GEOG103 Chapter 11 Lecture

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GEOG103 Chapter 11 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition Southeast Asia
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Give reasons for the degradation of Southeast Asia’s forests and coastal environments. • Outline the energy resource endowments and challenges confronting the region. • Describe the economic role of Southeast Asia in the larger process of colonialism as well as the function of ethnic Chinese in this economic system. • Explain the economic growth characteristics of modernizer and reformer countries. • Account for the diversity of development in Southeast Asia in relation to demographic factors. • Understand how Singapore’s economy is spatially embedded in the regional and global economy. • Specify the various ways race or ethnicity has driven the development process in Malaysia. • Identify the core-periphery relations between Java and outer island Indonesia as well as recent government measures to relieve these geographic tensions. • Describe the national and local problems associated with the geographic concentration of economic growth in Thailand. • Contrast experiences of Vietnam and Myanmar in their respective involvement with the global economy.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. About the Region • Region of large and small peninsulas and islands • Two constituent subregions • Mainland Southeast (SE) Asia • Countries that are physically a part of the continent – Vietnam – Cambodia – Laos – Thailand – Myanmar • Insular SE Asia – Malaysia – Singapore – Indonesia – Brunei – Timor-Leste – The Philippines
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Landforms • Wide expanse – SE Asia stretches more than 3,000 miles. – With surrounding oceans and seas included, equal to India and neighboring states – Situated almost entirely in tropics
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Landforms • Mainland – Numerous and broad interior alluvial river valleys – Provide for substantial population concentrations and agricultural production sustained by soil-enriching floodwaters – Alternating east–west bands of mountain ranges and river valleys – Most average 3,000–5,000 feet • Insular – Island and sea environment – Most population clusters located along coastal plains – Traditional economic activity focuses on agriculture, fishing, and maritime trade. – Sweeping volcanic arcs that have pushed to the edges of the Indian and Pacific plates – Many volcanic peaks reach 10,000 feet. – At the edge of volcanic arcs are deep oceanic trenches marking tectonic plate boundaries.
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate • Monsoon climate • Mainland – Wet season: May–October – Dry season: November–April • Insular – Much more complex monsoon season – More copious rain during season
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental Challenges • Deforestation • Coastal environments • Urban air pollution
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Religions
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Colonialism • Two time periods 1.1500 to 1800—Mercantile colonialism 2.1800 to 1945—Industrial colonialism • Creation of core-periphery exchange • Chinese middlemen
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Precolonial states of Southeast Asia
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Pre-European Empires • Economic, political, and cultural cores are the result of reemergence of Hinduism and Buddhism. • Monumental ruins at Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat stand as testimony to agricultural productivity and trade capabilities of this pre-European economy. • Srivijaya—A thalassocracy
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Modern Growth • Two urgent needs 1. Diversify economic production. 2. Reduce dependence on exports of raw materials.
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Economics
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Economics: Modernizers vs. Reformers • Modernizers – Members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) – Established 1967 – Manufacturing as engine of economic growth – Foreign Direct Investment from the West • Reformers – Countries in 1970s and 1980s – Previously socialist governments – Resistant to globalization – Laos – Cambodia – Vietnam – Myanmar – Joined ASEAN in 1990s • ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)—1992
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Urban vs. Rural Transformations • Megacity regions – Jakarta – Manila – Bangkok – Known as Extended Metropolitan Regions (EMRs)—Core inner and outer zones comprising the larger urban area • Fueled by FDI • But is the outer zone truly “urban”?
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Disputed Claims
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tourism • In 2011, the travel and tourism industry contributed 10.9 percent or $237.4 billion to regional GDP and directly or indirectly accounted for 8.7 percent of total employment. • Countries attracting the greatest regional share of international tourists from 2000 to 2011 were Malaysia (34.0%), Thailand (24.1%), and Singapore (13.7%). • It is the diverse mix of touristic activities that makes Southeast Asia an attractive traveler destination. Sun and surf tourism is especially important in Thailand (Phuket), the Philippines (Cebu),and along the coast of Vietnam. Cultural heritage tourism, with destinations including both precolonial and colonial landscapes, is attractive in a number of countries.
