Man and his symbols carl g. jung

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Man and his symbols carl g. jung

  1. 1. Manand his Symbolsconceived and edited byCarl G.Jung
  2. 2. The first and only work in which C a r lG. Jung, the world-famous Swiss psy-chologist, explains to the general readerhis greatest contribution to our knowl-edge of the human mind: the theory ofthe importance of symbolism—particu-larly as revealed in dreams.Man and hisSymbolsCarl G.JungBut for a dream, this book would neverhave been written. That dream — de-scribed by John Freeman in the Fore-word—convinced Jung that he could,indeed should, explain his ideas to thosewho have no special knowledge of psy- chology. At the age of eighty-three,Jung worked out the complete plan forthis book, including the sections thathe wished his four closest associates towrite. He devoted the closing months of his life to editing the work and writ- ing his own key section, which he com- pleted only ten days before his death. Throughout the book, Jung empha- sizes that man can achieve wholeness only through a knowledge and accept- ance of the unconscious—a knowledge acquired through dreams and their symbols. Every dream is a direct, per- sonal, and meaningful communication to the dreamer—a communication that uses the symbols common to all man- kind but uses them always in an entire- ly individual way, which can be inter- preted only by an entirely individual key. (Continued on back flap)
  3. 3. iMan and his Symbols
  4. 4. Man and his SymbolsCarl G.Jungand M.-L. von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jolande J a c o b i , Aniela JaffeAnchor PressDoubledayNew York London Toronto Sydney Auckland
  5. 5. Editor: Carl G. Jungand after his death M.-L. von FranzCo-ordinating Editor: John FreemanAldus EditorsText: Douglas HillDesign: Michael KitsonAssistants: Marian Morris, Gilbert Doel, Michael LloydResearch: Margery MacLarenAdvisers: Donald Berwick, Norman MacKenzieAn Anchor Press bookPublished by Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday DellPublishing Group, Inc., 666 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10103Anchor Press and the portrayal of an anchor are trademarksof Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell PublishingGroup, Inc.© 1964 J.G. FERGUSON PUBLISHINGexcept chapter 2 entitled «Ancient myths and modernman» by Dr. Joseph L. Henderson, where copyright inthis chapter within the United States of America isexpressly disclaimed.Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-18631ISBN 0 - 3 8 5 - 0 5 2 2 1 - 9First published in the United States of America in 1964Reprinted in 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 3 , 1 9 8 8Printed and bound in Spain by TONSA, San Sebastian
  6. 6. Introduction: John FreemanT h e origins of this book a r e sufficiently u n u s u a l to be of interest, a n dthey b e a r a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to its c o n t e n t s a n d w h a t it sets o u t to d o . Solet me tell y o u j u s t h o w it c a m e to b e w r i t t e n . O n e d a y in t h e s p r i n g of 1959 t h e British B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o ninvited m e to i n t e r v i e w for British television D r . C a r l G u s t a v J u n g .T h e interview w a s to b e d o n e " i n d e p t h . " I k n e w little e n o u g h a t t h a ttime a b o u t J u n g a n d his w o r k , a n d I a t o n c e w e n t to m a k e his a c q u a i n t -ance at his beautiful lakeside h o m e n e a r Z u r i c h . T h a t was t h e b e g i n n i n gof a friendship t h a t m e a n t a g r e a t d e a l to m e a n d , I h o p e , g a v e somepleasure to J u n g in t h e last years of his life. T h e television i n t e r v i e whas no further p l a c e in this story, e x c e p t t h a t it was a c c o u n t e d successfuland t h a t this b o o k is by a n o d d c o m b i n a t i o n of c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n e n d -product of t h a t success. O n e m a n w h o saw J u n g o n t h e screen was W o l f g a n g Foges, m a n a g -ing director of A l d u s Books. Foges h a d b e e n keenly interested in t h ed e v e l o p m e n t of m o d e r n psychology since his c h i l d h o o d , w h e n h e livednear the F r e u d s in V i e n n a . A n d as h e w a t c h e d J u n g t a l k i n g a b o u t hislife a n d w o r k a n d ideas, Foges s u d d e n l y reflected w h a t a pity it wasthat, while the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of F r e u d s work was well k n o w n toeducated r e a d e r s all over t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d , J u n g h a d n e v e r m a n a g e dto break t h r o u g h to t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a n d was a l w a y s c o n s i d e r e d toodifficult for p o p u l a r r e a d i n g . Foges, in fact, is the c r e a t o r of Man and his Symbols. H a v i n g sensedfrom t h e T V screen t h a t a w a r m p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n existed b e t w e e nJ u n g a n d myself, he asked m e w h e t h e r I w o u l d j o i n h i m in t r y i n g topersuade J u n g to set o u t s o m e of his m o r e i m p o r t a n t a n d basic ideas in language a n d a t a l e n g t h t h a t w o u l d b e intelligible a n d i n t e r e s t i n g tonon-specialist a d u l t r e a d e r s . I j u m p e d a t t h e i d e a a n d set off o n c e m o r e to Z u r i c h , d e t e r m i n e d t h a t I c o u l d c o n v i n c e J u n g of the v a l u e a n d i m p o r t a n c e of s u c h a work. J u n g listened to m e in his g a r d e n for two hours a l m o s t w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n — a n d t h e n said n o . H e said it in t h e nicest possible w a y , b u t w i t h g r e a t firmness; h e h a d n e v e r in the pasttried to p o p u l a r i z e his w o r k , a n d h e w a s n t sure t h a t h e c o u l d success-fully d o so n o w ; a n y w a y , h e was old a n d r a t h e r tired a n d n o t keen totake on such a l o n g c o m m i t m e n t a b o u t w h i c h h e h a d so m a n y d o u b t s . J u n g s friends will all a g r e e w i t h m e t h a t h e was a m a n of mostpositive decision. H e w o u l d w e i g h u p a p r o b l e m w i t h c a r e a n d w i t h o u t 9
  7. 7. h u r r y ; b u t w h e n h e did give his a n s w e r , it was usually final. I r e t u r n e d to L o n d o n g r e a t l y d i s a p p o i n t e d , b u t c o n v i n c e d t h a t J u n g s refusal was the e n d of t h e m a t t e r . So it m i g h t h a v e b e e n , b u t for two i n t e r v e n i n g factors t h a t I h a d not foreseen. O n e was the p e r t i n a c i t y of Foges, w h o insisted o n m a k i n g o n e m o r e a p p r o a c h to J u n g before a c c e p t i n g defeat. T h e o t h e r was a n e v e n t t h a t , as I look back on it, still astonishes m e . T h e television p r o g r a m was, as I h a v e said, a c c o u n t e d successful. It b r o u g h t J u n g a g r e a t m a n y letters from all sorts of p e o p l e , m a n y of t h e m o r d i n a r y folk w i t h no m e d i c a l or psychological t r a i n i n g , w h o h a d b e e n c a p t i v a t e d by the c o m m a n d i n g p r e s e n c e , the h u m o r , a n d the modest c h a r m of this very g r e a t m a n , a n d w h o h a d g l i m p s e d in his view of life a n d h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y s o m e t h i n g t h a t could b e helpful to t h e m . A n d J u n g was very pleased, n o t simply at g e t t i n g letters (his mail was e n o r m o u s a t all times) b u t a t g e t t i n g t h e m from p e o p l e w h o would normally have no contact with him. I t was a t this m o m e n t t h a t he d r e