© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 10 Lecture
World Regional
Geography
A Developmental Approach
11th Edition
East Asia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter Learning Outcomes
• Compare and contrast the physical environments of countries in ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Map
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Political Units of East Asia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Size of East Asia compared to United States
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Environmental Challenges
• Environmental quality has suffered.
– Large population density
–...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Population
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China
• Third largest country in the world
• Similarities to United States
– Similar east–w...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China
• Not as much maritime air masses to bring rain to West as in
United States
• East mo...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China
• Yunnan Plateau
– Elevations 5,000–9,000 feet
– Dissected upland
• Northeast Plain
–...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Population
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Spatial Evolution of Chinese Political
Territory
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chinese History
• Shang (1766–1122 BC)—First Chinese dynasty
• Zhou (1027–256 BC)
– Replace...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chinese History
• Song, or Sung (AD 960–1279)
– Distinctive period for economic development...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
East Meets West
• Eighteenth century brings meeting of East and West.
• Arrival of Western ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
New China
• Boxer Rebellion (1900)
– First expression of nationalism
– Opposition to foreig...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Agriculture
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Agriculture
• Even in 1990s, still predominantly an agricultural
country.
• Yet 7 p...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Post-Mao Agricultural Reform
• Household responsibility system (1978)
• Production contract...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Economic Growth of China
• Policy to promote regional self-sufficiency through spatially
eq...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Industry
• Early development in heavy industry
– Iron and steel
– Chemicals
– Elect...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Economy
• Northeast has fared the worst.
• Bohai Sea Rim
– Includes Beijing and Tia...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mineral Resources of China
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Inequalities in the System
• Factors
– FDI
– Private domestic investment
– TVE econ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Inequalities in the System
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Urbanization and Migration
• Communist restriction on movement to urban centers
– R...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Urban Growth
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Special Economic Zones
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China / Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) &
Special Economic Zones (SEZ)
• Open door policy
–...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
China and Hong Kong
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Beijing and Shanghai
• Two largest cities
• Both megacities with over 10 million population...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mongolia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mongolia
• Physically isolated and landlocked
• Three times the size of California
• Histor...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Two Koreas
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Two Koreas
• Politically divided
• North Korea
– Insulated/insular society and economy
...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Taiwan
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Taiwan
• Chinese Nationalists fled to island in 1949
after communists took over mainland.
•...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan
• Land of contrasts (contradictions between
history and modernity)
• Nature versus cl...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
History of Japan
• Jomon culture—Earliest known culture
• Yayoi culture
– Replaced Jomon so...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan and Foreign Influence
• 1543—Portuguese were first Europeans to arrive.
– Spanish, Du...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
History of Japan / First Transformation
• Zaibatsu
– Large industrial and financial cliques...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
History of Japan / Second Transformation
• Economic development in the wake of defeat in Wo...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Modern Japan
• Government guidance, not control
• Competent bureaucracy
• Proper sequencing...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan / Landforms
• Occupies a small, but geologically active, portion
of the Pacific Ring ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan / Urban-Industrial Regions
• Levels of urbanization increased post-WWII
• Tokaido Meg...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tokyo
• Imperial capital
• Seat of Japanese government
• Center of media and advertising
• ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Resources of Japan
• Severely lacking resources
• Must import everything needed for energy
...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan / Environmental Challenges
• Location and insularity
– NE corner of Asian region
– Li...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan / Environmental Challenges
• Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant
– In the late afternoon of...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan / Economic Challenges
• Urban challenges
– Increasing urban populations
– Infrastruct...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Japan / Population Challenges
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Summary of Chapter
• While the countries of East Asia are characterized by export-led
econo...
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GEOG103 Chapter 10 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 10 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition East Asia
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Compare and contrast the physical environments of countries in the region. • Understand the sources and causes of China’s environmental degradation. • Know how China’s agricultural economy has been transformed since the late 1970s reforms. • Recognize how the late 1970s reforms have developed China’s industrial economy. • Describe the different economic characteristics of China’s three primary and globalized urban-economic regions. • Explore how China’s rural and urban population contours have changed as a result of the late 1970s reforms. • Explain the success of both South Korea’s and Taiwan’s economic development strategies. • Identify the reasons for Japan’s past economic successes and for its current economic decline. • Outline the reasons for and impacts China and Japan’s population decline.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Political Units of East Asia
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Size of East Asia compared to United States
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental Challenges • Environmental quality has suffered. – Large population density – Rapid economic growth • Clean freshwater is perhaps the biggest challenge facing the region. • Air pollution is the other major environmental problem.
