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GEOG101 Chapt01 lecture
 

GEOG101 Chapt01 lecture

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    GEOG101 Chapt01 lecture GEOG101 Chapt01 lecture Presentation Transcript

    • Overview
      • What is Geography?
      • Evolution of the Discipline
      • Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Geography’s Themes and Standards
      • Organization of This Book
    • What is Geography?
      • Much more than place names and locations
      • The study of spatial variation
        • How and why things differ from place to place on the surface of the earth
        • How observable spatial patterns evolved through time
        • Focus on the interaction of people and social groups with their environment and with each other
      • Geography is about space and the content of space
    • Evolution of the Discipline
      • Ancient Greeks and Romans
        • From Greek geo, “the earth,” and graphein, “to write”
        • E.g., Eratosthenes, Strabo, Herodotus, Ptolemy
      • Ancient Chinese
      • Muslim scholars
      • Modern geography
        • Origins in the surge of scholarly inquiry that began in 17 th century Europe
    • Subfields of Geography
      • A number of specialized subdivisions
        • Closely interrelated
      • Three dominating interests
        • Spatial variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth
        • The systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one area with other areas
        • Human-environmental relationships and spatial systems in specific locational settings
    • Subfields of Geography
      • Regional geography
        • Identify particular segments of the earth’s surface for study
      • Systematic geography
        • Identify particular classes of things for study
      • Physical geography
        • Focus is on the natural environment
      • Human geography
        • Focus is on people
    • Why Geography Matters
      • The only discipline concerned with understanding why and how both physical and cultural phenomena differ from place to place
      • Vital to an understanding of national and international issues
      • Offers a diversity of job opportunities
    • Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Spatial is an essential modifier in forming questions and framing concepts
        • Geography is a spatial science
      • The geographer’s space is earth space
        • The way things are distributed
        • The way movements occur
        • The way processes operate
    • Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Basic observations regarding places:
        • They have location, direction, and distance with respect to other places
        • They have size
        • They have both physical structure and cultural content
        • Their attributes develop and change over time
        • Their content is structured and explainable
        • Their elements interrelate with other places
        • They may be generalized into regions of similarities and differences
    • Location
      • Absolute location
        • Based on a precise and accepted system of coordinates--mathematical location
          • Latitude and longitude
          • Other grid systems
      • Relative location
        • Position in relation to other places or things
        • Expresses spatial interconnection and interdependence
        • May carry social and economic implications
    • Location
      • Site
        • Physical and cultural characteristics of a place
        • Absolute location concept
      • Situation
        • External relations of a place
        • Expression of relative location
    • Direction
      • Absolute direction
        • Based on the cardinal points (N-S-E-W)
      • Relative direction
        • Culturally based and locationally variable
          • “ Out West”
          • “ Back East”
          • “ Down South”
          • “ Near East”
          • “ Far East”
    • Distance
      • Absolute distance
        • Uses standard units such as miles or kilometers
      • Relative distance
        • Transforms linear measurements into other units more meaningful for the space relationship in question
          • Time, money, psychological
    • Size and Scale
      • Degree of generalization represented
        • Reference to the size of unit studied
          • E.g., local or global
        • Relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area on the surface of the earth
    • Physical and Cultural Attributes
      • Physical attributes
        • Climate, soil, water supplies, mineral resources, terrain features, etc.
        • Natural landscape
          • Helps shape—but does not dictate—how people live
      • Cultural attributes
        • Language, religion, industries, food, music, etc.
        • Cultural landscape
          • Visible imprint of human activity
    • Attributes of Place are Always Changing
      • The physical environment undergoes continuous and pronounced change
      • Humans alter the environments they occupy
        • Pace of change has accelerated
          • Built landscape has increasingly replaced natural landscape
      • Places are the present result of past operation of distinctive physical and cultural processes
    • Interrelations Between Places
      • Spatial interaction
        • Movement between places
      • Accessibility
        • Relative ease with which a destination may be reached
      • Connectivity
        • All the ways places are connected
      • Spatial diffusion
        • Dispersion from a center of origin to more distant points
      • Globalization
        • Increasing interconnection of all parts of the world
    • Place Similarity and Regions
      • No two places on earth can be exactly the same
      • The natural and cultural characteristics of places show patterns of similarity in some areas
      • Regions
        • Earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external differences from surrounding territories
        • Used to classify the complex reality of the earth’s surface into manageable pieces
    • Types of Regions
      • Formal (uniform) regions
        • Uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural features
      • Functional (nodal) regions
        • A spatial system with interdependent parts that operate as an organizational unit
      • Perceptual (vernacular/popular) regions
        • Exist in the perceptions of their inhabitants and the general society
        • Reflect feelings and images rather than objective data
    • Geography’s Themes and Standards
      • Five fundamental themes
        • Location
        • Place
        • Relationships within places
        • Movement
        • Regions
    • Geography’s Themes and Standards
      • National Geography Standards
        • The world in spatial terms
        • Places and regions
        • Physical systems
        • Human systems
        • Environment and society
        • The uses of geography
    • Organization of This Book
      • Four traditions
        • Earth science tradition
          • Identified with physical geography in general
        • Culture-environment tradition
          • Identified with population, cultural, political, and behavioral geography
        • Locational (or spatial) tradition
          • Identified with economic, urban, and environmental geography
        • Area analysis (or regional) tradition
          • Regional geography