© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 6 Lecture
World Regional
Geography
A Developmental Approach
11th Edition
Central As...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter Learning Outcomes
• Explain the central role played by Central Asia and Afghanistan...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Map
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Landforms
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Landforms & Climate
• Three major regions dominate.
– Mountains
– Steppe—Dominates much of ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Waterways
• Caspian Sea—92 feet below sea level
• Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers—Feeds Kyzl...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Environmental Challenges
• Many challenges are a result of Soviet
planning. Developments th...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ethnic Origins
• Two major groups dominate.
– Turkic ethnic groups
– Persian ethnic groups
...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Languages of the Region
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Soviet Union
• Three major influences
1. Centralization
• Dominated by Moscow
• Politically...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Post Soviet Union
• Czarist administration and Soviets saw area as a
peripheral, undevelope...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Post Soviet Union
• Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan—Broke
away completely
• Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzs...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Population of Region
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Religion
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Religion
• Religious fever pitch in 1930s; receded during
World War II
• Processes of secul...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Economic Challenges
• Landlocked region
• Transportation routes go through Russia.
• Large ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Natural Resources
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Agriculture
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Countries of the Region
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Central Asian Countries
• Central Asian Countries
– Kazakhstan
– Kyrgyzstan
– Tajikistan
– ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Turkic Republics
• Kazakhstan
• Turkmenistan
• Uzbekistan
• Kyrgyzstan
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tajikistan
• Poorest of the former Soviet Union republics
• Economy growing after many trou...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Afghanistan
• Independent since 19th century
• Close cultural and trade ties with region
• ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Afghanistan
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Taliban
• Movement began in madrasas
• Quranic schools
• Financed by Saudi Arabia
• Located...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
9/11 and Modern Afghanistan
• War in Afghanistan following assassination of
Ahmad Shah Mass...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
9/11 and Modern Afghanistan
• President Karzai not well respected
• Taliban resurgent
• Bor...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Summary of Chapter
• Central Asia and Afghanistan are in a very precarious
place. In Centra...
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GEOG103 Chapter 6 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition Central Asia and Afghanistan
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Explain the central role played by Central Asia and Afghanistan in the historic culture and economy of the Eurasian landmass. • Express the importance of river valleys within the context of Central Asia and Afghanistan’s population and economy. • Indicate why the Aral Sea has shrunk dramatically and assess what might be done to reverse this process. • Describe how Central Asian urban spaces are and are not changing. • Show how economic development without proper attention to its effect on the environment can provide useful lessons to help improve future development policy. • Identify the reasons why so many rural Tajik men must migrate to Russia to earn a living and discuss the effect that migration is having on village life. • Portray the plight of Afghan farmers and explain why they find it difficult to stop growing poppies for opium.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Landforms
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Landforms & Climate • Three major regions dominate. – Mountains – Steppe—Dominates much of Kazakhstan. Low levels and variability of precipitation makes agriculture difficult. – Desert • Largest portion of region • Arid • Prominent deserts – Kyzl Kum Desert—East of Aral Sea in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan – Kara Kum Desert—in Turkmenistan • Registan and Dasht-i Margo–in western Afghanistan • Mountains – Hindu Kush—in Afghanistan – Pamirs–in Tajikistan and Afghanistan – Fan—Tajikistan and Uzbekistan – Tien Shan—Kyrgyzstan – Majority of population lives in river valleys, foothills, or meadows at mountain bases.