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China • Third largest country in the world • Similarities to United States – Similar east–west longitudinal pattern as forty- eight U.S. states – Spatial distribution of landforms and climates • Low plains and mountains in East • Higher mountains in West
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China • Not as much maritime air masses to bring rain to West as in United States • East more densely populated • Loess plateau—Most specialized region – Elevated tableland 4,000–5,000 feet above sea level – Between Ordos Desert and North China Plain • North China Plain—Extensive riverine surface built up from silt deposits • Sichuan Basin – One of the largest interior basins in China – Densely inhabited by an agricultural population – Cool, humid winters – Warm, humid summers • Three Gorges—Chang Jiang (“long river”) – Dam construction – Harness hydroelectric power
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China • Yunnan Plateau – Elevations 5,000–9,000 feet – Dissected upland • Northeast Plain – Extensive rolling hill surface – Grain farming region • Two environmental zones 1. Tibetan Plateau—25 percent of China’s territory • Largest, most elevated plateau in the world • “Rooftop of the world” • Averages 13,200 feet 2. Tarim Basin—Internal drainage • Population distribution highly uneven • Reflects climatic patterns • Spatial variation in distribution of cultural minority groups
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Population
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Spatial Evolution of Chinese Political Territory
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chinese History • Shang (1766–1122 BC)—First Chinese dynasty • Zhou (1027–256 BC) – Replaced Shang – Infused tradition of Confucianism as opposed to legalism • Warring States Period (403–221 BC) • Qin (221–207 BC) – China became single state and culture – Imposed uniformity • Han (206 BC–220 AD) – Organizers of first true-scale East Asian empire – Dominated territory equivalent to present-day China – Concentration on the North – Construction of Grand Canal
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chinese History • Song, or Sung (AD 960–1279) – Distinctive period for economic development – Expanded use of early ripening rice varieties – Irrigation improvements – Better marketing and distribution systems – Lessons • Chinese are not static; internal forces typically force change. • Evidence is that Europe has not always been technologically superior.
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. East Meets West • Eighteenth century brings meeting of East and West. • Arrival of Western traders signaled start of demise of world’s oldest culture. • Opium trade by British sparks a confrontation. • First Opium War—Humiliating Chinese defeat – Five coastal ports forced to be open to Western interests – These enclaves essentially became foreign-owned territories. • Westernizing influences – China as a market for manufactured goods – Railroads – Western medicine and banking – Victorian morality
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. New China • Boxer Rebellion (1900) – First expression of nationalism – Opposition to foreigners and Chinese doing business with foreigners • Nationalist movements in wake of collapse of Qing government in 1911 – Establishment of the Nationalist Party – Sun Yat-sen – Chiang Kai-shek replaces Sun in 1925. • Chinese Communist Party (CCP) established in 1921. – Mao Ze-dong emerged as leader in 1935. – Support from U.S.S.R. – Urban-based party • Civil war between Nationalists and CCP • 1949—Nationalists flee to Taiwan; Communists take over.
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Agriculture
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Agriculture • Even in 1990s, still predominantly an agricultural country. • Yet 7 percent of world’s most arable land and only half considered of good quality • Three primary agricultural regions • Widespread use of agricultural intensification • Supplementary crops • Cultivated for commercial purposes – Vegetables – Soybeans – Fruit orchards
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Post-Mao Agricultural Reform • Household responsibility system (1978) • Production contract • “Responsibility land” granted to peasant. • Household is obliged to produce a specific amount of grain or cotton sold to state at regulated price. • Once contract fulfilled, free to produce cash crops. • Peasants empowered • By 1991, production increased dramatically. – Greater use of fertilizers – Green Revolution hybrid varieties • Still some serious drawbacks • Underproduction of grains and cotton – Government prices favored vegetables and fruits. – Free markets increased. – Food consumption of more affluent created additional demands.
