China: Environmental Diversity Third largest country in the world Similarities to US Similar east–west longitudinal pattern as forty-eight US states Spatial distribution of landforms and climates Low plains and mountains in East Higher mountains in West Not as much maritime air masses to bring rain to West as in US
China: Environmental Regions East more densely populated Loess plateau–Most specialized region Elevated tableland 4,000–5,000 feet above sea level Between Ordos Desert and North China Plain North China Plain–Extensive riverine surface built up from silt deposits Sichuan Basin One of the largest interior basins in China Densely inhabited by an agricultural population Cool, humid winters Warm, humid summers Three Gorges–Chang Jiang (“long river”) Dam construction Harness hydroelectric power
Environmental Regions and Zones Yunnan Plateau Elevations 5,000–9,000 feet Dissected upland Northeast Plain Extensive rolling hill surface Grain farming region Two environmental zones Tibetan Plateau–25% of China’s territory Largest, most elevated plateau in the world “ Rooftop of the world” Averages 13,200 feet Tarim Basin–Internal drainage
Physiography of China & Its Pacific Rim Neighbors
Spatial Evolution of Chinese Culture Often referred to as world’s oldest surviving culture Thought of themselves as inhabitants of Middle Kingdom (Zhongguo)
Chinese Dynasties Shang (1766–1122 BC)–First Chinese dynasty Zhou (1027–256 BC) Replaced Shang Infused tradition of Confucianism as opposed to legalism Warring States Period (403–221 BC) Qin (221–207 BC) China became single state and culture Imposed uniformity Han (206 BC–220 AD) Organizers of first true-scale East Asian empire Dominated territory equivalent to present-day China Concentration on the North Construction of Grand Canal
Chinese Dynasties (Continued) Song, or Sung (AD 960–1279) Distinctive period for economic development Expanded use of early ripening rice varieties Irrigation improvements Better marketing and distribution systems Lessons Chinese are not static; internal forces typically force change. Evidence is that Europe has not always been technologically superior.
East Meets West 18 th century brings meeting of East and West. Arrival of Western traders signaled start of demise of world’s oldest culture. Opium trade by British sparks a confrontation. First Opium War–Humiliating Chinese defeat Five coastal ports forced to be open to Western interests These enclaves essentially became foreign-owned territories. Westernizing influences China as a market for manufactured goods Railroads Western medicine and banking Victorian morality
Treaty Ports of Central and Riverine China
Nationalism and a New China Boxer Rebellion (1900) First expression of nationalism Opposition to foreigners and Chinese doing business with foreigners Nationalist movements in wake of collapse of Qing government in 1911 Establishment of the Nationalist Party Sun Yat-sen Chiang Kai-shek replaces Sun in 1925. Chinese Communist Party (CCP) established in 1921. Mao Ze-dong emerged as leader in 1935. Support from USSR Urban-based party Civil war between Nationalists and CCP 1949–Nationalists flee to Taiwan; Communists take over.
Transformation Under Communism CCP needed to rebuild an economy and a society. Socialism as its primary development philosophy Monopolization of political power State control of social development Ruthless suppression of dissent Cultural Revolution (1966–1969) Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in 1980s bring aspects of capitalism. Promoted by Deng Xiaoping Focused on the South and the East
Transformation of Agri-Production Even in 1990s, still predominantly an agricultural country. Yet 7% of world’s most arable land and only half considered of good quality Three primary agricultural Regions Widespread use of agricultural intensification Supplementary crops Cultivated for commercial purposes Vegetables Soybeans Fruit orchards
Agricultural Regions of China
Agriculture During Prereform Years Radical reconstruction of agriculture 1950s–Land ownership abolished. Collectives and People’s Communes created. State mandates for crops to be grown and distribution to state agencies “Take grain as the key link” Great Leap Forward (1958–1961) Government inability to effectively control production and distribution Spirit of communalization greatest Severe environmental degradation
Post-Mao Agricultural Reform Household responsibility system (1978) Production contract “ Responsibility land” granted to peasant. Household is obliged to produce a specific amount of grain or cotton sold to state at regulated price. Once contract fulfilled, free to produce cash crops. Peasants empowered By 1991, production increased dramatically. Greater use of fertilizers Green Revolution hybrid varieties Still some serious drawbacks Underproduction of grains and cotton Government prices favored vegetables and fruits. Free markets increased. Food consumption of more affluent created additional demands.
