• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture
 

GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture

on

  • 815 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
815
Views on SlideShare
814
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture Presentation Transcript

    • Overview
      • Resource Terminology
      • Energy Resources and Industrialization
      • Nonrenewable Energy Resources
      • Renewable Energy Resources
      • Nonfuel Mineral Resources
      • Land Resources
      • Resource Management
    • Resource Terminology
      • Natural resource
        • Physically occurring, exploitable material that a society perceives to be useful
      • Renewable resources
        • Replaced by natural processes
        • Perpetual
          • From sources that are virtually inexhaustible
        • Potentially renewable
          • Can last indefinitely if natural replacement rate is not exceeded
    • Resource Terminology
      • Nonrenewable resources
        • Exist in finite amounts
          • May be reusable
      • Resource reserves
        • Some have been identified, others undiscovered
        • Proved reserves
          • Can be extracted profitably from known deposits
        • Subeconomic
          • May become economic with improved technology or increased prices
    • Energy Resources and Industrialization
      • Energy is used to make all other resources available
      • Wood
        • Predominant source of fuel for most of human history
      • Fossil fuels
        • Economic base of wealth in industrialized countries
      • Correlation between energy consumption and gross national income per capita
    • Nonrenewable Energy Resources
      • Crude oil
      • Coal
      • Natural gas
      • Oil shale and tar sands
      • Nuclear energy
    • Crude Oil
      • Almost 40% of commercial energy consumed
      • Refined into waxes, tars, and various fuels
      • Largest reserves are in the Middle East
      • OPEC
        • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
      • U.S. imports about 66% of oil consumed
      • Pessimists: production could peak by 2010
      • Optimists: supplies will last far into the future
        • Advances in exploration and production
    • Coal
      • Very large world supplies
      • China and the U.S. are dominant producers
      • Electric power generation, coke for steel production, home heating and cooking
      • Rank: reflects transformation of organic material
        • Lignite through bituminous coal to anthracite
      • Grade: based on content of waste materials
      • Bulky and not as easily transported as oil
        • Major heavy industrial centers on or near coal fields
    • Natural Gas
      • Efficient, versatile, burns cleanly
      • Mostly for industrial and residential heating
      • Flows easily and cheaply by pipeline
      • Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
        • Liquefied by refrigeration for storage or transport
      • Russia and the Middle East contain 2/3 of the world’s proved reserves
    • Oil Shale and Tar Sands
      • Oil shale
        • Sedimentary rock rich in organic material (kerogen)
          • Extracted and converted into a crude oil by distillation
        • Enormous world reserves
          • Rich deposits in Green River Formation (CO, UT, WY)
      • Tar sand
        • Sand and sandstone saturated with heavy oil
          • Mined, crushed, and heated to extract petroleum
        • Resources many times larger than conventional oil
          • Major deposits in Alberta
      • Monetary and environmental costs
    • Nuclear Energy
      • Nuclear fission
        • Controlled splitting of an atom to release energy
        • About 20% of electricity in the U.S.
        • Recent revival of interest in nuclear power worldwide
        • No new plants ordered in the U.S. since 1979
          • High costs, safety concerns, lack of safe storage for radioactive waste, potential terrorist targets
      • Nuclear fusion
        • Combining two atoms to release energy
        • Technological problems with controlled fusion
          • Tremendous potential if overcome
    • Renewable Energy Resources
      • Biomass fuels
      • Hydropower
      • Solar energy
      • Geothermal energy
      • Wind power
    • Biomass Fuels
      • Energy from organic material produced by plants, animals, or microorganisms
      • Wood
        • Source of most biomass energy
        • Key source of energy in developing countries
      • Ethanol
        • Alcohol produced from plants
          • Brazil: ethanol derived from sugarcane
          • U.S.: most ethanol derived from corn
      • Waste
        • Fermenting crop residues, animal and human refuse
    • Hydropower
      • Flowing water drives turbines
      • Location-specific
      • About 7% of electricity in the U.S.
        • Vast majority of electricity in Pacific Northwest
      • Environmental and social costs
        • Reservoirs flood land, alter streamflow patterns, trap silt
          • Displacement of people, disruption of ecosystems
    • Solar Energy
      • Inexhaustible and nonpolluting
      • Ultimate origin of most forms of utilized energy
      • Chief drawback: diffuse and intermittent
      • Hot water and space heating
      • Electricity generation
        • Converting solar energy into thermal energy
        • Photovoltaic (PV) cells
          • Convert solar energy directly into electrical energy
    • Geothermal Energy
      • Generated by harnessing the naturally occurring steam and hot water produced by contact with heated rocks in the earth’s crust
      • Usually where magmas are near the surface
