Foreign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita Babbar

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Objective is to acquaint students about determination of foreign exchange rate in the highly volatile international market.

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Foreign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita Babbar

  1. 1. <ul><li>Name : Anita Babbar (Eco. PGT ) </li></ul><ul><li>Subject :Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Topic :Foreign exchange rate and its determination </li></ul><ul><li>School :Kulachi Hansraj Model School </li></ul>
  2. 2. Foreign Exchange Rate
  3. 3. Objective is to acquaint students about determination of foreign exchange rate in the highly volatile international market. Post globalization foreign exchange rate has assumed all the more significance & evokes unprecedented interest. Foreign exchange rate is neither rigidly fixed nor rigidly flexible in any economy of the world. It is under Govt. regulations & changes if any are minimal in nature.
  4. 4. Meaning of Foreign Exchange Rate It is the price of one currency in terms of other. It is the rate at which exports and imports of a nation are valued at a given point in time.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Foreign Exchange Market </li></ul><ul><li>It is the market where the national currencies are traded for one another. It performs mainly three functions: </li></ul><ul><li>To transfer the purchasing power between countries. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide credit channels </li></ul><ul><li>for foreign trade. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To protect against foreign </li></ul><ul><li>exchange risks. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Who needs Foreign Exchange? When people wish to operate in the foreign exchange market they intend to buy or sell foreign exchange depending on their demand for and supply of foreign exchange.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Demand and Supply Side </li></ul><ul><li>Demand Side </li></ul><ul><li>People desire to have or acquire Foreign exchange for the following reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>To purchase goods and services from other countries </li></ul><ul><li>To send a gift abroad or make a visit abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>To purchase financial assets in a particular country </li></ul><ul><li>To speculate on the value of foreign currencies. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>2 . Supply Side </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign currencies flow into the domestic economy due to the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Foreigners purchasing home, country’s goods and services through exports. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Foreign investment in home country through joint ventures or through financial market operations. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Foreign currencies flow into the economy due to currency dealers and speculators. </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Foreign tourists visiting domestic territory or sending a gift. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Equilibrium in the Foreign Exchange Market Foreign exchange market like any other market is characterised by a downward sloping demand curve and an upward sloping supply curve. d s e
  10. 10. <ul><li>The price on the vertical axis is stated in terms of domestic currency. </li></ul><ul><li>The horizontal axis measures the quantity demanded or supplied. </li></ul><ul><li>The intersection of the demand and supply curves determines the equilibrium exchange rate (Req) and the equilibrium quantity (Qeq) of foreign currency, i.e., US($). </li></ul><ul><li>This is shown in the following figure. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Price Rs/$ S$ S’$ D’$ D$ Qeq Q’’ Q’ R’ Req R’’ Demand and Supply of US $
  12. 12. In this figure the demand curve (D$) is downward sloping. This means that less foreign exchange is demanded as the exchange rate increases.
  13. 13. <ul><li>This is due to the fact that the rise in the price of foreign exchange will increase the rupee cost of foreign goods, which makes them more expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, imports will decline. Thus the demand for foreign exchange will also decrease. </li></ul>
  14. 14. In this figure the supply curve (S$) is upward sloping which means that supply of foreign exchange increases as the exchange rate increases.
  15. 15. <ul><li>This makes home country’s goods become cheaper to foreigner since the rupee is depreciating in value. </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for our exports should therefore increase as the exchange rate increases. </li></ul><ul><li>The increased demand for our exports will mean greater supply of foreign exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the supply of foreign exchange increases as the exchange rate increases. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Thus the foreign exchange rate will be determined where demand for & supply of foreign exchange are equal. </li></ul><ul><li>The demand curve & supply curve intersect each other. </li></ul>

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