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Economic Growth of China • Policy to promote regional self-sufficiency through spatially equitable distribution of manufacturing • Reasonably successful • Global economy made China a richer nation. – Brought inequities – Some regions benefited greater than others. • Mineral resource endowment and distribution – Full complement of mineral resources for industrial goals • World’s largest coal producer • Second largest consumer of oil • Must import vast quantities • Third in global production of iron ore • First in tin • Third in lead and zinc
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Industry • Early development in heavy industry – Iron and steel – Chemicals – Electricity generation – Textiles • All state-owned enterprises (SOEs) • Due to military relations, new industrial development needed interior location in order to avoid external attack • Late 1970s—Dramatic change in industrial policy • Increases levels of financial aid decision-making decentralization • Transition from rigid central planning to free-market principles • Rapid growth of town and village enterprises (TVEs)
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Economy • Northeast has fared the worst. • Bohai Sea Rim – Includes Beijing and Tianjin – Accounts for 14 percent of national population – 19 percent of national GDP • Southeast—Most changed region • Chang Jiang River area—Dominant economic region in East • Shanghai since the early 1990s – Government decision as a counterweight to Guangdong – Foreign investment – Other cities have prospered in its shadow. • Suzhou • Wuxi • Ningbo
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mineral Resources of China
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Inequalities in the System • Factors – FDI – Private domestic investment – TVE economic impact • Winners – Coastal towns • Foreign manufacturing facilities are located • Far outstripped other areas – Domestically owned modern industries favored by government investment – Specialty crop farmers cater to affluent urban markets. • Core-periphery relationship between interior and coastal provinces is emerging.
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Inequalities in the System
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Urbanization and Migration • Communist restriction on movement to urban centers – Reduced unplanned growth – Enabled avoidance of squatter settlement development • Urban places viewed with contempt and distrust. – Breeding grounds for more educated and commercially oriented capitalist urban classes – Antiurban bias exhibited in Cultural Revolution • Loosening of population movement restrictions brought migration to cities (floating population). • Urban housing – Private ownership very small – Some movement away from state-run, toward market principles
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Urban Growth
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Special Economic Zones
  29. 29. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China / Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) & Special Economic Zones (SEZ) • Open door policy – Recognized benefits of FDI – Win–win • 1979—SEZs – Originally centered in Eastern seaboard cities • Zhuhai • Shenzhen • Shantou • Xiamen • Hainan Island (1988) • In many ways, like modern-day treaty ports
  30. 30. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. China and Hong Kong
  31. 31. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Beijing and Shanghai • Two largest cities • Both megacities with over 10 million population • Beijing – Dates back to thirteenth century – Traditionally typified conservative orderly and inward nature of Chinese culture – Forbidden City – Tiananmen Square – Political center of Middle Kingdom – Some light and heavy industry • Shanghai – Represents outward/commercial nature of Chinese – Characteristic of a southern Chinese village – Roots as a fishing village – Leading industrial center • Chemical • Textile • Metal – Food processing – Pudong—Financial district
  32. 32. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mongolia
  33. 33. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mongolia • Physically isolated and landlocked • Three times the size of California • Historically known as home of pastoral nomadic empires such as those controlled by Genghis Khan and Kablal Kahn • Stagnate economy until the 2000s where mineral resources have been opened for development
  34. 34. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Two Koreas
  35. 35. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Two Koreas • Politically divided • North Korea – Insulated/insular society and economy – Communist system • South Korea – Economic development through foreign relations – Democratic system
  36. 36. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Taiwan
  37. 37. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Taiwan • Chinese Nationalists fled to island in 1949 after communists took over mainland. • People’s Republic of China (PRC) still considers Taiwan a “province.” • Not recognized around the world as a separate country • Noises of independence declaration
  38. 38. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan • Land of contrasts (contradictions between history and modernity) • Nature versus cluttered environment • Traditional dress contrasting with urbanity • Economic contrasts
  39. 39. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan
  40. 40. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. History of Japan • Jomon culture—Earliest known culture • Yayoi culture – Replaced Jomon some 2,300 years ago – Introduced religion that eventually developed into Shintoism • Yamato period – 1,700 years ago – Introduced great transformation of Japanese culture and politics • Nara and Heian periods – 700 to 1100s – Chinese influences began to mature. • Bakafu—“behind the scenes” rulers between 1100s and 1800s • Tokugawa Period – Shogunate (military dictatorship) – Highly centralized administrative structure – Elevated levels of economic development – Urbanization and interaction with settlements increased
  41. 41. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan and Foreign Influence • 1543—Portuguese were first Europeans to arrive. – Spanish, Dutch, and English followed over the next year. – Impressed with Japanese technological and cultural achievements – Japanese attracted to guns, tobacco, and Chinese luxuries. • 1600s – Increasing suspicions of Westerners and Western religion – 1640—Spanish and Portuguese expelled. – Dutch, English, and Chinese confined to areas around the port of Nagasaki. • 1853—Isolation ends with arrival of American Commodore Perry in Tokyo.
