal to humansNegligible collateral damageHigh tempo campaigns possible due thepowerful “shock” effect of using a WEMDNo mass media coverage of bombingcasualties (broadcast eqpt destroyed) willreduce the threshold for the use of strategicair power and missile forces
  29. 29. 3.Theatre WarfareOffensive Counter Air operations - disableaircraft in flight, on the ground and destroytheir supporting infrastructureSea Control - disable surface combatantsprior to attack with conventional weaponsBattlefield Interdiction - disable mobile C3Iand concentrations of tanks, armouredvehicles and helicopters
  30. 30. 4.Punitive MissionsThe E-bomb is a useful punitive weapon asit can cause much economic and militarydamage with no loss of civilian lifeE-bombs could be profitably used againstcountries which sponsor terrorism and info-terrorism
  31. 31. Conclusions:E-bomb is a WEMDHigh payoff in using E-bombs againstfundamental infrastructure, resulting insubstantial paralysisE-bombs will become a decisive capabilityin Strategic Warfare and Electronic CombatE-bombs are a non-lethal weaponThe critical issues for the next decade arethe deployment of E-bombs and thehardening of fundamental infrastructure
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