Output of Selected Chinese Agricultural Products – 1981, 1991, and 2006
Industry & Regional Economic Growth Policy to promote regional self-sufficiency through spatially equitable distribution of manufacturing Reasonably successful Global economy made China a richer nation. Brought inequities Some regions benefited greater than others. Mineral resource endowment and distribution Full compliment of mineral resources for industrial goals World’s largest coal producer Second largest consumer of oil Must import vast quantities Third in global production of iron ore First in tin Third in lead and zinc
Major Mineral Resources of China
The Modernization of Industry Early development in heavy industry Iron and steel Chemicals Electricity generation Textiles All state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Due to military relations, new industrial development needed interior location in order to avoid external attack
Industrial Reform & Rapid Growth Late 1970s–Dramatic change in industrial policy Increases levels of financial aid decision-making decentralization Transition from rigid central planning to free-market principles Rapid growth of town and village enterprises (TVEs)
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) & SEZs Open door policy Recognized benefits of FDI Win–win 1979–SEZs Originally centered in Eastern seaboard cities Zhuhai Shenzhen Shantou Xiamen Hainan Island (1988) In many ways, like modern-day treaty ports
Growing Spatial Inequalities Factors FDI Private domestic investment TVE economic impact Winners Coastal towns Foreign manufacturing facilities are located Far outstripped other areas Domestically owned modern industries favored by government investment Specialty crop farmers cater to affluent urban markets. Core-periphery relationship between interior and coastal provinces is emerging.
Provincial per Capita Gross Domestic Product
Regional Influence of Economic Changes Northeast has fared the worst. Bohai Sea Rim Includes Beijing and Tianjin Accounts for 14% of national population 19% of national GDP Southeast–Most changed region Chang Jiang River area–Dominant economic region in East Shanghai since the early 1990s Government decision as a counterweight to Guangdong Foreign investment Other cities have prospered in its shadow Suzhou Wuxi Ningbo
Gender Impacts of Economic Reforms Traditionally, a male-dominated society Great Leap Forward Women elevated to equal status as men. Needed for heavy manual labor Cultural Revolution Dress like men Unisex/androgynous Feminization of agriculture Rural to urban migration is predominantly male. Typical female occupations in manufacturing
Urbanization and Migration Communist restriction on movement to urban centers Reduced unplanned growth Enabled avoidance of squatter settlement development Urban places viewed with contempt and distrust. Breeding grounds for more educated and commercially oriented capitalist urban classes Antiurban bias exhibited in Cultural Revolution.
Urbanization and Migration (Continued) Loosening of population movement restrictions brought migration to cities (floating population). Urban housing Private ownership very small Some movement away from state-run; toward market principles
Beijing and Shanghai Two largest cities Both megacities with over 10 million population Beijing Dates back to 13 th century Traditionally typified conservative orderly and inward nature of Chinese culture Forbidden City Tiananmen Square Political center of Middle Kingdom Some light and heavy industry
Shanghai Represents outward/commercial nature of Chinese Characteristic of a southern Chinese village Roots as a fishing village Leading industrial center Chemical Textile Metal Food-processing Pudong—Financial district
Population Contours Population distribution highly uneven Reflects climatic patterns Spatial variation in distribution of cultural minority groups
Population Distribution of East Asia
Chinese Population Growth & Fertility Trends
Environmental Sustainability Environmental quality has suffered. Large population density Rapid economic growth Clean freshwater is perhaps the biggest challenge facing China. Air pollution is the other major environmental problem.
The Two Koreas North Korea and South Korea Now politically divided North Korea Insulated/insular society and economy Communist system South Korea Economic development through foreign relations Democratic system
Taiwan Chinese Nationalists fled to island in 1949 after communists took over mainland. People’s Republic of China (PRC) still considers Taiwan a “province”. Not recognized around the world as a separate country Noises of independence declaration
Japan: Tradition and Modernity Land of contrasts (contradictions between history and modernity) Nature versus cluttered environment Traditional dress contrasting with urbanity Economic contrasts
A Challenging Physical Environment Location and insularity NE corner of Asian region Little smaller than California Island country off of a large continental mainland (often compared to Great Britain in this vein) Archipelagic country—Main body is comprised of four large islands. Climate Varied due to long size, mountains, and surrounded by water Monsoon climate a little different from the rest of East Asia due to more northern location and maritime environment
Landforms Occupies a small, but geologically active, portion of the Pacific Ring of Fire Mountains are rugged with steep slopes, but not by world standards. Most peaks are below 6,000 feet. Ten are higher than 9,000 feet. Fifty-four volcanoes Rest of area are flat surfaces found either as terraces at the downside slope of mountains or along relatively narrow coastal plains. Tokyo occupies the Kanto Plain.