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tourism
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Singapore
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Singapore • Thoroughly globalized economy • Regional center of banking, transport, and service industry • Distinctive state • 4.6 million population • A city-state • Smallest and most urbanized of all SE Asian countries • Only developed nation in SE Asia where ethnic Chinese constitute the majority of the population • Regional and global shipping hub • Global maritime center • Producer services
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Singapore Economy • Economy – Diversified – Regional headquarters for many international firms – State-planned industrial parks have attracted FDI. – Part of the global growth triangle • Government – Pervasive role of government critical to economy and society – Soft-authoritarian government
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Malaysia and Indonesia
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Malaysia • Middle-income industrialized country • Economy based on a wide variety of electronics exports • Spatially fragmented country – West Malaysia—More densely populated – East Malaysia—Sparsely populated state of Sarawak and Sabah
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Malaysian Economy • Since 1970s has emerged from a developing state • New Economic Policy (NEP) – Increase economic contributions of ethnic Malays – This would be done at the expense of Chinese and Western economic interests. – Increase government funding of roads and other infrastructural improvements to expand commercial cultivation of rubber, oil palm, and coffee by native smallholder farmers in frontier areas • Movement toward postindustrial economy with Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC)
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Indonesia • Tied to resource exports • Developing countries with problems of economically integrating their respective far-flung archipelagos • Archipelagic state is largest in SE Asia • Most populous country in SE Asia • Enlarged considerably when newly independent state annexed the western half of New Guinea in 1963 – Forge national unity from a diverse array of ethnic groups – Religious freedom respected, even though it is the most populous Islamic country in the world. • Population – 231 million population – Growth and distribution major issues
  29. 29. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Indonesian Initiatives • Poverty eradication through widespread adoption of hybrid rice seed and fertilizers • Most of the economy is state-owned enterprises. • Jakarta – National capital region (primate city) – Has attracted some export-oriented manufacturing operations • Electronic parts • Footwear • Household appliances
  30. 30. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Asian Financial Crisis of late 1990s • Meltdown of Indonesian economy • Forced resignation of Suharto in 1998 • Regional tensions associated with economic disparities between core and periphery
  31. 31. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. December 26, 2004 Tsunami • Tsunami—Seismic sea waves triggered by energy released from deep earthquakes, massive landslides, or volcanic eruptions • Banda Aceh, Indonesia—Focal point • 300,000 deaths in thirteen countries – Indonesia—243,530 – India—18,389
  32. 32. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Phillipines
  33. 33. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Phillipines • 7,000 islands • Early colonization by Spain • Ceded to United States in 1898 after Spanish–American War • American culture domination has retarded development of a national culture. • 1946—Independence
  34. 34. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
  35. 35. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Thailand • Newly industrialized country • FDI in a wide variety of industries, notably in automobiles • Never a Western possession • Renamed from Siam in 1939 • Ruled by successive military governments with constitutional monarchy • Monarchy carries moral force.
  36. 36. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Thailand Economy • Until late 1970s, economy was primarily agriculture. • Some benefit from association with West as part of Vietnam War • Has become center of SE Asia auto industry • Economic growth has been restricted to capital city region and EMR of Bangkok. • Clustering has had several environmental consequences
  37. 37. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Vietnam • Major target of FDI • Introduction of market-based economies in 1980s • Conquered by Viets from China second century BC • Next 2,000 dominated culturally and politically by China • Captured by France in mid-to-late nineteenth century • 1940s—Nationalist opposition forms under leadership of Communist guerilla, Ho Chi Minh. • Vietnam War (1958–1975) – North • Traditional core of Vietnamese culture • Incubation for communism • Allied with U.S.S.R. – South • Was capitalist • French and U.S. influences • 1975—Unification of North and South
  38. 38. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Vietnam Economy • Positive developments – FDI has been vehicle for economic turnaround. – Primarily East Asian – Specifically has targeted garments and footwear for export • Negative developments – Increased sex workers – Spread of HIV/AIDS
  39. 39. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Cambodia • Slow economic rebound after Marxist- inspired and horrifically murderous regime • Heavily reliant on foreign aid • Even more troubled than Vietnam • Part of Vietnam War spilled over into the East. • Khmer Rouge—Genocide in the “killing fields”
  40. 40. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Myanmar • Resource-rich • One of the last isolationist military governments in the world • Led by authoritarian government • Indigenous brand of socialism • Well-endowed resource base – Timber – Rice – Gems – Gold – Tin – Petroleum • A reformer country that has resisted globalization
  41. 41. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • The many countries that comprise Southeast Asia and the experience of being colonized by so many Western powers make the region very different from South Asia and East Asia. • In the immediate post-World War II period some countries chose to open their economies to globalization and as modernizers experienced rapid rates of economic growth with varying degrees of government management. Others decided to remain economically isolated based on socialist economic principles. • Whether modernizer or reformer, the region’s physical environment has suffered as a result of rapid economic growth. • In Insular Southeast Asia, Singapore is the only rich and developed country. • In Mainland Southeast Asia, only Thailand has fully embraced globalization and as a result is an upper middle-income country.

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