a m e d a d r e a m of the greatest i m p o r t a n c e to h i m . ( A n d as you r e a d this book, you will u n d e r s t a n d j u s t h o w i m p o r t a n t t h a t c a n be.) H e d r e a m e d t h a t , instead of sitting in his s t u d y a n d t a l k i n g to the g r e a t d o c t o r s a n d psychiatrists w h o used to call on h i m from all over the w o r l d , h e was s t a n d i n g in a p u b l i c p l a c e a n d a d d r e s s i n g a m u l t i t u d e of p e o p l e w h o w e r e listening to h i m with r a p t a t t e n t i o n a n d understanding what he said. . . . W h e n , a week or t w o later, Foges r e n e w e d his request t h a t J u n g should u n d e r t a k e a n e w book d e s i g n e d , n o t for the clinic or the philo- s o p h e r s s t u d y , b u t for the p e o p l e in the m a r k e t p l a c e , J u n g allowed himself to be p e r s u a d e d . H e laid d o w n two c o n d i t i o n s . First, t h a t the book s h o u l d n o t be a s i n g l e - h a n d e d book, b u t the collective effort of himself a n d a g r o u p of his closest followers, t h r o u g h w h o m he h a d a t t e m p t e d to p e r p e t u a t e his m e t h o d s a n d his t e a c h i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h a t I s h o u l d b e e n t r u s t e d w i t h the task of c o - o r d i n a t i n g the work a n d resolv- ing a n y p r o b l e m s t h a t m i g h t arise b e t w e e n the a u t h o r s a n d the publishers. Lest it s h o u l d seem t h a t this i n t r o d u c t i o n transgresses the b o u n d s of r e a s o n a b l e m o d e s t y , let m e say at o n c e t h a t I was gratified by this second c o n d i t i o n — b u t w i t h i n m e a s u r e . F o r it very soon c a m e to m y k n o w l e d g e t h a t J u n g s reason for selecting m e was essentially t h a t heI ()
  8. 8. regarded m e as b e i n g of r e a s o n a b l e , b u t n o t e x c e p t i o n a l , intelligenceand w i t h o u t t h e slightest serious k n o w l e d g e of psychology. T h u s I wasto J u n g t h e " a v e r a g e r e a d e r " of this b o o k ; w h a t I could u n d e r s t a n dwould be intelligible to all w h o w o u l d b e i n t e r e s t e d ; w h a t I boggledat m i g h t possibly b e too difficult or o b s c u r e for s o m e . N o t u n d u l y flat-tered by this e s t i m a t e of m y role, I h a v e n o n e t h e less s c r u p u l o u s l y in-sisted (sometimes, I fear, to the e x a s p e r a t i o n of t h e a u t h o r s ) o n h a v i n gevery p a r a g r a p h w r i t t e n a n d , if necessary, r e w r i t t e n to a d e g r e e ofclarity a n d directness t h a t e n a b l e s m e to say w i t h confidence t h a t thisbook in its e n t i r e t y is d e s i g n e d for a n d a d d r e s s e d to the g e n e r a l r e a d e r ,and t h a t t h e c o m p l e x subjects it deals w i t h a r e t r e a t e d w i t h a r a r e a n de n c o u r a g i n g simplicity. After m u c h discussion, t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e subject of this book wasagreed to b e M a n a n d his S y m b o l s ; a n d J u n g himself selected as hiscollaborators in t h e w o r k D r . M a r i e - L o u i s e v o n F r a n z of Z u r i c h , per-haps his closest professional c o n f i d a n t e a n d f r i e n d ; D r . J o s e p h L. H e n -derson of S a n F r a n c i s c o , o n e of the most p r o m i n e n t a n d t r u s t e d ofA m e r i c a n J u n g i a n s ; M r s . A n i e l a Jaffe of Z u r i c h , w h o , in a d d i t i o n tobeing a n e x p e r i e n c e d a n a l y s t , was J u n g s confidential p r i v a t e secretaryand his b i o g r a p h e r ; a n d D r . J o l a n d e J a c o b i , w h o after J u n g himselfis the most e x p e r i e n c e d a u t h o r a m o n g J u n g s Z u r i c h circle. T h e s e fourpeople w e r e chosen p a r t l y b e c a u s e of t h e i r skill a n d e x p e r i e n c e in thep a r t i c u l a r subjects a l l o c a t e d to t h e m a n d p a r t l y b e c a u s e all of t h e mwere c o m p l e t e l y trusted b y J u n g to w o r k unselfishly to his instructionsas m e m b e r s of a t e a m . J u n g s p e r s o n a l responsibility was to p l a n thestructure of t h e w h o l e book, to supervise a n d d i r e c t the w o r k of hiscollaborators, a n d himself to w r i t e t h e k e y n o t e c h a p t e r , " A p p r o a c h i n gthe U n c o n s c i o u s . " T h e last y e a r of his life was d e v o t e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y to this book, a n dwhen he d i e d in J u n e 1961, his o w n section was c o m p l e t e (he finishedit, in fact, o n l y s o m e 10 days before his final illness) a n d his colleagueschapters h a d all b e e n a p p r o v e d by h i m in draft. After his d e a t h , D r .von F r a n z a s s u m e d over-all responsibility for the c o m p l e t i o n of thebook in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h J u n g s express i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h e subject m a t t e rof Man and his Symbols a n d its o u t l i n e w e r e therefore laid d o w n —a n d in d e t a i l — b y J u n g . T h e c h a p t e r t h a t b e a r s his n a m e is his worka n d ( a p a r t from s o m e fairly extensive e d i t i n g to i m p r o v e its intelligi- 11
  9. 9. bility to t h e g e n e r a l r e a d e r ) n o b o d y elses. I t was w r i t t e n , i n c i d e n t a l l y , in English. T h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s w e r e w r i t t e n b y t h e v a r i o u s a u t h o r s to J u n g s d i r e c t i o n a n d u n d e r his supervision. T h e final e d i t i n g of the c o m p l e t e w o r k after J u n g s d e a t h has b e e n d o n e by D r . von F r a n z w i t h a p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n d good h u m o r t h a t leave the p u b l i s h e r s a n d myself g r e a t l y in h e r d e b t . Finally as to t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e book itself: J u n g s t h i n k i n g has colored t h e w o r l d of m o d e r n psychology m o r e t h a n m a n y of those w i t h casual k n o w l e d g e realize. S u c h familiar t e r m s , for i n s t a n c e , as " e x t r a v e r t , " " i n t r o v e r t , " a n d " a r c h e t y p e " a r e all J u n g i a n c o n c e p t s — b o r r o w e d a n d s o m e t i m e s misused b y o t h e r s . B u t his o v e r w h e l m i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to psychological u n d e r s t a n d i n g is his con- c e p t of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s — n o t (like t h e u n c o n s c i o u s of F r e u d ) m e r e l y a sort of glory-hole of repressed desires, b u t a w o r l d t h a t is j u s t as m u c h a vital a n d real p a r t of the life of a n i n d i v i d u a l as the conscious, " c o g i t a t i n g " w o r l d of the ego, a n d infinitely w i d e r a n d richer. T h e l a n g u a g e a n d t h e " p e o p l e " of the u n c o n s c i o u s a r e symbols, a n d the m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n s d r e a m s . T h u s a n e x a m i n a t i o n of M a n a n d his S y m b o l s is in effect a n e x a m i - n a t i o n of m a n s r e l a t i o n to his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s . A n d since in J u n g s view the u n c o n s c i o u s is the g r e a t g u i d e , friend, a n d adviser of t h e conscious, this book is r e l a t e d in the most direct t e r m s to the s t u d y of h u m a n beings a n d their s p i r i t u a l p r o b l e m s . W e k n o w t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a n d c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h it (a t w o - w a y service) p r i n c i p a l l y by d r e