  42. 42. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. History of Japan / First Transformation • Zaibatsu – Large industrial and financial cliques that provided an effective means of marshalling private capital for investment – Fueled Meiji Restoration economic transformation • Military victories at end of nineteenth century – Victory over China (1895) – Victory over Russia (1905) • Experiences with colonization through mid-1940s – Taiwan (1895) and Korea (1911) – SE Asia and parts of Pacific – Short-lived and brutal
  43. 43. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. History of Japan / Second Transformation • Economic development in the wake of defeat in World War II – Amounted to a sped-up repeat of the Rostow model – Allies’ imposition of political structure – American investment • Aspects of Japan Model reemerged – Keiretsu – Breakup of zaibatsu reconstituted – Played a major role in post-WWII growth • Bureaucratic capitalism – Influence of governmental ministries – Especially Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) • Tiered economic structure • By 1980s, became largest single source of FDI. • Population stabilization
  44. 44. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Modern Japan • Government guidance, not control • Competent bureaucracy • Proper sequencing of the development process • Focus on comparative advantage and regional specialization • Wise investment of surplus capital • Development of infrastructure • Emphasis on education • Upgrading of labor force • Population planning • Powerful force in twentieth century as other Asian states attempted to do the same thing • Twentieth century adaptations to unique state conditions; it might better be termed the “East Asian Model.”
  45. 45. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan / Landforms • Occupies a small, but geologically active, portion of the Pacific Ring of Fire • Mountains are rugged with steep slopes, but not by world standards. – Most peaks are below 6,000 feet. – Ten are higher than 9,000 feet. • Fifty-four volcanoes • Rest of area are flat surfaces found either as terraces at the downside slope of mountains or along relatively narrow coastal plains. • Tokyo occupies the Kanto Plain.
  46. 46. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan / Urban-Industrial Regions • Levels of urbanization increased post-WWII • Tokaido Megalopolis – Largest concentration of urban-industrial activity – Island of Honshu – Tokyo–Yokohama (Keihin) – Nagoya (Chukyo) – Osaka–Kobe–Kyoto (Hanshin) • Industrialization provided major stimulus for urbanization.
  47. 47. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tokyo • Imperial capital • Seat of Japanese government • Center of media and advertising • Country’s dominant financial and corporate center • Home to greatest number of universities • Home of Tsukuba Science City, the first and largest of Japan’s many planned research nodes or “tecnhopoles” • Asian Pacific Rim economic hub • One of three command centers of global finance (along with New York and London) • A growing megacity (8.6 million)
  48. 48. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Resources of Japan • Severely lacking resources • Must import everything needed for energy production and industrial development (except hydropower) • Only 17.5 percent self-sufficient in 2005
  49. 49. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan / Environmental Challenges • Location and insularity – NE corner of Asian region – Little smaller than California – Island country off a large continental mainland (often compared to Great Britain in this vein) – Archipelagic country—Main body is composed of four large islands. • Climate – Varied due to long size, mountains, and surrounded by water – Monsoon climate a little different from the rest of East Asia due to more northern location and maritime environment
  50. 50. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan / Environmental Challenges • Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant – In the late afternoon of March 11, 2011, Japan experienced the world’s worst nuclear disaster since the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. – An earthquake registering 9.0 on the Richter scale occurred 43 miles (69 kilometers) off the coast of northeastern Honshu. – This was the most powerful earthquake experienced in Japan and the fifth most powerful in the world since 1900. – Tsunami waves generated by the earthquake flooded three reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex
  51. 51. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan / Economic Challenges • Urban challenges – Increasing urban populations – Infrastructure challenges – Housing • Pollution of the environment – Intensified environmental pollution – In 1970s, created their own Environment Agency (similar to Environmental Protection Agency) in reaction to protests about increasing environmental challenges. • Regional imbalances – Economic development has favored the Pacific side. – Tokyo served as a primate city.
  52. 52. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Japan / Population Challenges
  53. 53. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • While the countries of East Asia are characterized by export-led economies that are in some form government-administered, each has experienced very different development trajectories. • China has grown into the world’s second largest economy. China assumed the rank of a global economic power as a result of its late 1970s reform policies that reduced the commanding role of the state in economic growth. • Although the globalization of China’s economy has brought many material benefits, lingering problems call into question the durability of this economic success. • China’s neighbors have experienced different economic growth trajectories. • Japan was the first non-Western country to industrialize based on its own distinctive model of modernization and development.
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