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Optical Fibres in Communication
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Optical Fibres in Communication

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An optical fiber is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. They are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher …

An optical fiber is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. They are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles to carry images. Specially designed fibers are used for other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.

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  • 1. Optical Fibres in Communication Name:Manhar paramjout singh Section: D4911 Roll no: A 17 Regd no: 10900912 1
  • 2. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Principle of Working 3. Application 4. Manufacturing 5. Process 6. Coatings 7. References 2
  • 3. Introduction An optical fiber is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. They are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles to carry images. Specially designed fibers are used for other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers. 3
  • 4. Principle of working An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric guide (non conducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection . The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer, made of dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding. The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt, in step index fibre, or gradual, in graded index fibre. 4
  • 5. Applications 1.In communication: Used to transmit Telephone signals , Internet communications, cable T.V signals. 2.In Optic Fibre sensors: used as sensors to measure strain, temperature, pressure and other quantities 5
  • 6. Manufacturing Optical fibers are made from silica, but some other materials, such as fluorozirconate , fluoroaluminate, and chalcogenide glasses , are used for longer-wavelength infrared applications.Like other glasses, these glasses have a refractive index of about 1.5. Typically the difference between core and cladding is less than one percent. 6
  • 7. Process Standard optical fibers are made by first constructing a large-diameter preform, with a carefully controlled refractive index profile, and then pulling the preform to form the long, thin optical fiber. The preform is commonly made by three chemical vapor deposition methods:- Inside vapor deposition , Outside vapor deposition, and Vapor axial deposition. 7
  • 8. Coating Fiber optic coatings are UV-cured urethane acrylate composite materials applied to the outside of the fiber during the drawing process. The coatings protect the very delicate strands of glass fiber(about the size of a human hair)and allow it to survive the rigors of manufacturing, proof testing, cabling and installation. 8
  • 9. References • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber-optic_communication 9