© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 4 Lecture
World Regional
Geography
A Developmental Approach
11th Edition
Europe
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter Learning Outcomes
• Describe the physical geography of the European region, and exp...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The European Map
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environment / Landforms
• Rivers
– Used for transportation
– Communication arterie...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environment / Landforms
• Four peninsulas of Europe
– Scandinavian
– Iberian
– Ita...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environment / Landforms
• Great European Plain
– Lowland that dominates northern E...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environment / Landforms
• Mountains
– Pyrenees
– Alps
– Cantabrian of Spain
– Carp...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environment / Climate
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environment / Climate
• Marine west coast
– Westerlies
• Prevailing winds from Atl...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environment / Climate
• Humid continental climate
– Eastern Europe
– Moist climate...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environment / Climate
• Mediterranean climate
– Southern peninsulas–Iberian, Itali...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environmental Challenge
• Humans use natural resources
• Natural climate cycles ha...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe’s Environmental Challenge
• Modifications
– Forest clearance
– Terrain and weather m...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
European Politics
• Europe was dominated by outside forces such
as the Greeks and Romans
• ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The European Union (EU)
• Economic union
– European Economic Community
– Common Market
– Si...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Challenges to the EU
• Resistance
– Some countries have rejected the EU Constitution.
– Eur...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Germany
• Current government
– Federal Republic
– Provincial-based politics
• Unitary gover...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
United Kingdom
• Expansion brings challenges.
– Hilly lands on North and West conquered and...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
France
• Two challenges involving cultural regionalism
1. Unite North with the Mediterranea...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Spain
• Origins date to merger of Castile and Aragon in 1569.
– Greater part of Iberian Pen...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Italy
• North
– Location of the Renaissance
– More prosperous
• South
– Mezzogiorno
– Feuda...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Switzerland and Belgium
• Switzerland
– Success in joining linguistic and religious groups
...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Balkans
• Yugoslavia formed during World War I.
• Remnants of former empires
• Roman
• ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Balkans
• Major economic disparities
– Prosperous
• Slovenia
• Croatia
– Not so prosper...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Balkans / Yugoslavia breaks up
• 1991
– Four provinces seceded.
– 1992—Remaining parts ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Religions of Europe
• Roman Catholicism
• Eastern Orthodox
• Protestant reformation
(1519–1...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Languages of Europe
• East—Western and southern Slavic languages
• South—Romance languages
...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
European Agriculture
• Traditional Northern agriculture based on winter survival
• Mediterr...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
European Population
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
European Population
• 535 million people within the continent
• Four countries with populat...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Economic and Industrial Development of
Europe
• One of the most powerful economies in the w...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
European Cities
• More than 70% of Europe’s population live
in cities.
• When cities have g...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Scarcity of Resources in Europe
• During the past few decades Europe has
experienced a scar...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
European Immigration
• Contentious issue in some countries
• Several major migration flows
...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Europe as a World Power
• Europeans were the early global power.
• The Euro used as a curre...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Summary of Chapter
• Europe is a very old and developed region with a
good amount of wealth...
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GEOG103 Chapter 4 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition Europe
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Describe the physical geography of the European region, and explain its effects on the climate of the region. • List factors defining Europe as a cultural and physical region. • Discuss the region’s major environmental problems and identify strategies to address these challenges. • Chart Europe’s transition from an agricultural to an industrial and postindustrial region. • Explain the political-territorial order of Europe, including the origins of the nation-state and sovereignty. • Discuss the role of language and religion in shaping European geography. • Locate the key nodes in the European integration project. • Understand the role of cities in the development of Europe and their distinctive geographic features. • Describe the factors shaping Europe’s role in the global economy and its geopolitical neighborhood.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The European Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environment / Landforms • Rivers – Used for transportation – Communication arteries – Source of drinking water
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environment / Landforms • Four peninsulas of Europe – Scandinavian – Iberian – Italian – Balkan • Fertile valleys, basins, and tablelands – Hungarian Basin – Po River valley – Meseta
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environment / Landforms • Great European Plain – Lowland that dominates northern Europe – Atlantic coast of France to the top of Russia and into Eurasia – Highly fertile soils – Sizeable agriculture • Hill lands – Celtic refuge – Two basic locations 1.Atlantic coasts of Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, and Britain 2.Central European zone
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environment / Landforms • Mountains – Pyrenees – Alps – Cantabrian of Spain – Carpathian in Balkans • Northern Europe dominated by old, highly eroded mountains
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environment / Climate
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environment / Climate • Marine west coast – Westerlies • Prevailing winds from Atlantic Ocean via North Atlantic Drift • Provides a very moist and cloudy climate – Extends eastward halfway across Europe – Cool summers – Rare heat waves
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environment / Climate • Humid continental climate – Eastern Europe – Moist climate – Bitter cold winters – Summers similar to marine west coast
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environment / Climate • Mediterranean climate – Southern peninsulas–Iberian, Italian, and Balkan – Winter precipitation – Exceptionally dry summers
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environmental Challenge • Humans use natural resources • Natural climate cycles have an effect on where humans live • Industrial Revolution began in England – Continuing effects of pollution and greenhouse gases
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe’s Environmental Challenge • Modifications – Forest clearance – Terrain and weather modifications • Terracing—Stair-stepped hillsides • Urban heat islands – Urban temperatures higher than in neighboring rural areas – Air pollution is a significant problem. • The problem of acid rain – Release of substances, such as sulfur and carbon, into the air – Comes back with rainfall – Creates death of forests – Result of industrial production and heavy use of fossil fuels • European Union has sought to coordinate standardized policies.
