GEOG101 Chapt01 lecture


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GEOG101 Chapt01 lecture

  1. 1. Overview <ul><li>What is Geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of the Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Some Core Geographic Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Geography’s Themes and Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of This Book </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is Geography? <ul><li>Much more than place names and locations </li></ul><ul><li>The study of spatial variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How and why things differ from place to place on the surface of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How observable spatial patterns evolved through time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the interaction of people and social groups with their environment and with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geography is about space and the content of space </li></ul>
  3. 3. Evolution of the Discipline <ul><li>Ancient Greeks and Romans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Greek geo, “the earth,” and graphein, “to write” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Eratosthenes, Strabo, Herodotus, Ptolemy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ancient Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Modern geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origins in the surge of scholarly inquiry that began in 17 th century Europe </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Subfields of Geography <ul><li>A number of specialized subdivisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely interrelated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three dominating interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one area with other areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-environmental relationships and spatial systems in specific locational settings </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Subfields of Geography <ul><li>Regional geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify particular segments of the earth’s surface for study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematic geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify particular classes of things for study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is on the natural environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is on people </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why Geography Matters <ul><li>The only discipline concerned with understanding why and how both physical and cultural phenomena differ from place to place </li></ul><ul><li>Vital to an understanding of national and international issues </li></ul><ul><li>Offers a diversity of job opportunities </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Spatial is an essential modifier in forming questions and framing concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography is a spatial science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The geographer’s space is earth space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way things are distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way movements occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way processes operate </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Basic observations regarding places: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have location, direction, and distance with respect to other places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have both physical structure and cultural content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their attributes develop and change over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their content is structured and explainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their elements interrelate with other places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They may be generalized into regions of similarities and differences </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Location <ul><li>Absolute location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on a precise and accepted system of coordinates--mathematical location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude and longitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other grid systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position in relation to other places or things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expresses spatial interconnection and interdependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May carry social and economic implications </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Location <ul><li>Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and cultural characteristics of a place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute location concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External relations of a place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of relative location </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Direction <ul><li>Absolute direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the cardinal points (N-S-E-W) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally based and locationally variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Out West” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Back East” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Down South” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Near East” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Far East” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Distance <ul><li>Absolute distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses standard units such as miles or kilometers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforms linear measurements into other units more meaningful for the space relationship in question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time, money, psychological </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Size and Scale <ul><li>Degree of generalization represented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference to the size of unit studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., local or global </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area on the surface of the earth </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Physical and Cultural Attributes <ul><li>Physical attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate, soil, water supplies, mineral resources, terrain features, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps shape—but does not dictate—how people live </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language, religion, industries, food, music, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visible imprint of human activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Attributes of Place are Always Changing <ul><li>The physical environment undergoes continuous and pronounced change </li></ul><ul><li>Humans alter the environments they occupy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pace of change has accelerated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built landscape has increasingly replaced natural landscape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Places are the present result of past operation of distinctive physical and cultural processes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interrelations Between Places <ul><li>Spatial interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement between places </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative ease with which a destination may be reached </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the ways places are connected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion from a center of origin to more distant points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing interconnection of all parts of the world </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Place Similarity and Regions <ul><li>No two places on earth can be exactly the same </li></ul><ul><li>The natural and cultural characteristics of places show patterns of similarity in some areas </li></ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external differences from surrounding territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to classify the complex reality of the earth’s surface into manageable pieces </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Regions <ul><li>Formal (uniform) regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional (nodal) regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A spatial system with interdependent parts that operate as an organizational unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptual (vernacular/popular) regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in the perceptions of their inhabitants and the general society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect feelings and images rather than objective data </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Geography’s Themes and Standards <ul><li>Five fundamental themes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships within places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Geography’s Themes and Standards <ul><li>National Geography Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The world in spatial terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places and regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment and society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The uses of geography </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Organization of This Book <ul><li>Four traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth science tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identified with physical geography in general </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture-environment tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identified with population, cultural, political, and behavioral geography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locational (or spatial) tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identified with economic, urban, and environmental geography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area analysis (or regional) tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional geography </li></ul></ul></ul>