a m s ; a n d all t h r o u g h this book ( a b o v e all in J u n g s o w n c h a p t e r ) you will find a q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d o n the i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m - ing in the life of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t w o u l d b e a n i m p e r t i n e n c e o n m y p a r t to a t t e m p t to i n t e r p r e t J u n g s w o r k to r e a d e r s , m a n y of w h o m will surely b e far b e t t e r q u a l i - fied to u n d e r s t a n d it t h a n I a m . M y role, r e m e m b e r , was m e r e l y to serve as a sort of "intelligibility filter" a n d by n o m e a n s as a n inter- p r e t e r . Nevertheless, I v e n t u r e to offer two g e n e r a l points t h a t seem i m p o r t a n t to m e as a l a y m a n a n d t h a t m a y possibly b e helpful to o t h e r n o n - e x p e r t s . T h e first is a b o u t d r e a m s . T o J u n g i a n s the d r e a m is n o t a kind of s t a n d a r d i z e d c r y p t o g r a m t h a t c a n be d e c o d e d by a glossary of s y m b o l m e a n i n g s . I t is a n i n t e g r a l , i m p o r t a n t , a n d p e r s o n a l expres- sion of the i n d i v i d u a l u n c o n s c i o u s . It is j u s t as " r e a l " as a n y o t h e rI 2
  10. 10. p h e n o m e n o n a t t a c h i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l . The, d r e a m e r s i n d i v i d u a lunconscious is c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e d r e a m e r a l o n e a n d is selectingsymbols for its p u r p o s e t h a t h a v e m e a n i n g to the d r e a m e r a n d ton o b o d y else. T h u s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d r e a m s , w h e t h e r b y the analystor by the d r e a m e r himself, is for the J u n g i a n psychologist a n entirelypersonal a n d i n d i v i d u a l business ( a n d s o m e t i m e s a n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n dvery l e n g t h y o n e as well) t h a t c a n by n o m e a n s b e u n d e r t a k e n byrule of t h u m b . T h e converse of this is t h a t the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s of the unconsciousare of the highest i m p o r t a n c e to the d r e a m e r — n a t u r a l l y so, since theunconscious is a t least half of his total b e i n g — a n d frequently offer h i madvice or g u i d a n c e t h a t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from n o o t h e r source. T h u s ,when I d e s c r i b e d J u n g s d r e a m a b o u t a d d r e s s i n g the m u l t i t u d e , I wasnot d e s c r i b i n g a piece of m a g i c or suggesting t h a t J u n g d a b b l e d infortune telling. I was r e c o u n t i n g in the s i m p l e t e r m s of daily e x p e r i e n c ehow J u n g was " a d v i s e d " by his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s to reconsider a ni n a d e q u a t e j u d g m e n t he h a d m a d e w i t h t h e conscious p a r t of his m i n d . N o w it follows from this t h a t t h e d r e a m i n g of d r e a m s is not a m a t t e rthat the well-adjusted J u n g i a n c a n r e g a r d as simply a m a t t e r ofchance. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , the ability to establish c o m m u n i c a t i o n s withthe u n c o n s c i o u s is a p a r t of t h e w h o l e m a n , a n d J u n g i a n s " t e a c h "themselves (I c a n t h i n k of n o b e t t e r t e r m ) to be r e c e p t i v e to d r e a m s .W h e n , therefore, J u n g himself was faced w i t h the critical decision 1w h e t h e r or not to w r i t e this book, he was a b l e to d r a w on the resourcesof both his conscious a n d his u n c o n s c i o u s in m a k i n g u p his m i n d . A n dall t h r o u g h this book you will find the d r e a m t r e a t e d as a direct, per-sonal, a n d m e a n i n g f u l c o m m u n i c a t i o n to the d r e a m e r —a c o m m u n i c a -tion t h a t uses the symbols c o m m o n to ajl m a n k i n d , b u t t h a t uses t h e mon every occasion in a n entirely i n d i v i d u a l w a y t h a t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e donly by a n entirely i n d i v i d u a l " k e y . " T h e second p o i n t I wish to m a k e is a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i cof a r g u m e n t a t i v e m e t h o d t h a t is c o m m o n to all the writers of this book p e r h a p s to all J u n g i a n s . T h o s e w h o h a v e limited themselves to livingentirely in the w o r l d of the conscious a n d w h o reject c o m m u n i c a t i o nwith the u n c o n s c i o u s b i n d themselves by the laws of conscious, formallife. W i t h t h e infallible ( b u t often meaningless) logic of t h e a l g e b r a i ce q u a t i o n , they a r g u e from a s s u m e d premises to i n c o n t e s t a b l y d e d u c e d 3
  11. 11. conclusions. J u n g a n d his colleagues seem to m e ( w h e t h e r they k n o w it or not) to reject the l i m i t a t i o n s of this m e t h o d of a r g u m e n t . It is not t h a t t h e y i g n o r e logic, b u t t h e y a p p e a r all t h e t i m e to be a r g u i n g to the u n c o n s c i o u s as well as to t h e conscious. T h e i r dialectical m e t h o d is itself symbolic a n d often devious. T h e y c o n v i n c e not by m e a n s of t h e n a r - rowly focused spotlight of the syllogism, b u t by skirting, by r e p e t i t i o n , b y p r e s e n t i n g a r e c u r r i n g view of the s a m e subject seen e a c h t i m e from a slightly different a n g l e — until s u d d e n l y the r e a d e r w h o has never b e e n a w a r e of a single, conclusive m o m e n t of p r o o f finds t h a t he has u n k n o w i n g l y e m b r a c e d a n d t a k e n i n t o himself some w i d e r t r u t h . J u n g s a r g u m e n t s ( a n d those of his colleagues) spiral u p w a r d over his subject like a b i r d circling a tree. At first, n e a r the g r o u n d , it sees only a confusion of leaves a n d b r a n c h e s . G r a d u a l l y , as it circles h i g h e r a n d h i g h e r , the r e c u r r i n g aspects of t h e tree form a wholeness a n d r e l a t e to their s u r r o u n d i n g s . S o m e r e a d e r s m a y find this " s p i r a l i n g " m e t h o d of a r g u m e n t o b s c u r e or even confusing for a few p a g e s — b u t not, I t h i n k , for long. I t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of J u n g s m e t h o d , a n d very soon the r e a d e r will find it c a r r y i n g h i m w i t h it o n a persuasive a n d profoundly absorbing j o u r n e y . T h e different sections of this book speak for themselves a n d r e q u i r e little i n t r o d u c t i o n from m e . J u n g s o w n c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s t h e r e a d e r to the u n c o n s c i o u s , to t h e a r c h e t y p e s a n d symbols t h a t form its l a n g u - age a n d to t h e d r e a m s by w h i c h it c o m m u n i c a t e s . D r . H e n d e r s o n in the following c h a p t e r illustrates the a p p e a r a n c e of several a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s in a n c i e n t m y t h o l o g y , folk l e g e n d , a n d p r i m i t i v e r i t u a l . D r . von F r a n z , in the c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " T h e Process of I n d i v i d u a t i o n , " describes the process by w h i c h t h e conscious a n d t h e unconscious w i t h i n a n i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n to k n o w , respect, a n d a c c o m m o d a t e o n e a n o t h e r . I n a c e r t a i n sense this c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s n o t only the c r u x of t h e w h o l e book, b u t p e r h a p s the essence of J u n g s p h i l o s o p h y of life: M a n b e c o m e s w h o l e , i n t e g r a t e d , c a l m , fertile, a n d h a p p y w h e n ( a n d only w h e n ) t h e process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n is c o m p l e t e , w h e n t h e con- scious a n d t h e u n c o n s c i o u s h a v e l e a r n e d to live a t p e a c e a n d to com- p l e m e n t o n e a n o t h e r . M r s . Jaffe, like D r . H e n d e r s o n , is c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i n g , in the familiar fabric of the conscious, m a n s r e c u r r i n g interest i n — a l m o s t obsession w i t h — the symbols of the u n - conscious. T h e y h a v e for him a p r o f o u n d l y significant, almost a nour-14
