GEOG103 Chapter 2 Lecture

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GEOG103 Chapter 2 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition United States and Canada
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Describe the general differences and similarities between the United States and Canada in terms of culture and history. • Organize correctly the location of the general landform regions in Canada and the United States. • Locate climatic regions in the United States and Canada, and explain the general processes involved in their formation. • Explain major environmental challenges facing this world region, from water resources to the impacts of resource development. • Outline the territorial evolution of what is now the United States and Canada. • Compare the benefits and costs of the various forms of energy production in Canada and the United States. • Explain the meaning of diversity to the population geographies of Canada and the United States, and how this diversity serves as both an advantage and disadvantage to the development process. • Relate the geographies of agriculture and manufacturing in the United States and Canada to the larger processes of globalization and economic restructuring. • Describe the diverse population geographies of both countries, and its advantage and disadvantage to the development process.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Landforms
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Landforms • Both are on the North American continent, which also includes Mexico and Central America. • Together these two countries encompass every type of landform and climate classification that exists.
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Appalachian Highlands and Lowlands • Low-lying mountains from Newfoundland to Alabama • Six distinct landforms: 1. Piedmont—PA southward to GA 2. Fall Line—Series of river and stream rapids that mark the edge of the Piedmont where it descends on the coastal plain 3. Blue Ridge Mountains—NC, TN, and GA (also called Great Smokies) 4. Ridge and Valley province • Folded landscape of long, parallel ridges and valleys from NY to northern AL • Includes Hudson and Shenandoah Valleys 5. Appalachian Plateau—Western portion of Appalachian Highlands 6. New England • White Mountains of NH and ME • Green Mountains of VT • Continues into Canada to form a Maritimes–Newfoundland extension
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain • Gulf of Mexico to U.S. Atlantic Coast • Location – Cape Cod to Florida – Florida – Coastal Texas – Much of lower Mississippi Valley
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Western Mountains and Plateaus • Rocky Mountains—Northern NM northward to CO and WY • Interior plateau – West of the Rocky Mountains – Transition between Rockies and Pacific Coastlands
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Western Plateaus • Colorado plateau—More than a mile high in SW CO, eastern UT, northern AZ, NM • Basin and range – West and south of the CO plateau – Much of NV and western UT, parts of southern CA and AZ • Columbia plateau – North of basin and range – Eastern OR and WA – Snake River area of ID • Pacific Coastlands – Sierra Nevada Mountains • North to south in eastern CA • Eleven peaks in excess of 14,000 feet – Cascade Mountains • North of Sierra Nevada • Central OR and WA – Coast Ranges—Length of the Pacific Coast • Great Valley—Alluvial trough • Willamette Valley (OR) • Puget Sound Lowland (WA)
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Canadian Shield • Shields – Piece of Earth’s crust that is very old and geographically very stable – Probably cannot be further revised – Cultural nuclei around which mountain formation tends to occur • Location – Extends outward from the Hudson Bay – Includes much of Quebec & Labrador – Most of Ontario & Manitoba – Substantial part of Canadian Arctic
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Interior Lowlands • South and west of the Canadian Shield • Between North America’s backbones of east and west • Components – Great Plains—East of the Rocky Mountains – Great Lakes—MI, NY, and Ontario – Ozark Plateau—MI – Ouachita Mountains—AK – Black Hills • Western SD • Peaks that exceed 7,000 feet
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate • Several influencing factors: – Clearly defined changes in seasonal temperatures – Prevailing wind direction is west to east. – North–south mountain ranges in the west modify air masses as they move east. – Atmosphere takes on the more extreme heating and cooling characteristics of land than water. • Winters are cold. • Summers are hot. – Gulf of Mexico—Important source of moisture for the Gulf Coast and Interior Lowlands • Characteristics: – Humid subtropics – Dry subtropics – Marine west coast – Western steppes and deserts – Humid continental – Subarctic and polar climates
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Humid Subtropics • Hot and sticky • Eastern Texas and Oklahoma east to Florida and Virginia and sections of West Virginia • The climate in many of these states is subject to extremes.
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Subtropics (Mediterranean) • Pacific Coast • San Diego to San Francisco – Summers relatively cool (time of drought) – Winters relatively warm • Precipitation low, but clearly defined wet and dry seasons • Lack of snow
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Marine West Coast • Northern CA to Alaska • Winter—Warmer due to moderating effects of ocean • Summer—Cool • Cascade mountains produce a moderating effect.
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Western Steppes and Deserts • Eastern OR and WA south to Colorado Plateau • East of Rocky Mountains—Corresponds roughly to the Great Plains • Semiarid climate • Temperatures tend toward extremes • True deserts of North America concentrated in the southwest: – Southern TX – Southern AZ – Southern CA
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Humid Continental • Northern part of United States into southern Canada • Humidity • Winter—Cool to cold • Summer—Can be very hot • Home to America’s agricultural heartland – Corn Belt – Dairy Belt
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Subarctic and Polar • Subarctic – Wide swath of central Canada and Alaska – Precipitation levels low—Mostly as summer rain • Polar • Northern edges of Canada and Alaska – Freezing conditions most of the year – Some days without sunlight
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental Challenges • Continental climates have always experienced environmental extremes. • Water issues in dry conditions cause issues. • Northeastern and midwestern locales may experience too much water. • Storms, especially in the southeast, may cause dramatic problems.
