Biography Born October 1, 1915 in New York City. 1941 Doctorate in psychology at Harvard University. Cognitive and educational psychology. 1956 Bruner helped to found the Center of cognitive studies at Harvard. 1967 he turned his attention toward Developmental Psychology.
Bruner´s constructivist theory Bruner´s 3 Modes of representation. 1. Enactive (0-1 year): Action based information 2. Iconic (1-6 years): Mental pictures of information 3. Symbolic (7 years +): Information is stored in a form of a code or a symbol. New material follow a progression from enactive, to icon tosymbolic representation. Anyone can learn any material as long as the instruction isorganized appropriately. The purpose of education is not to impart knowledge but tofacilitate a child´s thinking and problem solving skills. Students are active learners who construct their ownknowledge.
Bruner´s constructivist theory Differences with Piaget: a child is capable of understanding any complex information at any stage of development. Sprial Curriculum: Complex ideas can be taught at a simplified level first ant then re-visited at more complex levels later on. Concepts will be taught at levels of gradually increasing difficulty. Discovery Learning: Students construct their own knowledge. Organizing and categorizing information using a coding system (by discovery rather than being told by the teacher). Good teacher: Design lessons that help students to discover the relationship between bits of information.
Bruner´s constructivist theory Social environment has an impact on a child learning. Scaffolding: A helpful and structured interaction between and adult and a child with the aim of helping the child achieve a specific goal. What determines the level of intellectual development is the extent to which the child has been given appropriate instruction. Video