  12. 12. ishing a n d s u s t a i n i n g , i n n e r a t t r a c t i o n — w h e t h e r t h e y o c c u r in themyths a n d fairy tales t h a t D r . H e n d e r s o n a n a l y z e s or in the visual arts,which, as M r s . Jaffe shows, satisfy a n d d e l i g h t us b y a c o n s t a n t a p p e a lto the u n c o n s c i o u s . Finally, I m u s t say a brief w o r d a b o u t D r . J a c o b i s c h a p t e r , w h i c his s o m e w h a t s e p a r a t e from the rest of the book. It is in fact a n a b b r e -viated case history of o n e i n t e r e s t i n g a n d successful analysis. T h e valueof such a c h a p t e r in a b o o k like this is o b v i o u s ; b u t two w o r d s of w a r n -ing are nevertheless necessary. First, as D r . v o n F r a n z points o u t , t h e r eis no such t h i n g as a typical J u n g i a n analysis. T h e r e c a n t b e , becauseevery d r e a m is a p r i v a t e a n d i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d n o t w od r e a m s use t h e symbols of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in t h e s a m e w a y . So everyJ u n g i a n analysis is u n i q u e — a n d it is m i s l e a d i n g to consider this o n e ,taken from D r . J a c o b i s clinical files (or a n y o t h e r o n e t h e r e has everbeen), as " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " or " t y p i c a l . " All o n e c a n say of the case of H e n r y a n d his s o m e t i m e s l u r i d d r e a m s is t h a t t h e y form o n e t r u e example of t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e J u n g i a n m e t h o d m a y b e a p p l i e d to a p a r t i c u l a r case. S e c o n d l y , t h e full history of even a c o m p a r a t i v e l yu n c o m p l i c a t e d case w o u l d t a k e a w h o l e book to r e c o u n t . I n e v i t a b l y , thestory of H e n r y s analysis suffers a little in c o m p r e s s i o n . T h e references,for instance, to t h e / Ching h a v e b e e n s o m e w h a t o b s c u r e d a n d lent a nu n n a t u r a l ( a n d to m e unsatisfactory) flavor of the occult b y b e i n g p r e -sented o u t of t h e i r full c o n t e x t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , we c o n c l u d e d — a n d I a msure the r e a d e r will a g r e e — t h a t , w i t h the w a r n i n g s d u l y given, theclarity, to say n o t h i n g of the h u m a n interest, of H e n r y s analysisgreatly e n r i c h e s this b o o k . I b e g a n b y d e s c r i b i n g h o w J u n g c a m e to w r i t e Man and his Symbols.I end by r e m i n d i n g t h e r e a d e r of w h a t a r e m a r k a b l e — p e r h a p s u n i q u e— p u b l i c a t i o n this is. C a r l G u s t a v J u n g was o n e of the g r e a t d o c t o r s ofall time a n d o n e of t h e g r e a t t h i n k e r s of this c e n t u r y . His object alwayswas to h e l p m e n a n d w o m e n to k n o w themselves, so t h a t b y self-know-ledge a n d t h o u g h t f u l self-use they c o u l d lead full, rich, a n d h a p p y lives.At the very e n d of his o w n life, w h i c h was as full, rich, a n d h a p p y asany I h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d , he d e c i d e d to use the s t r e n g t h t h a t wasleft him to a d d r e s s his message to a w i d e r p u b l i c t h a n h e h a d evertried to r e a c h before. H e c o m p l e t e d his task a n d his life in t h e s a m em o n t h . T h i s b o o k is his legacy to t h e b r o a d r e a d i n g p u b l i c . 5
  13. 13. ContentsPart 1 Approaching the unconscious 18 Carl G. J u n gPart 2 Ancient myths and modern man 104 Joseph L. HendersonPart 3 The process of individuation 158 M.-L. von FranzPart 4 Symbolism in the visual arts 230 Aniela JaffePart 5 Symbols in an individual analysis 272 Jolande Jacobi Conclusion: Science and the unconscious 304 M.-L. von Franz Notes 311 Index 316 Illustration credits 319
  14. 14. Approaching the unconsciousCarl G. J u n g The entrance to the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Rameses III
  15. 15. Approaching the unconsciousT h e i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m sM a n uses the spoken or w r i t t e n word to express d o u b l e a d z e . T h i s is a n object t h a t we know,the m e a n i n g of w h a t he w a n t s to convey. His b u t w e d o not k n o w its symbolic implications.l a n g u a g e is full of symbols, but he also often For a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , take t h e case of thee m p l o y s signs or i m a g e s t h a t a r e not strictly I n d i a n w h o , after a visit to E n g l a n d , told hisdescriptive. S o m e a r c m e r e a b b r e v i a t i o n s or friends at h o m e t h a t the English w o r s h i p a n i -strings of initials, such as U N , U N I C E F , or mals, because he h a d found eagles, lions, a n dU N E S C O ; o t h e r s a r e familiar t r a d e m a r k s , the oxen in old c h u r c h e s . H e was not a w a r e (norn a m e s of p a t e n t m e d i c i n e s , b a d g e s , or insignia. a r e m a n y Christians) t h a t these a n i m a l s a r eA l t h o u g h these a r e m e a n i n g l e s s in themselves, symbols of the Evangelists a n d a r e derived fromthey h a v e a c q u i r e d a r e c o g n i z a b l e m e a n i n g the vision of Ezekiel, a n d t h a t this in t u r n hast h r o u g h c o m m o n usage or d e l i b e r a t e intent. a n a n a l o g y to the E g y p t i a n sun god H o r u s a n dSuch things a r e n o t symbols. T h e y a r e signs, his four sons. T h e r e a r e , m o r e o v e r , such objectsa n d they d o no m o r e t h a n d e n o t e t h e objects as t h e wheel a n d the cross t h a t a r e k n o w n allto w h i c h they a r e a t t a c h e d . over t h e w o r l d , yet t h a t h a v e a symbolic signi- W h a t w e call a s y m b o l is a t e r m , a n a m e , or ficance u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . Precisely w h a teven a p i c t u r e t h a t m a y be familiar in daily they symbolize is still a m a t t e r for controversiallife, yet t h a t possesses specific c o n n o t a t i o n s in speculation.a d d i t i o n to its c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d o b v i o u s m e a n - T h u s a w o r d or a n i m a g e is symbolic w h e n iting. It implies s o m e t h i n g v a g u e , u n k n o w n , or implies s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n its obvious a n dh i d d e n from us. M a n y C r e t a n m o n u m e n t s , for i m m e d i a t e m e a n i n g . It has a w i d e r " u n c o n -instance, a r c m a r k e d with t h e design of the s c i o u s " aspect t h a t is never precisely defined or
