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GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture

GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture






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    GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture GEOG101 Chapt05 lecture Presentation Transcript

    • Overview
      • Resource Terminology
      • Energy Resources and Industrialization
      • Nonrenewable Energy Resources
      • Renewable Energy Resources
      • Nonfuel Mineral Resources
      • Land Resources
      • Resource Management
    • Resource Terminology
      • Natural resource
        • Physically occurring, exploitable material that a society perceives to be useful
      • Renewable resources
        • Replaced by natural processes
        • Perpetual
          • From sources that are virtually inexhaustible
        • Potentially renewable
          • Can last indefinitely if natural replacement rate is not exceeded
    • Resource Terminology
      • Nonrenewable resources
        • Exist in finite amounts
          • May be reusable
      • Resource reserves
        • Some have been identified, others undiscovered
        • Proved reserves
          • Can be extracted profitably from known deposits
        • Subeconomic
          • May become economic with improved technology or increased prices
    • Energy Resources and Industrialization
      • Energy is used to make all other resources available
      • Wood
        • Predominant source of fuel for most of human history
      • Fossil fuels
        • Economic base of wealth in industrialized countries
      • Correlation between energy consumption and gross national income per capita
    • Nonrenewable Energy Resources
      • Crude oil
      • Coal
      • Natural gas
      • Oil shale and tar sands
      • Nuclear energy
    • Crude Oil
      • Almost 40% of commercial energy consumed
      • Refined into waxes, tars, and various fuels
      • Largest reserves are in the Middle East
      • OPEC
        • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
      • U.S. imports about 66% of oil consumed
      • Pessimists: production could peak by 2010
      • Optimists: supplies will last far into the future
        • Advances in exploration and production
    • Coal
      • Very large world supplies
      • China and the U.S. are dominant producers
      • Electric power generation, coke for steel production, home heating and cooking
      • Rank: reflects transformation of organic material
        • Lignite through bituminous coal to anthracite
      • Grade: based on content of waste materials
      • Bulky and not as easily transported as oil
        • Major heavy industrial centers on or near coal fields
    • Natural Gas
      • Efficient, versatile, burns cleanly
      • Mostly for industrial and residential heating
      • Flows easily and cheaply by pipeline
      • Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
        • Liquefied by refrigeration for storage or transport
      • Russia and the Middle East contain 2/3 of the world’s proved reserves
    • Oil Shale and Tar Sands
      • Oil shale
        • Sedimentary rock rich in organic material (kerogen)
          • Extracted and converted into a crude oil by distillation
        • Enormous world reserves
          • Rich deposits in Green River Formation (CO, UT, WY)
      • Tar sand
        • Sand and sandstone saturated with heavy oil
          • Mined, crushed, and heated to extract petroleum
        • Resources many times larger than conventional oil
          • Major deposits in Alberta
      • Monetary and environmental costs
    • Nuclear Energy
      • Nuclear fission
        • Controlled splitting of an atom to release energy
        • About 20% of electricity in the U.S.
        • Recent revival of interest in nuclear power worldwide
        • No new plants ordered in the U.S. since 1979
          • High costs, safety concerns, lack of safe storage for radioactive waste, potential terrorist targets
      • Nuclear fusion
        • Combining two atoms to release energy
        • Technological problems with controlled fusion
          • Tremendous potential if overcome
    • Renewable Energy Resources
      • Biomass fuels
      • Hydropower
      • Solar energy
      • Geothermal energy
      • Wind power
    • Biomass Fuels
      • Energy from organic material produced by plants, animals, or microorganisms
      • Wood
        • Source of most biomass energy
        • Key source of energy in developing countries
      • Ethanol
        • Alcohol produced from plants
          • Brazil: ethanol derived from sugarcane
          • U.S.: most ethanol derived from corn
      • Waste
        • Fermenting crop residues, animal and human refuse
    • Hydropower
      • Flowing water drives turbines
      • Location-specific
      • About 7% of electricity in the U.S.
        • Vast majority of electricity in Pacific Northwest
      • Environmental and social costs
        • Reservoirs flood land, alter streamflow patterns, trap silt
          • Displacement of people, disruption of ecosystems
    • Solar Energy
      • Inexhaustible and nonpolluting
      • Ultimate origin of most forms of utilized energy
      • Chief drawback: diffuse and intermittent
      • Hot water and space heating
      • Electricity generation
        • Converting solar energy into thermal energy
        • Photovoltaic (PV) cells
          • Convert solar energy directly into electrical energy
    • Geothermal Energy
      • Generated by harnessing the naturally occurring steam and hot water produced by contact with heated rocks in the earth’s crust