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Water Competition in Desert
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Historical Settlement • European core has influenced the early settlement of both countries. • Core influences: – New England—MA, RI, and CT • Originally a destination for religious freedom • Artisanal work and shipbuilding – Southern Atlantic—VA and southward • Cultivation of subtropical crops—notably tobacco • Plantation system a major aspect of work by smaller farms – Middle Atlantic—NY, PA, and parts of NJ and MD • English, Dutch, Scots–Irish, and Swedish influences • Mixed agricultural system • Manufacture of tools, guns, and wagons • Iron ore work in PA • Influential impact of American middle west and parts of Appalachians – French Canada—Quebec; St. Lawrence River area • Early settlers were French; British took over in 1763. • Some farming along St. Lawrence River • French Canadian population has remained contextual; little spatial diffusion.
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Historical Settlement
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Western Expansion • Historical view was that all land on the continent is to be civilized by Americans • Expansion of United States – Louisiana Purchase—1803 – East Florida—1819 – West Florida—1810–1813 – Texas—Annexed in 1845 – Mexican Cession—1848 – Oregon County—1848 – Gadsden Purchase—1853
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Evolution Of Canada
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population • U.S. population growth after 1800 – High birthrates (fertility rates) – Low death rates (mortality rates) – Immigration • Canadian population growth – Grew mainly by natural increase between 1867 and 1900 – But limited by a low fertility rate • Population distribution – Predominantly east of the Mississippi River – Greatest concentration in northeast quadrants • Population of Canada – Most people live 200 miles of U.S. border
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. United States Population
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Canadian Population
  29. 29. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agricultural Regions
  30. 30. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agriculture Regions • Corn Belt—Central Ohio to eastern Nebraska; MN to SD; Kansas • Dairy Belt—North of the Corn Belt, stretching westward from Nova Scotia and New England to WI and MN • Specialty Crop and Livestock Region—Southern New England to eastern Texas • Great Wheat Belts – Winter Wheat Belt • KS, OK, CO, and north TX – Spring Wheat Belt • ND, SD, MT, and Saskatchewan • Western farming
  31. 31. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy • Coal – Major energy source for industrial expansion in United States: WY, KY, WV, and PA – Nova Scotia, New Brunswick in Canada – Easier to import from U.S. Appalachian states – More emphasis on petroleum • Oil and gas – Both United States and Canada are major producers and consumers. – United States—Production centered in TX, LA, KS, CA, and AL – Canada—Alberta and Saskatchewan • Water – 60% energy via hydroelectricity in Canada – 8.5% in the United States • Nuclear – 20% source of power in United States – 12% source of power in Canada
  32. 32. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy • Iron ore – United States and Canada are major producers and consumers. – Canada—Exporter – United States—Importer • Aluminum – Used extensively in transportation and construction – Imported from Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, and Australia as it is not readily available • Canada produces other metals: – Nickel – Copper
  33. 33. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Manufacturing • New England – Waterways – Railroads • South – Remote from transportation – Produced for exporting • Coreland – Southern New England • Textile • Leather-working • Machine tools • Metro New York – Diversified manufacturing – Garment industry
  34. 34. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Problems Facing Manufacturing • Intensive foreign competition • Labor costs cheaper • More modern equipment • Difficult economic conditions • Recessions • Fluctuations • Social problems • Social conflict • Air and water pollution • Residential quality • Urban water supply
  35. 35. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Canadian Manufacturing • Location—St. Lawrence Seaway and Ontario – Industrial heartland – Montreal the center of industry—Akin to NYC • Specialization elsewhere – Hydroelectric potential—Quebec – Golden Horseshoe • Most of Canada’s steel • Great variety of other goods • Protected by tariff • Drift westward – Alberta and western provinces gain – Similar trends to United States
  36. 36. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Urban Dynamics • Cities’ natural attraction for industrialism – Agglomeration economies – Multiplier effect • Highly urbanized by beginning of 21st century • Globalization transforming cities – Transportation • Expressways • Automobiles • Spatial expansion • Megalopolis – Result of congestion and sprawl – “A very large city” – More government—More demands • Canadian Cities – More acceptance of government planning – More compact; higher densities – More emphasis on public transportation
  37. 37. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Poverty in United States
  38. 38. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Poverty in Canada
  39. 39. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Poverty • 78% of all poor live in metropolitan areas. • Effect of biases against specific ethnic groupings – African Americans – Hispanic Americans – Native Americans – Appalachian whites • Concentrated in central cities • Appalachia • Other areas – Mississippi Delta – Along the Mexico border – Native American reservations in north central
  40. 40. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity • Numerous subgroups distinguished by race, ethnic and linguistic differences – African Americans – Hispanic Americans – Asian or Pacific Islanders
  41. 41. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Canadian Diversity • Tension between English-speaking and French-speaking – Anglophones—Native English speakers – Francophones—Native French speakers • Population Demographics – French-speaking • Quebec • New Brunswick • Predominantly Roman Catholic – English-speaking • Western provinces • Maritimes • Predominantly Protestant • Multilingualism (other than French and English) – Toronto – Montreal – Produced by immigration and ethnic clustering
  42. 42. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Canadian Diversity
  43. 43. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • The United States and Canada occupy one of the largest land masses in the world, and one with a wide array of environments. • Both countries evolved out of a spatial integration process in which frontiers were pushed back by advancing populations. The result is a racial and cultural mosaic that enriches their contemporary geographies, while presenting challenges to governments that struggle to accommodate competing groups. • Each country is an economic powerhouse that occupies a prominent position in the world economy. • Progress has come with costs in terms of environmental degradation, global warming, employment insecurity among North American workers, increased reliance on foreign sources for important natural resources, and a growing fear that economic progress may not be sustainable.

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