  16. 16. fully explained. N o r c a n o n e h o p e to define or It is not easy to g r a s p this p o i n t . But theexplain it. As the m i n d explores the s y m b o l , it point must be g r a s p e d if we a r e to k n o w m o r eis led to ideas t h a t lie b e y o n d the g r a s p of a b o u t the ways in w h i c h the h u m a n m i n dreason. T h e wheel m a y lead o u r t h o u g h t s to- works. M a n , as we realize if we reflect for award the concept of a " d i v i n e " sun, b u t at this m o m e n t , never perceives a n y t h i n g fully or c o m -point reason must a d m i t its i n c o m p e t e n c e ; m a n p r e h e n d s a n y t h i n g c o m p l e t e l y . H e c a n see, h e a r ,is unable to define a " d i v i n e " b e i n g . W h e n , t o u c h , a n d t a s t e ; b u t h o w far he sees, h o w wellwith all our intellectual l i m i t a t i o n s , we call he h e a r s , w h a t his t o u c h tells h i m , a n d w h a t hesomething " d i v i n e , " we h a v e merely given it a tastes d e p e n d u p o n the n u m b e r a n d q u a l i t y ofname, which m a y be based on a creed, b u t his senses. T h e s e limit his p e r c e p t i o n of thenever on factual e v i d e n c e . world a r o u n d h i m . By using scientific instru- Because there a r e i n n u m e r a b l e things b e y o n d m e n t s he can p a r t l y c o m p e n s a t e for the defici-the range of h u m a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , we con- encies of his senses. F o r e x a m p l e , he c a n e x t e n dstantly use symbolic t e r m s to represent c o n c e p t s the r a n g e of his vision by b i n o c u l a r s or of histhat we c a n n o t define or fully c o m p r e h e n d . h e a r i n g by electrical amplification. But the mostThis is one reason w h y all religions e m p l o y sym- elaborate a p p a r a t u s cannot do more than bringbolic language or i m a g e s . But this conscious use d i s t a n t or small objects w i t h i n r a n g e of his eyes,of symbols is only o n e aspect of a psychological or m a k e faint s o u n d s m o r e a u d i b l e . N o m a t t e rfact of great i m p o r t a n c e : M a n also p r o d u c e s w h a t i n s t r u m e n t s he uses, at some point hesymbols unconsciously a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y , in r e a c h e s the e d g e of c e r t a i n t y b e y o n d w h i c h con-the form of d r e a m s . scious k n o w l e d g e c a n n o t pass.Left, three of the four Evangelists(in a relief on Chartres Cathedral)appear as animals: The lion is Mark,the ox Luke, the eagle John. Alsoanimals are three of the sons of theEgyptian god Horus (above, c. 1 250B.C.), Animals, and groups of four,are universal religious symbols. 24
  17. 17. In many societies, representationsof the sun express mans indefinablereligious experience. Above, adecoration on the back of a thronebelonging to the 14th-century B.C.Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen isdominated by a sun disk; the handsat the end of the rays symbolizethe suns life-giving power. Left,a monk in 20th-century Japan praysbefore a mirror that represents thedivine Sun in the Shinto religion.Right, tungsten atoms seen with amicroscope that magnifies 2,000,000times. Far right, the spots in centerof picture are the farthest visiblegalaxies. No matter how far manextends his senses, limits to hisconscious perception remain.
  18. 18. T h e r e are, m o r e o v e r , u n c o n s c i o u s a s p e c t s of w h e r e it a p p e a r s n o t a s a r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t b u to u r p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y . T h e first is t h e f a c t a s a s y m b o l i c i m a g e . A s a m a t t e r o f h i s t o r y , itthat e v e n w h e n o u r s e n s e s r e a c t t o r e a l p h e n o - was the study of d r e a m s that first enabledmena, sights, a n d s o u n d s , t h e y a r e somehow psychologists to investigate the unconscioustranslated from t h e r e a l m of r e a l i t y i n t o that a s p e c t of c o n s c i o u s p s y c h i c e v e n t s .of t h e m i n d . W i t h i n the mind they become It is o n such evidence that psychologistspsychic e v e n t s , w h o s e u l t i m a t e n a t u r e is u n - a s s u m e t h e e x i s t e n c e of a n u n c o n s c i o u s p s y c h ek n o w a b l e (for t h e p s y c h e c a n n o t k n o w its o w n — t h o u g h m a n y scientists a n d philosophers d e n ypsychical s u b s t a n c e ) . T h u s every experience its e x i s t e n c e . T h e y a r g u e n a i v e l y t h a t s u c h a ncontains a n i n d e f i n i t e n u m b e r of u n k n o w n fac- a s s u m p t i o n i m p l i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of t w o " s u b -tors, n o t t o s p e a k o f t h e f a c t t h a t e v e r y c o n c r e t e j e c t s , " o r ( t o p u t it i n a c o m m o n p h r a s e ) twoobject is a l w a y s u n k n o w n i n c e r t a i n respects, personalities within the same individual. Butbecause w e c a n n o t k n o w t h e u l t i m a t e n a t u r e o f t h i s is e x a c t l y w h a t it d o e s i m p l y — q u i t e cor-m a t t e r itself. r e c t l y . A n d it is o n e o f t h e c u r s e s o f m o d e r n T h e n t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n e v e n t s of w h i c h we m a n t h a t m a n y p e o p l e suffer from this d i v i d e dhave n o t c o n s c i o u s l y t a k e n n o t e ; t h e y h a v e r e - p e r s o n a l i t y . I t is b y n o m e a n s a pathologicalm a i n e d , so t o s p e a k , b e l o w t h e t h r e s h o l d o f c o n - s y m p t o m ; it is a n o r m a l f a c t t h a t c a n b e o b -sciousness. T h e y h a v e h a p p e n e d , b u t t h e y h a v e s e r v e d a t a n y t i m e a n d e v e r y w h e r e . I t is n o tbeen a b s o r b e d s u b l i m i n a l l y , w i t h o u t o u r c o n - merely the neurotic whose right h a n d does notscious k n o w l e d g e . W e can become aware of k n o w w h a t t h e left h a n d is d o i n g . T h i s p r e d i c a -such h a p p e n i n g s o n l y i n a m o m e n t o f i n t u i t i o n m e n t is a s y m p t o m o f a g e n e r a l u n c o n s c i o u s n e s sor by a p r o c e s s o f p r o f o u n d t h o u g h t t h a t l e a d s t h a t is t h e u n d e n i a b l e c o m m o n i n h e r i t a n c e o fto a l a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e y m u s t h a v e h a p - all m a n k i n d .pened; a n d though we m a y have originally M a n has d e v e l o p e d consciousness slowly a n dignored t h e i r e m o t i o n a l a n d v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e , it laboriously, in a process t h a t took u n t o l d ages tolater w e l l s u p f r o m t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a s a s o r t r e a c h t h e c i v i l i z e d s t a t e ( w h i c h is a r b i t r a r i l yof a f t e r t h o u g h t . dated from the invention of s c r i p t in about It m a y a p p e a r , for i n s t a n c e , in t h e f o r m o f a 4 0 0 0 B . C ) . A n d t h i s e v o l u t i o n is f a r f r o m c o m -dream. As a general rule, the unconscious p l e t e , for l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e h u m a n m i n d areaspect o f a n y e v e n t is r e v e a l e d t o u s i n d r e a m s , still s h r o u d e d in d a r k n e s s . W h a t w e call the " p s y c h e " is b y n o m e a n s i d e n t i c a l w i t h our c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d its c o n t e n t s . W h o e v e r d e n i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e u n c o n - s c i o u s is i n f a c t a s s u m i n g t h a t o u r p r e s e n t k n o w - l e d g e o f t h e p s y c h e is t o t a l . A n d t h i s b e l i e f is c l e a r l y j u s t a s false a s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w e k n o w a l l t h e r e is t o b e k n o w n a b o u t t h e n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e . O u r p s y c h e is p a r t o f n a t u r e , a n d its e n i g m a is a s l i m i t l e s s . T h u s w e c a n n o t define either the psyche or nature. W e can merely state w h a t w e believe t h e m to be a n d describe, as best w e c a n , h o w they function. Q u i t e a p a r t , therefore, from the evidence that medical research has accumulated, there are strong g r o u n d s o f l o g i c for r e j e c t i n g s t a t e m e n t s like " T h e r e is n o u n c o n s c i o u s . " T h o s e w h o s a y s u c h things merely express an age-old "misoneism" — a fear of t h e n e w a n d t h e u n k n o w n . 23