        • E.g., Iceland
      • Electricity generation, heating, and cooling
        • Geothermal heat pumps
    • Wind Power
      • Windmills can turn turbines directly, do not use any fuel, can be built rather quickly
      • Technological advances in design
        • Lowered cost of electricity generation
      • California dominated development in 1980s
        • Since then, growth in other states and Europe
      • Chief disadvantage: unreliable and intermittent
      • Aesthetic impact, hazard to birds
    • Nonfuel Mineral Resources
      • Ore
        • Mineral deposit that can be extracted at a profit
      • Exploitation of a mineral resource
        • Exploration, extraction, concentration, smelting/refining, transporting, manufacturing
      • Practicality and profitability of mining a deposit determined by:
        • Value, quantity available, richness of the ore, distance to market, land acquisition and royalty costs
    • The Distribution of Nonfuel Minerals
      • Larger countries are more likely to contain commercially exploitable deposits
        • Russia, China, Canada, the U.S., Brazil, Australia
          • Roughly half of the nonfuel mineral resources
      • Many types of minerals are concentrated in a small number of countries
        • E.g., South Africa
          • Gold ore, chromium and platinum-group metals
    • Copper: A Case Study
      • Important to industrialized societies
        • Conducts heat and electricity well, malleable, resists corrosion
      • Largest deposits found in western North America, western South America, Australia
      • Chile leads the world in production
      • Demand outstrips supply
        • Significant price increase in recent years
        • Grade of ores mined in the U.S. has decreased
        • Increased recovery by recycling
        • Spurred the search for substitutes
    • Land Resources
      • Soils
      • Wetlands
      • Forest resources
    • Soils
      • Formed by physical and chemical decomposition of rock material and decay of organic matter
        • Formation equals or exceeds erosion under most natural conditions
      • Erosion is accelerated by removal of vegetation
        • Soil converted to a nonrenewable resource
      • Pressures upon land have increased with population growth
        • E.g., clearing and conversion of tropical rain forests has accelerated erosion
    • Soils
      • Desertification
        • Conversion of arid and semiarid lands into deserts
          • Due to climatic change and human activity
        • Africa is most at risk
      • Evidence of accelerated soil erosion is found in all parts of the world
        • Recently at an all-time high in the U.S.
    • Soils
      • Secondary effects of soil erosion
        • Croplands become less productive
        • Siltation of streams and reservoirs accelerates
        • Erosion-borne silt pollutes water supplies
        • Danger of floods increases
        • Costs of maintaining navigation channels grow
      • Salinization
        • Concentration of salts in topsoil as a result of the evaporation of surface water
          • Occurs in poorly drained soils in dry climates
          • Often as a result of improper irrigation
    • Wetlands
      • Vegetated land surfaces periodically or permanently covered by standing water
      • Inland
        • Freshwater bogs, marshes, swamps, floodplains
      • Coastal
        • Covered by either fresh or salt water
        • Estuarine zone
          • Narrow area of wetlands along coastlines where salt water and fresh water mix
    • Wetlands
      • Perform a number of vital functions
        • Trap and filter silt, pollutants, and nutrients that rivers bring downstream
        • Habitat and food for a variety of plants and animals
        • Absorb floodwaters and help stabilize shorelines
      • Many wetlands have been lost or degraded
    • Forest Resources
      • Commercial forests
        • Northern coniferous
        • Temperate hardwood
        • Tropical lowland hardwood
      • Serve a variety of purposes
        • Timbering; soil and watershed conservation; wildlife habitat; recreation; recycling of water, carbon, oxygen
      • Clear cutting
        • All the trees removed from a given area
      • Selective cutting
        • Medium and large trees cut singly or in small groups
    • U.S. National Forests
      • 155 national forests
      • Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act
        • Recreation, timber production, watershed protection, wildlife habitat preservation
      • Much timber has been cut in recent years
        • Old growth forests in Washington and Oregon
      • Tongass National Forest
        • Clear cutting and road building are endangering wildlife habitats
    • Tropical Rain Forests
      • Some countries subsidize conversion of forests
        • To farming, cattle ranching, mining, etc.
      • Millions of acres are cleared every year
      • Brazil has the largest area of tropical rain forests
        • One of the highest rates of clearing
        • Policy of developing the Amazon Basin
      • Global concerns about clearing tropical forests
        • Oxygen and carbon balance
        • Contribution to air pollution and climate change
        • Loss of biological diversity
    • Resource Management
      • Sustainable development
        • Satisfies current needs without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
        • Sustainable use of resources
          • Using them at rates within their capacity for regeneration
      • Wise management of resources entails:
        • Conservation
        • Reuse
        • Substitution