Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
GEOG101 Chapt01 lecture
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

GEOG101 Chapt01 lecture


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Overview
    • What is Geography?
    • Evolution of the Discipline
    • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Geography’s Themes and Standards
    • Organization of This Book
  • 2. What is Geography?
    • Much more than place names and locations
    • The study of spatial variation
      • How and why things differ from place to place on the surface of the earth
      • How observable spatial patterns evolved through time
      • Focus on the interaction of people and social groups with their environment and with each other
    • Geography is about space and the content of space
  • 3. Evolution of the Discipline
    • Ancient Greeks and Romans
      • From Greek geo, “the earth,” and graphein, “to write”
      • E.g., Eratosthenes, Strabo, Herodotus, Ptolemy
    • Ancient Chinese
    • Muslim scholars
    • Modern geography
      • Origins in the surge of scholarly inquiry that began in 17 th century Europe
  • 4. Subfields of Geography
    • A number of specialized subdivisions
      • Closely interrelated
    • Three dominating interests
      • Spatial variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth
      • The systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one area with other areas
      • Human-environmental relationships and spatial systems in specific locational settings
  • 5. Subfields of Geography
    • Regional geography
      • Identify particular segments of the earth’s surface for study
    • Systematic geography
      • Identify particular classes of things for study
    • Physical geography
      • Focus is on the natural environment
    • Human geography
      • Focus is on people
  • 6. Why Geography Matters
    • The only discipline concerned with understanding why and how both physical and cultural phenomena differ from place to place
    • Vital to an understanding of national and international issues
    • Offers a diversity of job opportunities
  • 7. Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Spatial is an essential modifier in forming questions and framing concepts
      • Geography is a spatial science
    • The geographer’s space is earth space
      • The way things are distributed
      • The way movements occur
      • The way processes operate
  • 8. Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Basic observations regarding places:
      • They have location, direction, and distance with respect to other places
      • They have size
      • They have both physical structure and cultural content
      • Their attributes develop and change over time
      • Their content is structured and explainable
      • Their elements interrelate with other places
      • They may be generalized into regions of similarities and differences
  • 9. Location
    • Absolute location
      • Based on a precise and accepted system of coordinates--mathematical location
        • Latitude and longitude
        • Other grid systems
    • Relative location
      • Position in relation to other places or things
      • Expresses spatial interconnection and interdependence
      • May carry social and economic implications
  • 10. Location
    • Site
      • Physical and cultural characteristics of a place
      • Absolute location concept
    • Situation
      • External relations of a place
      • Expression of relative location
  • 11. Direction
    • Absolute direction
      • Based on the cardinal points (N-S-E-W)
    • Relative direction
      • Culturally based and locationally variable
        • “ Out West”
        • “ Back East”
        • “ Down South”
        • “ Near East”
        • “ Far East”
  • 12. Distance
    • Absolute distance
      • Uses standard units such as miles or kilometers
    • Relative distance
      • Transforms linear measurements into other units more meaningful for the space relationship in question
        • Time, money, psychological
  • 13. Size and Scale
    • Degree of generalization represented
      • Reference to the size of unit studied
        • E.g., local or global
      • Relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area on the surface of the earth
  • 14. Physical and Cultural Attributes
    • Physical attributes
      • Climate, soil, water supplies, mineral resources, terrain features, etc.
      • Natural landscape
        • Helps shape—but does not dictate—how people live
    • Cultural attributes
      • Language, religion, industries, food, music, etc.
      • Cultural landscape
        • Visible imprint of human activity
  • 15. Attributes of Place are Always Changing
    • The physical environment undergoes continuous and pronounced change
    • Humans alter the environments they occupy
      • Pace of change has accelerated
        • Built landscape has increasingly replaced natural landscape
    • Places are the present result of past operation of distinctive physical and cultural processes
  • 16. Interrelations Between Places
    • Spatial interaction
      • Movement between places
    • Accessibility
      • Relative ease with which a destination may be reached
    • Connectivity
      • All the ways places are connected
    • Spatial diffusion
      • Dispersion from a center of origin to more distant points
    • Globalization
      • Increasing interconnection of all parts of the world
  • 17. Place Similarity and Regions
    • No two places on earth can be exactly the same
    • The natural and cultural characteristics of places show patterns of similarity in some areas
    • Regions
      • Earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external differences from surrounding territories
      • Used to classify the complex reality of the earth’s surface into manageable pieces
  • 18. Types of Regions
    • Formal (uniform) regions
      • Uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural features
    • Functional (nodal) regions
      • A spatial system with interdependent parts that operate as an organizational unit
    • Perceptual (vernacular/popular) regions
      • Exist in the perceptions of their inhabitants and the general society
      • Reflect feelings and images rather than objective data
  • 19. Geography’s Themes and Standards
    • Five fundamental themes
      • Location
      • Place
      • Relationships within places
      • Movement
      • Regions
  • 20. Geography’s Themes and Standards
    • National Geography Standards
      • The world in spatial terms
      • Places and regions
      • Physical systems
      • Human systems
      • Environment and society
      • The uses of geography
  • 21. Organization of This Book
    • Four traditions
      • Earth science tradition
        • Identified with physical geography in general
      • Culture-environment tradition
        • Identified with population, cultural, political, and behavioral geography
      • Locational (or spatial) tradition
        • Identified with economic, urban, and environmental geography
      • Area analysis (or regional) tradition
        • Regional geography