  19. 19. T h e r e a r e h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s for t h i s r e s i s t a n c e that an individual m a y have such an uncon-to t h e i d e a of a n u n k n o w n p a r t of t h e human scious identity with s o m e o t h e r person or object.p s y c h e . C o n s c i o u s n e s s is a v e r y r e c e n t a c q u i s i - T h i s i d e n t i t y takes a v a r i e t y of forms a m o n gt i o n o f n a t u r e , a n d it is still i n a n "experimen- p r i m i t i v e s . I f t h e b u s h s o u l is t h a t o f a n a n i m a l ,t a l " s t a t e . I t is f r a i l , m e n a c e d b y s p e c i f i c d a n - t h e a n i m a l i t s e l f is c o n s i d e r e d a s s o m e s o r t ofgers, a n d easily i n j u r e d . As a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e b r o t h e r t o t h e m a n . A m a n w h o s e b r o t h e r is an o t e d , o n e of t h e m o s t c o m m o n mental de- c r o c o d i l e , for i n s t a n c e , is s u p p o s e d t o b e saferangements that occur a m o n g primitive people w h e n s w i m m i n g a crocodile-infested river. Ifis w h a t t h e y c a l l " t h e loss o f a s o u l " — w h i c h t h e b u s h s o u l is a t r e e , t h e t r e e is p r e s u m e d t om e a n s , as the n a m e indicates, a n o t i c e a b l e dis- h a v e s o m e t h i n g like p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h er u p t i o n (or, m o r e t e c h n i c a l l y , a dissociation) of i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d . I n b o t h cases a n injuryconsciousness. t o t h e b u s h s o u l is i n t e r p r e t e d a s a n i n j u r y t o A m o n g s u c h p e o p l e , w h o s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s is the m a n .a t a different level of d e v e l o p m e n t from o u r s , I n s o m e t r i b e s , it is a s s u m e d t h a t a m a n h a st h e " s o u l " ( o r p s y c h e ) is n o t felt t o b e a u n i t . a n u m b e r o f s o u l s ; t h i s b e l i e f e x p r e s s e s t h e feel-Many primitives assume that a man has a ing of s o m e p r i m i t i v e individuals that they each" b u s h s o u l " as well as his o w n , a n d t h a t this consist of several linked b u t d i s t i n c t units. T h i sb u s h s o u l is i n c a r n a t e i n a w i l d a n i m a l o r a t r e e , m e a n s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p s y c h e is f a r fromwith which the h u m a n individual has some kind b e i n g safely s y n t h e s i z e d ; o n the contrary, ito f p s y c h i c i d e n t i t y . T h i s is w h a t the distin- t h r e a t e n s to f r a g m e n t o n l y too easily u n d e r t h eguished French ethnologist Lucien Levy-Briihl o n s l a u g h t of u n c h e c k e d e m o t i o n s .called a "mystical p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " H e later re- W h i l e t h i s s i t u a t i o n is f a m i l i a r t o u s f r o m t h etracted this term under pressure of adverse s t u d i e s o f a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , it is n o t so i r r e l e v a n tcriticism, but I believe that his critics were t o o u r o w n a d v a n c e d c i v i l i z a t i o n as it mightw r o n g . I t is a w e l l - k n o w n psychological fact s e e m . W e t o o c a n b e c o m e d i s s o c i a t e d a n d lose " D i s s o c i a t i o n " m e a n s a s p l i t t i n g in the psyche, causing a neurosis. A f a m o u s f i c t i o n a l e x a m p l e of t h i s state is Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde ( 1 8 8 6 ) by t h e S c o t s a u t h o r R. L S t e v e n s o n . In t h e s t o r y J e k y l l s " s p l i t " t o o k t h e f o r m of a p h y s i c a l c h a n g e , rather t h a n (as in r e a l i t y ) an inner, p s y c h i c state. Left, M r . H y d e ( f r o m t h e 1 9 3 2 f i l m of t h e story) — J e k y l l s "other half." P r i m i t i v e p e o p l e call d i s s o c i a t i o n " l o s s of a s o u l " ; t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t a m a n has a " b u s h s o u l " as w e l l as his o w n . R i g h t , a N y a n g a t r i b e s m a n of w e s t c e n t r a l A f r i c a w e a r i n g a m a s k of the h o r n b i l l — t h e b i r d t h a t h e i d e n t i f i e s w i t h his b u s h s o u l . Far r i g h t , t e l e p h o n i s t s o n a b u s y s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d l e m a n y c a l l s at o n c e . In s u c h j o b s p e o p l e " s p l i t o f f " parts of t h e i r c o n s c i o u s m i n d s t o c o n c e n t r a t e . B u t t h i s split is controlled and temporary, not a spontaneous, abnormal dissociation.2 I
  20. 20. our i d e n t i t y . W e c a n b e p o s s e s s e d a n d altered "loss of a s o u l , " or e v e n t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l c a u s eby m o o d s , o r b e c o m e u n r e a s o n a b l e a n d u n a b l e of a neurosis.to r e c a l l i m p o r t a n t facts about ourselves or Thus, even in o u r day the unity of con-o t h e r s , so t h a t p e o p l e a s k : " W h a t t h e d e v i l h a s s c i o u s n e s s is still a d o u b t f u l a f f a i r ; it c a n toogot i n t o y o u ? " W e t a l k a b o u t b e i n g a b l e "to e a s i l y b e d i s r u p t e d . A n a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l o n e scontrol o u r s e l v e s , " b u t s e l f - c o n t r o l is a r a r e a n d e m o t i o n s that m a y be very desirable from o n eremarkable virtue. W e m a y think we have our- point of view w o u l d b e a q u e s t i o n a b l e a c c o m -selves u n d e r c o n t r o l ; y e t a f r i e n d c a n e a s i l y tell p l i s h m e n t f r o m a n o t h e r , for it w o u l d depriveus t h i n g s a b o u t o u r s e l v e s o f w h i c h w e h a v e n o social i n t e r c o u r s e of v a r i e t v . color, a n d w a r m t h .knowledge. It is a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d that we must Beyond d o u b t , e v e n in w h a t w e call a high r e v i e w the i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m s t h o s e flimsy,level of c i v i l i z a t i o n , h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s has evasive, unreliable, vague, a n d uncertain fan-not yet a c h i e v e d a r e a s o n a b l e d e g r e e o f c o n t i - tasies. T o e x p l a i n m y p o i n t of view, I s h o u l dnuity. It is still v u l n e r a b l e a n d l i a b l e t o f r a g - l i k e t o d e s c r i b e h o w it d e v e l o p e d o v e r a p e r i o dmentation. T h i s c a p a c i t y to isolate p a r t of o n e s of y e a r s , a n d h o w I w a s led to c o n c l u d e thatm i n d , i n d e e d , is a v a l u a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . It d r e a m s are the most frequent a n d universallye n a b l e s us to c o n c e n t r a t e u p o n o n e t h i n g a t a a c c e s s i b l e s o u r c e for t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m a n stime, e x c l u d i n g e v e r y t h i n g else t h a t m a y c l a i m symbolizing faculty.our a t t e n t i o n . B u t t h e r e is a w o r l d o f d i f f e r e n c e Sigmund Freud was the pioneer who firstb e t w e e n a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o s p l i t off a n d tried to e x p l o r e empirically the unconscioustemporarily s u p p r e s s a p a r t of o n e s p s y c h e , a n d b a c k g r o u n d of consciousness. H e w o r k e d on thea c o n d i t i o n in w h i c h this h a p p e n s spontane- general assumption that d r e a m s are not a matterously, w i t h o u t o n e s k n o w l e d g e o r c o n s e n t a n d of c h a n c e but are associated with consciouseven a g a i n s t o n e s i n t e n t i o n . T h e f o r m e r is a thoughts and problems. This assumption wascivilized a c h i e v e m e n t , the latter a primitive n o t in t h e least a r b i t r a r y . It w a s b a s e d u p o n t h e 25
