1. Curriculum and Instruction Christianne Cowie de Arroyo November 9th and 10thTe ach er Tra in ing In st it u te
2. What did we discuss? Are there any pressing issues/ questions/ ideasthat arose during the week? How did you do with the planning?Is there anything that needs to be clarified so far?Dis you use any of the strategies we learned orapplied any of the knowledge we discussed last weekat school in any way?
3. What will be our agenda for this week? Date Content ✤What did we discuss? Recap last week, What was your feedback? ✤Oral Presentations: Skinner, Piaget, Montessori, Freire, Vigotsky ✤Where does curriculum fit in the bigger picture? ★ Standards and BenchmarksNovember 9th and 10th ✤What do we mean by Backward Design? ★ The Backward design model ★ Step one: identify desired results ★ How do we establish curricular priorities? ★ Understanding Understanding ★ Guiding questions ★Step two: Determine acceptable evidence ★ Formative and summative assessment ★ G.R.A.S.P.S. ★ Step three: Plan learning experiences and instruction: ★ Where to Ef f Cla e c t i v s t r s s ro o e a te m gy
4. What was your feedback?Stars... Understanding the learning process, use of a variety of learning strategies, able to use technology, hanging groups. the teacher´s presentation is very organised, group work, curriculum needs to have a purpose and be relevant for students and teachers, connection between curriculum components, different parts of the brain, have different options to present articles to make it fun and interesting, the way topics are presented, listening, reading, discussing and reflecting, you are not an island in your school, importance of reviewing the what, how and whether, learning from classmate´s experiences, strategies used to share information, understand what curriculum is, the curriculum questionnaire, share our knowledge and not being judged, good articles to read, the study of the brain gave us opportunities to be successful with our students, understand that curriculum is constantly under construction, the way the course was structured, clarification of terms Ef f e c t C l a s s i ve ro s t rat om egy
5. What was your feedback? Wishes... Look at assessment from this perspective, listen to the oral presentations and continue having the kind of discussion we had, to continue having sessions with things to put into practice, keep on learning and sharing with the teacher and peers, use more music in our classes, learn more about learners constructing meaning, to create a good presentation, learn about lesson planning, continue clarifying issues, learn more teaching strategies, learn about backwards design, connecting different subject areas, more curriculum theory, to become a better teacher veEf f e c t i omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g
6. What are our course Cou rs e S p ag y l l a b objectives? e 1 us Understand the basic principles of several different schools of thought and how they have influenced education. Plan and develop an academic unit using a variety of instructional models among them Backwards Design. Apply knowledge of Bloom´s taxonomy, Gardner´s multiple intelligences, Maslow´s Hierarchy and differentiated instruction to prepare lesson plans. Use research skills in order to complement the class readings and offer oral presentations. Describe the characteristics and steps involved in implementing a variety of instructional models. veEf f e c t i omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g
7. ve Ef f e c t i om C l a s s ro y s t r a te gOral presentations: Skinner and Piaget
8. Where does curriculum fit in the bigger picture? ct ic e. to p u t a se t of be lie fs in to praKathy ShortC ur ricu lum is
9. The “modern” perspective of Curriculum Written Curriculum Assessed Curriculum Learners constructing meaning Taught Curriculum veEf f e c t i omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g
10. The big curriculum picture Government - Local - State laws - Accreditation AgenciesWhy? School´s Philosophy - School´s essential understandings School´s Standards and BenchmarksWhat? Scope and Sequence documentation (Knowledge, Understandings, Skills, Dispositions)How? Unit Plans - Essential teaching strategiesWhether? Assessment guidelines - Tasks Resources
11. What are standards?Standards are descriptors of learning that formthe backbone of our curriculum They are statements of understanding Few in number Broad in nature Constant throughout developmental bands Learned over time, by degrees
12. What are standards?There are different types of standards in a schoolcurriculum...DispositionsSkillsContent (Knowledge and understanding)
13. What are benchmarks?Written statements of things learners will know,value, be able to do in order to meet thestandards. More specific Few in number Developmentally specific (This means they do change according to the developmental level of the learner Assessable
14. ve Ef f e c t iLet´s look at an example... om C l a s s ro y s t r a te gMathematics: Learners understand theconcepts of probability and statics L1 - Learner recognise that some things are more likely to happen than others. L2 - Learners can manipulate random variables
15. Let´s put it into practice! veEf f e c t i omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g
16. ve Ef f e c t i om C l a s s ro y s t r a te gMany parents are concerned about the curriculumat your school. Much work has been done, but manyparents don´t really understand what´s happening.Your task:You and your group will prepare a 2 minute presentation to parents of yourstudents. The major objectives are to provide them with information about: ✴What is meant by “Standards” in your school´s curriculum? ✴What are the different types of standards in your school´s curriculum? What is the importance of each type? ✴What are the advantages of having standards? ✴How parents might see the idea of standards on a day to day basis?
