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GEOG101 Chapt06 lecture

GEOG101 Chapt06 lecture






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    GEOG101 Chapt06 lecture GEOG101 Chapt06 lecture Presentation Transcript

    • Overview
      • Population Growth
      • Population Definitions
      • The Demographic Transition
      • The Demographic Equation
      • World Population Distribution
      • Population Density
      • Population Data and Projections
      • Population Controls
      • Population Prospects
    • Population Geography vs. Demography
      • Population geography
        • Focuses on the number, composition, and distribution of humans in relation to variations in the conditions of earth space
        • Spatial analysis
      • Demography
        • The statistical study of human population
    • Population Growth
      • World population is about 6.7 billion
      • Annual increase of 74-75 million
        • Annual increases have been declining
      • 2006 UN projections
        • 9.2 billion in 2050
        • 9.4-9.5 billion by 2100
      • Future growth will occur in developing countries
    • Population Definitions
      • Population measures are made more meaningful by rates and cohort measures
        • Rates
          • Frequency of occurrence during a specified time period
        • Cohort
          • Population group unified by a common characteristic, such as age
    • Birth Rates
      • Annual number of live births per 1000 population
      • Influenced by age and sex structure, customs and family size expectations, population policies
        • High birth rates ( ≥ 30)
          • Characteristic of agricultural, rural countries in which a high proportion of the female population is young
        • Low birth rates ( < 18)
          • Characteristic of industrialized, urbanized countries
        • Transitional birth rates (18-30)
          • Some developing and newly industrializing countries
      • Subject to change
    • Total Fertility Rates
      • Average number of children born to each woman
      • Replacement level fertility: 2.1-2.3
      • Worldwide TFR in 2007: 2.7
        • More-developed countries: 1.6
        • Less-developed countries: 2.9
      • Fertility declines in recent decades
        • Dramatic declines in many less-developed countries
          • Changing cultural values
        • TFRs below replacement level
          • Populations may stabilize or grow due to migration
    • Death Rates
      • Annual number of deaths per 1000 population
      • In the past, varied with levels of development
        • Dramatic reductions in in less-developed countries
          • As a group, death rates now lower than in more-developed countries
      • Also influenced by age structure
      • Infant mortality rate
        • Ratio of deaths of infants aged 1 year or under per 1000 live births
        • Significant declines in modern times
    • Death Rates
      • Modern medicine and sanitation have increased life expectancy
        • Regional variation in benefits
      • HIV/AIDS
        • Sub-Saharan Africa has been hit hardest
          • Average life expectancy has been cut
          • Food insecurity
    • Population Pyramids
      • Graphic depiction of the age and sex composition of a population
      • Types of population profiles
        • Rapid growth
        • Slow growth
        • Decline
        • Disrupted growth
      • Population profile influences demands on a country’s social and economic systems
        • Dependency ratio
          • Number of economic dependents that each 100 persons in the productive years must support
    • Natural Increase and Doubling Time
      • Rate of natural increase
        • Birth rate minus death rate expressed as a percentage
        • Excludes migration
      • Doubling time
        • Time it takes for a population to double if current growth rate remains constant
          • 72 divided by rate of natural increase
        • J-curve
          • Depicts exponential (geometric) growth
    • Demographic Transition
      • Model of the effect of economic development on population growth
        • Stage 1: High birth and death rates
        • Stage 2: High birth rates and declining death rates
        • Stage 3: Declining birth rates and low death rates
        • Stage 4: Low birth and death rates
        • Stage 5: Death rates exceed birth rates
      • Devised to describe the experience of northwest European countries
    • A Divided World Converging
      • The population history of Europe was not relevant to all developing countries
        • Many remained in the second stage
      • Introduction of Western technologies of medicine and public health to developing countries
        • Quickly lowered death rates
      • Birth rates are largely dependent on social acceptance of fewer children
        • Have fallen in some developing countries but remain high in others
    • Demographic Equation
      • Regional population change is a function of natural change and net migration
      • Population relocation
        • Can relieve pressures of rapid growth
      • Immigration impacts
        • Demographic equation
        • Population structures of origin and destination
          • Emigrant groups are skewed in favor of young singles
    • World Population Distribution
      • Uneven population distribution
        • Almost 90% live north of the equator
          • 2/3 of total between 20 ° and 60 ° N
        • A large majority occupies a small part of the land
        • People congregate in lowland areas
        • Continental margins have the densest settlement
      • Four clusters of population
        • East Asia
        • South Asia
        • Europe
        • NE United States/SE Canada
    • World Population Distribution
      • Ecumene
        • Permanently inhabited areas of the earth
        • Has been extended by technologies
      • Nonecumene
        • Uninhabited or very sparsely occupied zone
        • 35% to 40% of the land surface
    • Population Density
      • The relationship between number of inhabitants and the area they occupy
      • Crude (arithmetic) density
        • Number of people per unit area of land
      • Physiological density
        • Number of people per unit of arable land
      • Agricultural density
        • Number of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive land
    • Overpopulation
      • Value judgment that the resources of an area are insufficient to sustain its present population
        • Not the inevitable consequence of high density
      • A continuing imbalance between numbers of people and the carrying capacity of the land
        • Number of people an area can support, given the prevailing technology
          • Related to level of economic development
    • Urbanization
      • Transformation from rural to urban status
      • Rapid growth of cities in developing countries
        • Nearly all world population increase between 2000 and 2030 will be in urban areas of developing countries
      • Consumes a great deal of cropland
      • Problems in densely populated cities in developing countries
        • Lack of housing, jobs, education, health and social services
    • Population Data and Projections
      • Population data
        • Sources: United Nations, World Bank, Population Reference Bureau, national censuses
        • May be inaccurate
      • Population projections
        • Based on assumptions applied to current data
        • Not predictions
        • High, medium, and low projections may be given
    • Population Controls
      • Thomas Robert Malthus
        • Unchecked population increases geometrically, food production increases arithmetically
      • Equilibrium must be achieved between numbers and resources
        • Overpopulation will result in a dieback
          • J-curve converted to S-curve
        • Homeostatic plateau
          • Population that is equivalent to carrying capacity
    • Population Controls
      • Neo-Malthusianism
        • Advocacy of population control programs to improve prosperity and well-being
          • Many countries have adopted family planning programs
            • E.g., China
      • Cornucopians
        • Believe population growth is a stimulus to development
    • Population Prospects
      • Population (demographic) momentum
        • Numbers of births continue to grow as fertility rates per woman decline
          • High concentration of people in the childbearing years
      • Aging
        • Result of transition from high to low levels of fertility and mortality
        • Pace is much faster in developing countries
        • Increasing burdens on working-age populations
          • Potential support ratio is falling