GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture


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GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture

  1. 1. Overview <ul><li>Resource Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Resources and Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable Energy Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfuel Mineral Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Land Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Management </li></ul>
  2. 2. Resource Terminology <ul><li>Natural resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically occurring, exploitable material that a society perceives to be useful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by natural processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From sources that are virtually inexhaustible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially renewable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can last indefinitely if natural replacement rate is not exceeded </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Resource Terminology <ul><li>Nonrenewable resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in finite amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be reusable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some have been identified, others undiscovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be extracted profitably from known deposits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subeconomic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May become economic with improved technology or increased prices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Energy Resources and Industrialization <ul><li>Energy is used to make all other resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominant source of fuel for most of human history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic base of wealth in industrialized countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Correlation between energy consumption and gross national income per capita </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nonrenewable Energy Resources <ul><li>Crude oil </li></ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Oil shale and tar sands </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear energy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Crude Oil <ul><li>Almost 40% of commercial energy consumed </li></ul><ul><li>Refined into waxes, tars, and various fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Largest reserves are in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>OPEC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. imports about 66% of oil consumed </li></ul><ul><li>Pessimists: production could peak by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Optimists: supplies will last far into the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in exploration and production </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Coal <ul><li>Very large world supplies </li></ul><ul><li>China and the U.S. are dominant producers </li></ul><ul><li>Electric power generation, coke for steel production, home heating and cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Rank: reflects transformation of organic material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lignite through bituminous coal to anthracite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grade: based on content of waste materials </li></ul><ul><li>Bulky and not as easily transported as oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major heavy industrial centers on or near coal fields </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Natural Gas <ul><li>Efficient, versatile, burns cleanly </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly for industrial and residential heating </li></ul><ul><li>Flows easily and cheaply by pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Liquefied natural gas (LNG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquefied by refrigeration for storage or transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russia and the Middle East contain 2/3 of the world’s proved reserves </li></ul>
  9. 9. Oil Shale and Tar Sands <ul><li>Oil shale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rock rich in organic material (kerogen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extracted and converted into a crude oil by distillation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous world reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rich deposits in Green River Formation (CO, UT, WY) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tar sand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand and sandstone saturated with heavy oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mined, crushed, and heated to extract petroleum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources many times larger than conventional oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major deposits in Alberta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Monetary and environmental costs </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>Nuclear fission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled splitting of an atom to release energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 20% of electricity in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent revival of interest in nuclear power worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No new plants ordered in the U.S. since 1979 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High costs, safety concerns, lack of safe storage for radioactive waste, potential terrorist targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuclear fusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining two atoms to release energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological problems with controlled fusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tremendous potential if overcome </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Renewable Energy Resources <ul><li>Biomass fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal energy </li></ul><ul><li>Wind power </li></ul>
  12. 12. Biomass Fuels <ul><li>Energy from organic material produced by plants, animals, or microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of most biomass energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key source of energy in developing countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol produced from plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil: ethanol derived from sugarcane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S.: most ethanol derived from corn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermenting crop residues, animal and human refuse </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Hydropower <ul><li>Flowing water drives turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Location-specific </li></ul><ul><li>About 7% of electricity in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast majority of electricity in Pacific Northwest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental and social costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs flood land, alter streamflow patterns, trap silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement of people, disruption of ecosystems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Solar Energy <ul><li>Inexhaustible and nonpolluting </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate origin of most forms of utilized energy </li></ul><ul><li>Chief drawback: diffuse and intermittent </li></ul><ul><li>Hot water and space heating </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting solar energy into thermal energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photovoltaic (PV) cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert solar energy directly into electrical energy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Geothermal Energy <ul><li>Generated by harnessing the naturally occurring steam and hot water produced by contact with heated rocks in the earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Usually where magmas are near the surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Iceland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electricity generation, heating, and cooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal heat pumps </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Wind Power <ul><li>Windmills can turn turbines directly, do not use any fuel, can be built rather quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advances in design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered cost of electricity generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>California dominated development in 1980s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since then, growth in other states and Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chief disadvantage: unreliable and intermittent </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic impact, hazard to birds </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nonfuel Mineral Resources <ul><li>Ore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral deposit that can be extracted at a profit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exploitation of a mineral resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration, extraction, concentration, smelting/refining, transporting, manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practicality and profitability of mining a deposit determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value, quantity available, richness of the ore, distance to market, land acquisition and royalty costs </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Distribution of Nonfuel Minerals <ul><li>Larger countries are more likely to contain commercially exploitable deposits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia, China, Canada, the U.S., Brazil, Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly half of the nonfuel mineral resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many types of minerals are concentrated in a small number of countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gold ore, chromium and platinum-group metals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Copper: A Case Study <ul><li>Important to industrialized societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts heat and electricity well, malleable, resists corrosion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest deposits found in western North America, western South America, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Chile leads the world in production </li></ul><ul><li>Demand outstrips supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant price increase in recent years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade of ores mined in the U.S. has decreased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased recovery by recycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spurred the search for substitutes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Land Resources <ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Forest resources </li></ul>
  21. 21. Soils <ul><li>Formed by physical and chemical decomposition of rock material and decay of organic matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation equals or exceeds erosion under most natural conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erosion is accelerated by removal of vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil converted to a nonrenewable resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pressures upon land have increased with population growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., clearing and conversion of tropical rain forests has accelerated erosion </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Soils <ul><li>Desertification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of arid and semiarid lands into deserts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to climatic change and human activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa is most at risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence of accelerated soil erosion is found in all parts of the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recently at an all-time high in the U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Soils <ul><li>Secondary effects of soil erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Croplands become less productive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siltation of streams and reservoirs accelerates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion-borne silt pollutes water supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger of floods increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of maintaining navigation channels grow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salinization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of salts in topsoil as a result of the evaporation of surface water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in poorly drained soils in dry climates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often as a result of improper irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Wetlands <ul><li>Vegetated land surfaces periodically or permanently covered by standing water </li></ul><ul><li>Inland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater bogs, marshes, swamps, floodplains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coastal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covered by either fresh or salt water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estuarine zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow area of wetlands along coastlines where salt water and fresh water mix </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Wetlands <ul><li>Perform a number of vital functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trap and filter silt, pollutants, and nutrients that rivers bring downstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat and food for a variety of plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorb floodwaters and help stabilize shorelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many wetlands have been lost or degraded </li></ul>
  26. 26. Forest Resources <ul><li>Commercial forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern coniferous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate hardwood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical lowland hardwood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serve a variety of purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timbering; soil and watershed conservation; wildlife habitat; recreation; recycling of water, carbon, oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear cutting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the trees removed from a given area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selective cutting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium and large trees cut singly or in small groups </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. U.S. National Forests <ul><li>155 national forests </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation, timber production, watershed protection, wildlife habitat preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much timber has been cut in recent years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old growth forests in Washington and Oregon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tongass National Forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear cutting and road building are endangering wildlife habitats </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Tropical Rain Forests <ul><li>Some countries subsidize conversion of forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To farming, cattle ranching, mining, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Millions of acres are cleared every year </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil has the largest area of tropical rain forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the highest rates of clearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy of developing the Amazon Basin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global concerns about clearing tropical forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen and carbon balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution to air pollution and climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of biological diversity </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Resource Management <ul><li>Sustainable development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfies current needs without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable use of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using them at rates within their capacity for regeneration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wise management of resources entails: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul></ul>