17. UdB... The Backwards design model of yo ur‘To be gin w ith th e en d in mi nd me an s to st art w ith a cle ar un de rs ta nding ta ndde st in at ion . It me an s to kn ow wh ere yo u’re go ing so th at yo u be tter un de rs e right direc tio n.’wh ere yo u are no w so th at th e step s yo u ta ke are al ways in th Ste ven R. Covey
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19. Ready for a shuffle?Go around the room asking about favourite andleast favourite food. Group yourself accordingly
21. Using Backward Design Think of a personal goal or aim. What evidence will there be that you have achieved your goal or aim? How will you achieve your goal or aim - what do you need to do ? veEf f e c t i omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g
22. What are the guiding questions of the Backward Design approach?Creators Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe recommendusing the following questions to guide teacherplanning: 1.What is worthy and requiring of understanding? 2.What is evidence of understanding? 3.What learning experiences and teaching promote understanding, interest and excellence?
23. What is the first step inUnderstanding by Design?Stage 1 : Identify desired results
24. What is the first step in Understanding by Design? What should students know, understand and be able to do? What is worthy of understanding? What enduring understandings are desired?In this stage we consider our goals, standards andcurriculum expectations - There is always morecontent than can be reasonably addressed -so we make choices Step%1% Iden%fy( desired( results(
25. Students can´t possibly learn everything of value by the time theyleave school, but we can instil in them the desire to keep questioning throughout their lives. t Wig gi ns G ra n
26. How do we establish curricular priorities?One day an expert in time management wasspeaking to a group of business students and, todrive home a point, used an illustration thosestudents will never forget.As he stood in front of the group of high poweredover-achievers he said, Okay, time for a quiz.Then he pulled out a one-gallon, wide mouthedjar and set it on the table in front of him.Then he produced about a dozen fist  sized rocksand carefully placed them, one at a time, into thejar. When the jar was filled to the top and nomore rocks would fit inside, he asked, Is the jarfull?Everyone in the class said, Yes. ve Ef f e c t i om C l a s s ro y s t r a te g
27. Then he said, Really? He reached underthe table and pulled out a bucket ofgravel. Then he dumped some gravel inand shook the jar causing pieces of gravelto work themselves down into the spacebetween the big rocks. Then he asked thegroup once more, Is the jar full? By thistime the class was on to him. Probablynot, one of them answered.Good, he replied. He reached under thetable and brought out a bucket of sand.He started dumping the sand in the jarand it went into all the spaces leftbetween the rocks and the gravel. Oncemore he asked the question, Is the jarfull?No the class shouted.
28. Once again he said, Good. Then hegrabbed a pitcher of water and beganto pour it in until the jar was filled tothe brim. Then he looked at the classand asked, What is the point of thisillustration?One eager student raised his hand andsaid, The point is, no matter how fullyour schedule is, if you try really hardyou can always fit some more thingsin.
29. No, the speaker replied. Thats not thepoint. The truth this illustrationteaches us is: If you dont put the bigrocks in first, youll never get them inat all.What are the big rocks in your life?Your children....Your loved ones....Your education....Your dreams....A worthy cause....Teaching or mentoring others....Doing things that you love....Time for yourself....Your health....Your significant other.
30. Remember to put these BIG ROCKS infirst or youll never get them in at all. Ifyou sweat the little stuff (the gravel, thesand) then youll fill your life with littlethings to worry about that dont reallymatter, and youll never have the realquality time you need to spend on the big,important stuff (the big rocks). So,tonight or in the morning, when you arereflecting on this short story, ask yourselfthis question: What are the big rocks in my life? Then, put those in your jar first!