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. European Politics • Europe was dominated by outside forces such as the Greeks and Romans • Forces of nationalism later caused World War II and the Holocaust • Disputes within nations by ethnic groups who desire autonomy • Cultural borders are rarely easy to navigate. • The European Union (EU)
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The European Union (EU) • Economic union – European Economic Community – Common Market – Six states originally • Renamed EU in 1993 – Governmental structure • European Commission • Council of Ministers • European Parliament • European Court of Justice – Euro is the currency.
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Challenges to the EU • Resistance – Some countries have rejected the EU Constitution. – Euro and EU dictates are seen by some as intrusions against local culture and identity. • EU membership now “by invitation only” – New states have to prove their worth. – Some criticism of cultural imperialism – Turkey an especially controversial decision • No EU military – NATO is de facto. – Trends toward separatism in EU states
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Germany • Current government – Federal Republic – Provincial-based politics • Unitary government has dominated history. – Second Reich – Third Reich
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. United Kingdom • Expansion brings challenges. – Hilly lands on North and West conquered and annexed. – Celts never fully, culturally absorbed. – Scots and Welsh seek “home rule”. • Further western conquering into the island of Ireland. – Began Protestant–Catholic tension that remains to this day. – British rule Northern Ireland. – Republic of Ireland (1920s)
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. France • Two challenges involving cultural regionalism 1. Unite North with the Mediterranean South. 2. Annexation of lands inhabited by ethnic minorities has caused conflict. • Result has been an historic unitary state.
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Spain • Origins date to merger of Castile and Aragon in 1569. – Greater part of Iberian Peninsula – Excluding Portugal • Castilians built and ruled Spain—Dominated ethnic minorities. – Basques – Catalans – Galicians – Strong separatist movements remain with Basques and Catalans. • Cultural tensions in 1930s lead to fascist dictatorship (Franco).
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Italy • North – Location of the Renaissance – More prosperous • South – Mezzogiorno – Feudalistic, poor, traditional, corrupt, and provincial • Long-time political fragmentation until 19th century • Unification originated in the North. – Unifying factors • Italian language (fragmented into many dialects) • Natural framework
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Switzerland and Belgium • Switzerland – Success in joining linguistic and religious groups – Multinational country • 73% speak German. • 21% speak French. • 4.3% speak Italian. – Alps divide the state. – Originally a confederation • Belgium – Dates from 1830 • Predominantly Catholic • Broke away from Protestant Netherlands – Tension between French Walloons and Dutch Flemings
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Balkans • Yugoslavia formed during World War I. • Remnants of former empires • Roman • Byzantium • Turkish • Austrian • Hungarian • Three mutually antagonistic faiths 1. Catholicism 2. Orthodoxy 3. Islam
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Balkans • Major economic disparities – Prosperous • Slovenia • Croatia – Not so prosperous • Macedonia • Parts of Serbia
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Balkans / Yugoslavia breaks up • 1991 – Four provinces seceded. – 1992—Remaining parts renamed Serbia and Montenegro. – Many people on the “wrong” side of borders – Ethnic cleansing – 2006—Montenegro declares independence.
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Religions of Europe • Roman Catholicism • Eastern Orthodox • Protestant reformation (1519–1559) – North Europe predominantly Protestant – Southern Europe predominantly Roman Catholic
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Languages of Europe • East—Western and southern Slavic languages • South—Romance languages • North—Germanic languages • Some smaller language groups – Celts – Greeks – Latvians – Lithuanians • Two major alphabet traditions 1. Latin/English 2. Cyrillic in the eastern sections of Europe.
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. European Agriculture • Traditional Northern agriculture based on winter survival • Mediterranean Diet is similar to North American diets • Agricultural mechanization has effected Europe’s diet – Rural Eastern Bloc dominated areas may still use older methods of harvest.
  29. 29. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. European Population
  30. 30. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. European Population • 535 million people within the continent • Four countries with populations of over 50 million • Twelve basic traits 1. 80% Christian 2. 80%+ Indo-European speech 3. 90%+ Caucasian 4. Low infant mortality 5. Educated population 6. Highly urbanized 7. Dense population 8. Wealthy population 9. Stabilized or declining population growth 10. Densely built public transit and road network 11. Less than 10% in agriculture 12. Well-established tradition of democratic governance
  31. 31. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Economic and Industrial Development of Europe • One of the most powerful economies in the world – 41.7% of world exports in 2006 – Leading SE Asia and United States in 9 of 20 different product categories – Second in six of the remaining eleven • Two parallel trends—Europeanization and globalization • Free labor mobility within the EU • Controversial issue—“Guest workers”
  32. 32. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. European Cities • More than 70% of Europe’s population live in cities. • When cities have grown dramatically, the distinction between urban and rural life has blurred. • Europe is home to some of the most widely recognized cultural cities.
  33. 33. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Scarcity of Resources in Europe • During the past few decades Europe has experienced a scarcity of natural resources. • Except for the North Sea region, Europe is low in fossil fuels. • More than half of Europe’s energy needs are imported. • Germany has been a frontrunner in using renewable and recycled resources.
  34. 34. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. European Immigration • Contentious issue in some countries • Several major migration flows – Associated with colonial legacies • Common patterns • Britain—Asian Indians, Pakistanis, and West Indians • Germany—Turks • France—North Africa and the Caribbean
  35. 35. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Europe as a World Power • Europeans were the early global power. • The Euro used as a currency of standard • When the EU “speaks” as a single voice, they have overwhelming power. • European countries have healthy trade surpluses.
  36. 36. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • Europe is a very old and developed region with a good amount of wealth. • Recent political crises have caused conflict in European integration. • The European Union has raised standards of economy. • Immigration has changed Europe in terms of religion, new cultural items, and xenophobia. • Europe is a resilient area that handles change well.

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