Mineral Resources Severely lacking Must import everything needed for energy production and industrial development (except hydropower) Only 17.5% self-sufficient in 2005
The Cultural & Historical Past Jomon culture—Earliest known culture Yayoi culture Replaced Jomon some 2,300 years ago Introduced religion that eventually developed into Shintoism Yamato period 1,700 years ago Introduced great transformation of Japanese culture and politics Nara and Heian periods 700 to 1100s Chinese influences began to mature. Bakafu—“behind the scenes” rulers between 1100s and 1800s
Tokugawa Period Shogunate (military dictatorship) Highly centralized administrative structure Elevated levels of economic development Urbanization and interaction with settlements increased
Increased Foreign Contact 1543—Portuguese were first Europeans to arrive. Spanish, Dutch, and English followed over the next year. Impressed with Japanese technological and cultural achievements Japanese attracted to guns, tobacco, and Chinese luxuries. 1600s Increasing suspicions of Westerners and Western religion 1640—Spanish and Portuguese expelled. Dutch, English, and Chinese confined to areas around the port of Nagasaki. 1853—Isolation ends with arrival of American Commodore Perry in Tokyo.
Modernization and the Japan Model Meiji Restoration (1868) Powerful daimyo who, as an oligarchy, restored the emperor Borrowed heavily from the West, adopting what the government perceived each country did best Constitutional government Division of country into prefectures with a governor chosen from the daimyo Samarai class disbanded—Many funneled into government due to high levels of education Feudal obligations ended. Market economy was introduced.
Historical Steamship Service to Meiji
Japan Model: Unique Adaptation of Western Methods to Indigenous Japanese Culture and Values Aspects Government guidance, not control Competent bureaucracy Proper sequencing of the development process Focus on comparative advantage and regional specialization Wise investment of surplus capital Development of infrastructure Emphasis on education Upgrading of labor force Population planning Powerful force in 20 th century as other Asian states attempted to do the same thing 20 th century adaptations to unique state conditions; it might better be termed the “East Asian Model”.
Japan’s First Transformation: Rise to Power Zaibatsu Large industrial and financial cliques that provided an effective means of marshalling private capital for investment Fueled Meiji Restoration economic transformation Military victories at end of 19 th century Victory over China (1895) Victory over Russia (1905) Experiences with colonization through mid-1940s Taiwan (1895) and Korea (1911) SE Asia and parts of Pacific Short-lived and brutal
Japan’s Second Transformation: The Quest to Be Number One Economic development in the wake of defeat in World War II Amounted to a sped-up repeat of the Rostow model Allies’ imposition of political structure American investment Aspects of Japan Model reemerged Keiretsu Breakup of zaibatsu reconstituted Played a major role in post WWII growth Bureaucratic capitalism Influence of governmental ministries Especially Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) Tiered economic structure By 1980s, became largest single source of FDI. Population stabilization
Japan’s Changing Population Structure
Urban-Industrial Regions Levels of urbanization increased post-WWII Tokaido Megalopolis Largest concentration of urban-industrial activity Island of Honshu Tokyo–Yokohama (Keihin) Nagoya (Chukyo) Osaka–Kobe–Kyoto (Hanshin) Industrialization provided major stimulus for urbanization.
Tokyo Imperial capital Seat of Japanese government Center of media and advertising Country’s dominant financial and corporate center Home to greatest number of universities Home of Tsukuba Science City, the first and largest of Japan’s many planned research nodes or “tecnhopoles” Asian Pacific Rim economic hub One of three command centers of global finance (along with New York and London) A growing megacity (8.6 million)
Japan’s Tokaido Megalopolis
Yokohama More traditional industrial region Primary historic and present shipping port for the larger region
Hanshin, or Kansai, Region 18.6 million Centered on Osaka (8.8 million in the prefecture) Second largest urban-industrial region More traditional industry and commerce Heavy industry dominates
Chukyo Region Centered on Nagoya Third largest urban-industrial region Notable as the home to Toyota Motor Corporation
The Tokyo Urban Region The Shinjuku District in Tokyo
Consequences of the Japan Model Urban challenges Increasing urban populations Infrastructure challenges Housing Pollution of the environment Intensified environmental pollution In 1970s, created their own Environment Agency (similar to Environmental Protection Agency) in reaction to protests about increasing environmental challenges. Regional imbalances Economic development has favored the Pacific side. Tokyo served as a primate city.
Consequences of the Japan Model Rural challenges Farming slow to change Most protected sector of the economy Connected to Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) control of the political system Shrinking population and immigration Dramatically changed social and demographic patterns Has entered stage four of the demographic transformation model 127.5 million population (2007) 1.3 total fertility rate 21% older than 65—The second highest proportion in the world Adoption of a more liberalized, open immigration system to support its labor needs
Japan’s Third Transformation: Charting a New Course Deindustrialization Decreasing importance of domestic industry Sunset industries—Those losing their international competitiveness Structural deficiencies—Are government and economy still stuck in “preglobalization” model?