      • Usually where magmas are near the surface
        • E.g., Iceland
      • Electricity generation, heating, and cooling
        • Geothermal heat pumps
    • Wind Power
      • Windmills can turn turbines directly, do not use any fuel, can be built rather quickly
      • Technological advances in design
        • Lowered cost of electricity generation
      • California dominated development in 1980s
        • Since then, growth in other states and Europe
      • Chief disadvantage: unreliable and intermittent
      • Aesthetic impact, hazard to birds
    • Nonfuel Mineral Resources
      • Ore
        • Mineral deposit that can be extracted at a profit
      • Exploitation of a mineral resource
        • Exploration, extraction, concentration, smelting/refining, transporting, manufacturing
      • Practicality and profitability of mining a deposit determined by:
        • Value, quantity available, richness of the ore, distance to market, land acquisition and royalty costs
    • The Distribution of Nonfuel Minerals
      • Larger countries are more likely to contain commercially exploitable deposits
        • Russia, China, Canada, the U.S., Brazil, Australia
          • Roughly half of the nonfuel mineral resources
      • Many types of minerals are concentrated in a small number of countries
        • E.g., South Africa
          • Gold ore, chromium and platinum-group metals
    • Copper: A Case Study
      • Important to industrialized societies
        • Conducts heat and electricity well, malleable, resists corrosion
      • Largest deposits found in western North America, western South America, Australia
      • Chile leads the world in production
      • Demand outstrips supply
        • Significant price increase in recent years
        • Grade of ores mined in the U.S. has decreased
        • Increased recovery by recycling
        • Spurred the search for substitutes
    • Land Resources
      • Soils
      • Wetlands
      • Forest resources
    • Soils
      • Formed by physical and chemical decomposition of rock material and decay of organic matter
        • Formation equals or exceeds erosion under most natural conditions
      • Erosion is accelerated by removal of vegetation
        • Soil converted to a nonrenewable resource
      • Pressures upon land have increased with population growth
        • E.g., clearing and conversion of tropical rain forests has accelerated erosion
    • Soils
      • Desertification
        • Conversion of arid and semiarid lands into deserts
          • Due to climatic change and human activity
        • Africa is most at risk
      • Evidence of accelerated soil erosion is found in all parts of the world
        • Recently at an all-time high in the U.S.
    • Soils
      • Secondary effects of soil erosion
        • Croplands become less productive
        • Siltation of streams and reservoirs accelerates
        • Erosion-borne silt pollutes water supplies
        • Danger of floods increases
        • Costs of maintaining navigation channels grow
      • Salinization
        • Concentration of salts in topsoil as a result of the evaporation of surface water
          • Occurs in poorly drained soils in dry climates
          • Often as a result of improper irrigation
    • Wetlands
      • Vegetated land surfaces periodically or permanently covered by standing water
      • Inland
        • Freshwater bogs, marshes, swamps, floodplains
      • Coastal
        • Covered by either fresh or salt water
        • Estuarine zone
          • Narrow area of wetlands along coastlines where salt water and fresh water mix
    • Wetlands
      • Perform a number of vital functions
        • Trap and filter silt, pollutants, and nutrients that rivers bring downstream
        • Habitat and food for a variety of plants and animals
        • Absorb floodwaters and help stabilize shorelines
      • Many wetlands have been lost or degraded
    • Forest Resources
      • Commercial forests
        • Northern coniferous
        • Temperate hardwood
        • Tropical lowland hardwood
      • Serve a variety of purposes
        • Timbering; soil and watershed conservation; wildlife habitat; recreation; recycling of water, carbon, oxygen
      • Clear cutting
        • All the trees removed from a given area
      • Selective cutting
        • Medium and large trees cut singly or in small groups
    • U.S. National Forests
      • 155 national forests
      • Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act
        • Recreation, timber production, watershed protection, wildlife habitat preservation
      • Much timber has been cut in recent years
        • Old growth forests in Washington and Oregon
      • Tongass National Forest
        • Clear cutting and road building are endangering wildlife habitats
    • Tropical Rain Forests
      • Some countries subsidize conversion of forests
        • To farming, cattle ranching, mining, etc.
      • Millions of acres are cleared every year
      • Brazil has the largest area of tropical rain forests
        • One of the highest rates of clearing
        • Policy of developing the Amazon Basin
      • Global concerns about clearing tropical forests
        • Oxygen and carbon balance
        • Contribution to air pollution and climate change
        • Loss of biological diversity
    • Resource Management
      • Sustainable development
        • Satisfies current needs without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
        • Sustainable use of resources
          • Using them at rates within their capacity for regeneration
      • Wise management of resources entails:
        • Conservation
        • Reuse
        • Substitution