Single item scales are those with which only one item is measured. The following are the important single item scales:
1) Itemised Category Scales:
Are those in which respondents have to select an answer from a limited number of ordered categories.
Eg. A hotel customer is asked to indicate the level of satisfaction for the service provided
Highly Considerably Reasonably Unsatisfied Highly
Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Unsatisfied
2) Rank Order Scales : They are comparative scales where respondents were asked to rate an item in comparison with another item or a group of items on a common criterion. Example: Rank order scale for analysing Motor Cycles Rank the brands with 1 being the brand that best meets the characteristics , 7 being the worst of the characteristics Brand Affordable Cost High Mileage Stylish Great Pick up Hero Honda TVS Bajaj
3) Comparative Scales : The Researcher provides a point of comparison for respondents to provide answers. Therefore, all respondents will have a uniform point of comparison for selecting answers. Example: Respondent is asked to rate the sweet shop ‘X’ in comparison to sweet shop ‘Y’ in Kochi: Excellent Very Good Good Both are same Poor Very poor
Multi-item Scales : These are applied when it is difficult to measure people’s attitude based on only one attribute. Eg. Ask a person whether he/she is satisfied with Indian Railway. ‘ Overall I am satisfied’. ‘But there are many factors with which I am dissatisfied.’ In such cases it is impossible to capture the complete picture with one overall question. A number of scales have to be developed that can measure a respondent’s attitude towards several issues From most favourable to most unfavourable.
Semantic Differential Scale :
It is used to describe a set of beliefs that underline a person’s attitude towards an object.
This scale is based on the principle that individuals think dichotomously or in terms of polar opposites such as reliable-unreliable, modern-old fashioned etc.
Eg. Comparing four brands of car :
Mitsubishi(L) ; Hyundai(E) ; Skoda(O) ; Honda
Fast -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Slow
Large -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Small
Plain -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Stylish
Expensive -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Expensive
2) Staple Scales : It is an attitude measure that places a single adjective or an attitude describing an object in the centre of an even number of numerical values. Generally it is constructed on a scale of 10 ranging from -5 to +5, without a neutral point ( zero ). It is similar to Semantic Scale, except for it is single polar. This scale is useful for the Researchers to understand the positive and negative intensity of attitudes of respondents.
3) Likert Scale : This scale consists of a series of statements where the respondent provides answers in the form of agreement or disagreement. The respondent selects a numerical score for each statement to indicate the degree of agreement or otherwise. Each such score is finally added up to measure the respondents attitude.
Eg. of Likert Scale for evaluating the attitude of customers who have not used Vacuum cleaner, but who have aware of its existence: Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree The Product is costlier 1 2 3 4 5 I don’t find time to use it 1 2 3 4 5 Advt. is not convincing 1 2 3 4 5 Never use a V C 1 2 3 4 5 I am satisfied with the present way of cleaning 1 2 3 4 5 Its use is cumbersome 1 2 3 4 5