  21. 21. c o n c l u s i o n o f e m i n e n t n e u r o l o g i s t s (for i n s t a n c e , a s t h m a : H e " c a n t b r e a t h e the a t m o s p h e r e atPierre J a n e t ) t h a t neurotic s y m p t o m s are re- h o m e . " A t h i r d suffers f r o m a p e c u l i a r para-lated to s o m e conscious e x p e r i e n c e . T h e y even lysis o f t h e l e g s : H e c a n t w a l k , i . e . " h e cantappear to b e split-off a r e a s of t h e conscious go on a n y m o r e . " A fourth, w h o vomits w h e nm i n d , w h i c h , at a n o t h e r t i m e a n d u n d e r differ- h e e a t s , " c a n n o t d i g e s t " s o m e u n p l e a s a n t fact.ent conditions, c a n be conscious. I c o u l d cite m a n y e x a m p l e s of this k i n d , but Before the b e g i n n i n g of this c e n t u r y , Freud such physical reactions are only one form inand Josef Breuer had recognized that neurotic w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t t r o u b l e us u n c o n s c i -s y m p t o m s — h y s t e r i a , c e r t a i n t y p e s of p a i n , a n d ously m a y express t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y m o r e oftena b n o r m a l b e h a v i o r — a r e in fact symbolically find e x p r e s s i o n in o u r d r e a m s .m e a n i n g f u l . T h e y a r e o n e w a y in w h i c h the A n y psychologist w h o h a s listened to n u m -unconscious mind expresses itself, j u s t as it bers of p e o p l e d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r d r e a m s knowsm a y in d r e a m s ; a n d t h e y a r e e q u a l l y s y m b o l i c . that d r e a m symbols have m u c h greater varietyA p a t i e n t , for i n s t a n c e , w h o is c o n f r o n t e d with t h a n the p h y s i c a l s y m p t o m s of neurosis. Theyan intolerable situation m a y develop a spasm o f t e n consist of e l a b o r a t e a n d p i c t u r e s q u e fan-w h e n e v e r h e tries to s w a l l o w : H e " c a n t swal- t a s i e s . B u t if t h e a n a l y s t w h o is c o n f r o n t e d bylow i t . " U n d e r s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s of p s y c h o l o - this d r e a m m a t e r i a l uses F r e u d s o r i g i n a l t e c h -gical stress, a n o t h e r p a t i e n t h a s a n a t t a c k of n i q u e o f " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , " h e finds t h a t d r e a m s 1 S i g m u n d Freud ( V i e n n a ) 5 Max Eitingon (Berlin) 9 Eugen Bleuler (Zurich) 2 Otto Rank (Vienna) 6 James J. Putnam (Boston) 10 Emma J u n g (Kusnacht) 3 Ludwig Binswanger (Kreuzlingen) 7 Ernest J o n e s ( T o r o n t o ) 11 S a n d o r F e r e n c z i ( B u d a p e s t ) 4 A A Brill 8 W i l h e l m Stekel (Vienna) 12 C. G J u n g (Kusnacht)26
  22. 22. can e v e n t u a l l y b e r e d u c e d to c e r t a i n basic p a t - of " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n . " B u t after a t i m e I b e g a n toterns. T h i s t e c h n i q u e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t feel t h a t t h i s w a s a m i s l e a d i n g a n d inadequatein t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , for it use of t h e rich fantasies t h a t t h e unconsciousenabled Freud to use d r e a m s as t h e starting p r o d u c e s in sleep. M y d o u b t s r e a l l y b e g a n w h e npoint from w h i c h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s p r o b l e m of a c o l l e a g u e told m e of a n e x p e r i e n c e he hadthe p a t i e n t m i g h t b e e x p l o r e d . d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a long t r a i n j o u r n e y in Freud m a d e the simple but penetrating obser- Russia. T h o u g h he did not k n o w the l a n g u a g ev a t i o n t h a t if a d r e a m e r is e n c o u r a g e d t o g o o n a n d could not even d e c i p h e r the Cyrillic script,talking a b o u t his d r e a m i m a g e s a n d t h e t h o u g h t s he found himself m u s i n g over the strange lettersthat these p r o m p t in his m i n d , h e will give in w h i c h the r a i l w a y notices w e r e w r i t t e n , a n dhimself a w a y a n d r e v e a l t h e u n c o n s c i o u s b a c k - h e fell i n t o a r e v e r i e i n w h i c h h e i m a g i n e d a l lg r o u n d of his a i l m e n t s , in b o t h w h a t h e s a y s s o r t s o f m e a n i n g s for t h e m .and w h a t he d e l i b e r a t e l y o m i t s s a y i n g . His ideas O n e i d e a l e d t o a n o t h e r , a n d in h i s r e l a x e dmay seem i r r a t i o n a l a n d i r r e l e v a n t , b u t after a m o o d h e found t h a t this "free a s s o c i a t i o n " h a dt i m e it b e c o m e s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o s e e w h a t it is stirred u p m a n y old m e m o r i e s . A m o n g themt h a t h e is t r y i n g to a v o i d , what unpleasant h e w a s a n n o y e d t o find s o m e l o n g - b u r i e d d i s -thought or experience h e is s u p p r e s s i n g . No agreeable topics t h i n g s h e h a d w i s h e d t o for-matter h o w he tries to c a m o u f l a g e it, e v e r y - get a n d had forgotten consciously. He had inthing he says p o i n t s to t h e c o r e of his p r e d i c a - fact a r r i v e d at w h a t p s y c h o l o g i s t s w o u l d callm e n t . A d o c t o r s e e s so m a n y t h i n g s f r o m the h i s " c o m p l e x e s " — t h a t is, r e p r e s s e d emotionals e a m y s i d e o f life t h a t h e is s e l d o m f a r f r o m t h e themes that can cause constant psychologicaltruth when he interprets the hints that his d i s t u r b a n c e s o r e v e n , in m a n y c a s e s , t h e s y m p -patient p r o d u c e s as s i g n s o f a n uneasy con- t o m s of neurosis.science. W h a t h e e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r s , unfor- T h i s e p i s o d e o p e n e d m v e v e s to t h e f a r ! thaitunately, c o n f i r m s his e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h u s far, it w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a d r e a m a s t h e p o i n tnobody c a n say a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t F r e u d s t h e o r y o f d e p a r t u r e for t h e p r o c e s s o f " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n "of r e p r e s s i o n a n d w i s h f u l f i l l m e n t as a p p a r e n t if o n e w i s h e d to d i s c o v e r the c o m p l e x e s of acauses of d r e a m s y m b o l i s m . p a t i e n t . It s h o w e d m e t h a t o n e c a n r e a c h the Freud attached particular importance to c e n t e r d i r e c t l y from a n y p o i n t of t h e c o m p a s s .d r e a m s as t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e for a p r o c e s s One could begin from Cyrillic letters, fromLeft, m a n y of t h e great p i o n e e r s ofmodern p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , p h o t o -graphed at a C o n g r e s s o fPsychoanalysis in i 9 1 1 at W e i m a r ,Germany. T h e key, b e l o w left,identifies s o m e of t h e m a j o r f i g u r e s .Right, the " i n k b l o t " test d e v i s e dby the S w i s s p s y c h i a t r i s t H e r m a n nRorschach. T h e s h a p e of t h e b l o tcan serve as a s t i m u l u s f o r freeassociation; in fact, a l m o s t a n yirregular free s h a p e c a n spark offthe associative p r o c e s s . L e o n a r d oda Vinci w r o t e in his Notebooks:"It should not b e hard f o r y o u t ostop s o m e t i m e s a n d l o o k i n t o t h estains of w a l l s , or ashes of a fire,or clouds, or m u d or like p l a c e s ,in w h i c h . . . y o u m a y f i n d reallymarvelous i d e a s . "