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Waterways • Caspian Sea—92 feet below sea level • Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers—Feeds Kyzl Kum and Kara Kum Deserts • Zarafshan River – Flows from Tajikistan into Uzbekistan – Disappears in the Kyzl Kum Desert • Afghanistan rivers – Harirud – Helmand – Kabul – Kunduz
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental Challenges • Many challenges are a result of Soviet planning. Developments that were not sustainable and had not considered welfare of local residents • Nuclear weapon testing in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan • Aral Sea Crisis • Erosion from Virgin Lands Program • Landmines • Drought
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Ethnic Origins • Two major groups dominate. – Turkic ethnic groups – Persian ethnic groups • Silk Road • 19th century—Became pawns between Great Britain and Russia (the “Great Game”) – Wakhan Corridor • Area separating Afghanistan from China • Separated Great Britain and Russia in 19th-century Afghanistan
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Languages of the Region
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Soviet Union • Three major influences 1. Centralization • Dominated by Moscow • Politically, economically, and socially • Command economy 2. Collectivization • All lands, goods, and equipment appropriated by the government • Consolidation of farms into large farms (collectives) • Farmers paid stipends or in produce from farm 3. Russification • Control of culture • Emphasis on the Russian language
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Post Soviet Union • Czarist administration and Soviets saw area as a peripheral, undeveloped area. • Soviets sought efforts to exploit their resources, modernize their people, and bring their economy into line with the rest of the sprawling area, marking an uneven approach to development. • Still some dependence with Russia (i.e., pipelines, energy) • Development of trade avenues (Turkey attempted to step into breach) • Opium drug trade (valuable for warlords; military financing)
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Post Soviet Union • Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan—Broke away completely • Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan— Sought to integrate the Soviet past with an often, government-controlled sense of ethnic sensibility • Some of these countries retained the Russian language (forced by Stalin).
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population of Region
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Religion
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Religion • Religious fever pitch in 1930s; receded during World War II • Processes of secularism and Russification sought to marginalize Islam in these countries. • Religion (especially Islam) became personal— practiced at home. • Reactions to secular communism not restricted to this area – Bosnia and Herzegovina – The Caucasus
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Economic Challenges • Landlocked region • Transportation routes go through Russia. • Large mountains make links to other regions difficult. • Region considered to be “developing,” which although true is seen as patronizing. • War-torn regions nearby make trade difficult.
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Natural Resources
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agriculture
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Countries of the Region
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Asian Countries • Central Asian Countries – Kazakhstan – Kyrgyzstan – Tajikistan – Turkmenistan – Uzbekistan – Part of U.S.S.R. from 1921 to 1991 – Prior to Soviet period, more closely tied to south and west due to Islamic heritage
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Turkic Republics • Kazakhstan • Turkmenistan • Uzbekistan • Kyrgyzstan
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tajikistan • Poorest of the former Soviet Union republics • Economy growing after many troubled years • Cotton production, mining, and foreign aid are largest parts of economy. • Trade with Uzbekistan is difficult, although that country is its most reliable partner because of landforms.
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Afghanistan • Independent since 19th century • Close cultural and trade ties with region • British and Russian struggle for control during the Great Game • North and West—Allied with Iran and Central Asia • East—Allied with India • Attempts at economic liberalization in 1960s and 1970s • Communist coup in 1978 – Now routed in U.S.S.R. control – Spawned resistance—mujahideen (insurgents) – Lasted until 1992 after U.S.S.R. dissolved – Original plan for ethnic rotation of control failed.
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Afghanistan
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Taliban • Movement began in madrasas • Quranic schools • Financed by Saudi Arabia • Located on Pakistani and Afghan border • Very strict interpretation of Islam (Wahhabism) – Very hostile to women – Banning of sports and music – Soccer fields converted to public disciplinary areas • Students formed the core of followers of mullahs— religious leaders. • Gained control of country in mid-1990s • North maintained something of a state of war.
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 9/11 and Modern Afghanistan • War in Afghanistan following assassination of Ahmad Shah Massoud and New York and Washington, D.C. attacks • United States and Britain, allied with Afghan warlords, drive Taliban from control. • Elements of resistance still remain. • Mullah Omar has never been captured. • Struggle toward developing a democratic country • Elections – Parliament – President Hamid Karzai
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 9/11 and Modern Afghanistan • President Karzai not well respected • Taliban resurgent • Border with Pakistan is troubled because of Al Qaeda presence.
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • Central Asia and Afghanistan are in a very precarious place. In Central Asia, the revolutionary fever has already hit Kyrgyzstan and the leaders of the other countries fear that they could be next. • Economically, the former Soviet republics of Central Asia were devastated after independence, and while all have made great economic advances since demodernization, only Kazakhstan is moving toward substantive economic development that has created jobs and wealth. • Positive trends include the recent opening of many of the economies, especially those bordering China, to international trade and to competition from Russia and other former Soviet countries, and the start of negotiations to build oil pipelines that bypass Russia.
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