31. Video on UdB stage 1 veEf f e c t i omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g
32. Knowledge)that)is)worth)being)familiar)with: Cannot&address&all&areas&–&knowledge&that&is&worth& being&familiar&with.&&What&do&we&want&students&to& Worth being hear,&read,&view,&research&or&encounter?&! familiar with...Important to Knowledge)and)skills)that)are)important)know and to)know:do... Sharpen(our(choices(by(specifying(important( knowledge((facts,(concepts,(principles,(skills,( Enduring processes,(strategies,(methods)!Understandings Understandings+that+are+enduring: Enduring(understandings(that(will(anchor(the(unit.(( Enduring(refers(to(the(big(ideas,(the(important( understandings(the(we(want(students(to(“get(inside( of”(and(retain(a:er(they(have(forgo=en(many(of(the( details.! Step%1% Iden%fy( desired( results(
34. Step%1% Iden%fy( What are enduring desired( results( understandings?Involve the ‘big ideas’ that givemeaning and importance to factsCan transfer to other topics, fieldsand lifeAre usually not obvious, oftencounter-intuitive, and easilymisunderstoodMay provide a conceptualfoundation for ‘basic skills’Are deliberately framed asgeneralisations ve Ef f e c t i om C l a s s ro y s t r a te g
35. What do we mean by understanding? en ts an dEn du ri ng un de rs ta ndings are de ve lo pe d by te ache rs an d st udmus t be cle ar ly de fi ne d an d un de rs to od be fo re ef fe ct ive pl an ni ng an dau th en tic as se ssmen t ca n be gi n.
36. What are the 6 facets of understanding? Sketch to Stretch: On a piece of paper, draw a picture of the meaning of “Understanding” to you. Try to go beyond the literal to a conceptual representation of the concept. Carrousel share: Once your are done, pass your sketch to the person next to you and so on. Step%1% Iden%fy(Ef f e c t i ve om desired(C l a s s ro y s t r a te g results(
37. What are the 6 facets of understanding?Wiggins and McTighe have developed a multifaceted view ofwhat makes up understanding Explanation – theories and support Interpretation – making meaning, stories and translation Application – to new situations Perspective – other points of view, critical stance Empathy – “walk in the shoes of..” Self-knowledge – “knowing thyself” Step%1% Iden%fy( desired( results(
38. What do we mean by understanding? Step%1% Iden%fy( desired( results(
39. g Log ar nin onLe Re f le c t i How has your understanding of “understanding” evolved after the readings, video and our discussions?
40. Ready for a shuffle?Find a learning partner. Someone who teaches asimilar grade level or subject area as you teach.
41. How can we apply this to our own work?
42. Using the UdB framework to plan our unitUsing the blank Ubd template, work with yourpartner and start developing a plan for stage 1.Look at your own school´s curriculum documentsand guidesTake into account all the discussion we have had sofar.Be prepared to share your work with the larger groupincluding the process you went through Step%1% Iden%fy( desired( results(
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44. Good morning!
45. What are our course Cou rs e S p ag y l l a b objectives? e 1 us Understand the basic principles of several different schools of thought and how they have influenced education. Plan and develop an academic unit using a variety of instructional models among them Backwards Design. Apply knowledge of Bloom´s taxonomy, Gardner´s multiple intelligences, Maslow´s Hierarchy and differentiated instruction to prepare lesson plans. Use research skills in order to complement the class readings and offer oral presentations. Describe the characteristics and steps involved in implementing a variety of instructional models. veEf f e c t i omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g
47. What are essential questions? Let´s take some time to read the article “What is a good guiding question” Once you finish the reading, use the placemat organiser to summarise the main points of the article. Discuss with your colleagues and add to the middle part what you believe would summarise your thoughts as a group. Gallery exhibition Step%1% Iden%fy( desired( veEf f e c t i results( omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g
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50. g Log ar nin onLe Re f le c t iWhy do you think it is important toestablish curricular priorities in yourclassroom? What do you need to take intoaccount when establishing such priorities?
51. What is the second step in Understanding by Design?Stage 2 : Determine acceptable evidence
52. Page Let´s think about it... 4Complete the sources of assessment - self assessmentWhat does the result tell you about your assessmentpractices?Be prepared to share... Step%2% Determine( acceptable( evidence(
53. What is the second step in Understanding by Design? Page 5Stage 2 : Determine acceptable evidence How will we know if students have achieved the desired results and met the standards? What will we accept as evidence of student understanding and proficiency?The Backward Design approach encourages teachers to think like anassessor before designing units.When planning to collect evidence of understanding, teachers shouldconsider a range of assessment methodsUnderstanding develops as a result of ongoing inquiry. The assessment ofunderstanding should be thought of in terms of a collection of evidence overtime. Step%2% Determine( acceptable( evidence(
54. How many assessments should be used?Think “Scrapbook”not “Snapshot”Sound assessmentrequires multiplesources of evidence,collected over time.
55. What type of assessment should weuse to determine acceptable evidence? Forma&ve) Summa&ve) Assessment) Assessment) Guidance) Shows)end) with) result)of) Feedback) process) Throughout) End)of)unit) unit) Step%2% Determine( acceptable( evidence(
56. What is formative assessment? Step%2% Determine( acceptable( evidence(
57. Video on stage 2 Step%2% Determine( acceptable( evidence(
58. How can we plan all types of assessment?The Learned Curriculum - AssessmentAssessment is built into the teaching and learning process and occurs bothformally and incidentally at various points in a learning sequence. (Jenni Conner – Tasmania Gets Down to Essentials- 2002)Lorna Earl describes three different approaches to classroomassessment. • Assessment of learning (What is an example?) • Assessment for learning (What is an example?) • Assessment as learning (What is an example?) Step%2% Determine( acceptable( evidence(
59. What are the three approaches to assessment?Assessment of Learning is summative. Its purposes are to ‘certify learningand report to parents and students about students’ progress in school….Assessment ofLearning is typically done at the end of something… Earl says, ‘there will always bemilestones and junctures where summative assessment is called for and Assessment ofLearning is essential.Assessment for Learning, on the other hand, is formative. It shifts the emphasisfrom making judgments to creating descriptions that can be used in the service of thenext stage of learning. The teacher is central to this process, but in interactive ways. Ithelps teachers to identify students’ current understandings and move them on to higherlevel concepts and skills.Assessment as Learning is students internalising the skills and abilitiesnecessary to self-evaluate and reflect on their learning. This enables them to assesswhere they are, where they still need to go and determine what they need to do toachieve their goal. Step%2% Determine( acceptable( evidence(
60. What are some examples of formative assessment?Peer / self assessment or evaluation Whiteboard feedbackMonitoring oral discussion Ticket to leave/ exit cardsWritten or visual reflections Hand signalsQuestioning / responses Bell retellDrafts and evidence of thought Muddiest pointprocesses One-minute essay/ Minute essayKWL’s, journals recordings, diaries Chain notesQuizzes/ pre-tests Learning logsJournals Test questionsObservations/ anecdotal check-lists QuestionsReading reflective journals Find the errors Step%2%Debriefing students on their progress Determine( acceptable( evidence(
61. What are some examples of summative assessment?Product tasks: Poster, painting, booklet, report,etcPerformance tasks: Drama, oral, powerpoint,role-play, etc.Process-focused assessment: Exhibition,thinking logs, journals, etc.Constructed response assessments: Graphicorganizers, mind-maps, templates, etc. Step%2% Determine( acceptable( evidence(
62. Brainstorming assessment ideas Explanation Explain to the class how a battery causes a light bulb to glow ApplicationInterpretation •Design an electrical circuit to accomplish a specific taskInterpret a schematic diagram and predict the outcome •Troubleshoot a faulty electrical circuit Electricity Perspective EmpathyWhy does the US use AC instead of •Describe an electron´s experience as it passes through a simpleDC current? (historical perspective) currentWhat are the strengths of each type? Self - Knowledge Give a pre - test and a post test to assess common misconceptions (e.g. force - concept inventory and have students reflect on their Step%2% deepening understanding Determine( acceptable( evidence(
63. How can we apply this to our own work?
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66. g Log ar nin onLe Re f le c t iWhat aspects should I takeinto account whenplanning for assessment?
67. Assignments and readings for next session: Oral presentations: Brunner, Gardner, Johnson & Johnson, Carol Ann Tomlinson, Marzano, Jane E Pollock. 2nd Learning Log due (Blog, electronic, paper, etc) Readings: Integrating Differentiated instruction and Understanding by Design Chapters 3 and 4 – Carol Ann Tomlinson and Mc Tighe Improving student learning One teacher at a time Chapter 3 – Jane E Pollock Bring: Your draft of the unit you are planing. Use the resources on the workbook to guide your planing. veEf f e c t i omC l a s s ro y s t r a te g