  23. 23. meditations u p o n a crystal ball, a p r a y e r wheel, n i q u e w a s o n e t h a t c o u l d t a k e a c c o u n t o f allor a m o d e r n p a i n t i n g , or even from casual c o n - the v a r i o u s w i d e r aspects of a d r e a m . A storyversation a b o u t s o m e q u i t e trivial event. T h e told by t h e conscious m i n d has a b e g i n n i n g , ad r e a m w a s n o m o r e a n d n o less useful in t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d a n e n d , b u t t h e s a m e is n o trespect t h a n a n y o t h e r possible starting point. t r u e of a d r e a m . Its d i m e n s i o n s in t i m e andN e v e r t h e l e s s , d r e a m s h a v e a p a r t i c u l a r signifi- s p a c e a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ; t o u n d e r s t a n d it y o ucance, even though they often arise from an m u s t e x a m i n e it f r o m e v e r y a s p e c t — j u s t as y o ue m o t i o n a l u p s e t in w h i c h t h e h a b i t u a l c o m p l e x e s m a y t a k e a n u n k n o w n o b j e c t in y o u r h a n d s a n da r e also involved. ( T h e h a b i t u a l c o m p l e x e s a r e turn it o v e r a n d o v e r u n t i l y o u a r e familiart h e t e n d e r spots of t h e p s y c h e , w h i c h r e a c t most w i t h e v e r y d e t a i l o f its s h a p e .quickly to a n external stimulus or d i s t u r b a n c e . ) P e r h a p s I h a v e n o w said e n o u g h to s h o w h o w T h a t is w h y free a s s o c i a t i o n c a n l e a d o n e f r o m I came increasingly to disagree with "free"a n y d r e a m to t h e critical secret t h o u g h t s . a s s o c i a t i o n a s F r e u d first e m p l o y e d i t : I w a n t e d A t t h i s p o i n t , h o w e v e r , it o c c u r r e d t o m e t h a t t o k e e p a s c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e d r e a m itself,(if I w a s r i g h t so f a r ) it m i g h t r e a s o n a b l y f o l l o w a n d t o e x c l u d e all t h e i r r e l e v a n t i d e a s a n d a s s o -that d r e a m s h a v e s o m e special a n d m o r e signi- c i a t i o n s t h a t it m i g h t e v o k e . T r u e , t h e s e c o u l dficant function of their o w n . V e r y often d r e a m s lead one t o w a r d the c o m p l e x e s of a patient,have a definite, evidently purposeful structure, b u t I h a d a m o r e f a r - r e a c h i n g p u r p o s e in m i n dindicating an underlying idea or intention than the discovery of c o m p l e x e s that causet h o u g h , a s a r u l e , t h e l a t t e r is n o t i m m e d i a t e l y neurotic disturbances. There are m a n y otherc o m p r e h e n s i b l e . I t h e r e f o r e b e g a n to c o n s i d e r m e a n s by which these can be identified: Thew h e t h e r o n e s h o u l d p a y m o r e a t t e n t i o n to t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t , for i n s t a n c e , c a n g e t a l l t h e h i n t sa c t u a l form a n d c o n t e n t of a d r e a m , r a t h e r t h a n h e n e e d s b y u s i n g w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n tests ( b y ask-allowing ""free" association to lead one off ing t h e p a t i e n t w h a t h e associates to a givent h r o u g h a train of ideas to c o m p l e x e s that could set of w o r d s , a n d b y s t u d y i n g h i s r e s p o n s e s ) .as easily b e r e a c h e d by o t h e r m e a n s . B u t t o k n o w a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e p s y c h i c life- T h i s n e w t h o u g h t w a s a t u r n i n g p o i n t in t h ed e v e l o p m e n t of m y p s y c h o l o g y . It m e a n t t h a t Igradually gave u p following associations thatl e d far a w a y f r o m t h e t e x t o f a d r e a m . I c h o s eto c o n c e n t r a t e r a t h e r o n t h e associations to t h ed r e a m itself, b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e l a t t e r e x p r e s s e ds o m e t h i n g specific that the unconscious wastrying to say. T h e c h a n g e in m y a t t i t u d e t o w a r d dreamsinvolved a c h a n g e of m e t h o d ; the new tech- T w o different possible stimuli of free a s s o c i a t i o n : t h e w h i r l i n g prayer w h e e l of a T i b e t a n b e g g a r ( l e f t ) , or a f o r t u n e tellers c r y s t a l ball ( r i g h t , a m o d e r n c r y s t a l gazer at a B r i t i s h f a i r ) .
  24. 24. process of a n i n d i v i d u a l s w h o l e p e r s o n a l i t y , it f o r m itself tells u s w h a t b e l o n g s t o it a n d w h a tis i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e t h a t h i s d r e a m s a n d t h e i r leads a w a y from it. W h i l e " f r e e " associationsymbolic images h a v e a m u c h m o r e i m p o r t a n t l u r e s o n e a w a y f r o m t h a t m a t e r i a l i n a k i n d ofrole to p l a y . z i g z a g l i n e , t h e m e t h o d I e v o l v e d is m o r e l i k e a A l m o s t e v e r y o n e k n o w s , for e x a m p l e , that circumambulation w h o s e c e n t e r is t h e d r e a mt h e r e is a n e n o r m o u s v a r i e t y o f i m a g e s b y w h i c h p i c t u r e . I w o r k all a r o u n d t h e d r e a m picturethe s e x u a l a c t c a n b e s y m b o l i z e d ( o r , o n e m i g h t and disregard every attempt that the d r e a m e rsay, r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e f o r m o f a n allegory). m a k e s t o b r e a k a w a y f r o m it. T i m e a n d t i m eE a c h of t h e s e i m a g e s c a n l e a d , b y a p r o c e s s o f a g a i n , in m y p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k , I h a v e h a d t oassociation, to t h e i d e a of s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e a n d repeat the words: "Lets get back to yourto specific c o m p l e x e s t h a t a n y i n d i v i d u a l m a y d r e a m . W h a t d o e s t h e dream say?"h a v e a b o u t his o w n s e x u a l a t t i t u d e s . B u t o n e F o r i n s t a n c e , a p a t i e n t of m i n e d r e a m e d ofcould j u s t a s w e l l u n e a r t h s u c h c o m p l e x e s b y a d r u n k e n a n d disheveled vulgar w o m a n . Ind a y - d r e a m i n g o n a set o f i n d e c i p h e r a b l e R u s s i a n t h e d r e a m , it s e e m e d t h a t t h i s w o m a n w a s hisletters. I w a s t h u s l e d t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a wife, t h o u g h in r e a l life h i s w i f e w a s t o t a l l ydream can contain some message other than the different. O n the surface, therefore, the d r e a msexual a l l e g o r y , a n d t h a t it d o e s s o for d e f i n i t e was shockingly untrue, a n d the patient i m m e -reasons. T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t : d i a t e l y r e j e c t e d it a s d r e a m n o n s e n s e . I f I, a s his A m a n m a y d r e a m o f i n s e r t i n g a k e y in a d o c t o r , h a d let h i m s t a r t a p r o c e s s o f a s s o c i a -lock, of w i e l d i n g a h e a v y s t i c k , o r o f b r e a k i n g t i o n , h e w o u l d i n e v i t a b l y h a v e t r i e d t o g e t a s fardown a d o o r w i t h a b a t t e r i n g r a m . E a c h of a w a y as possible from (he u n p l e a s a n t suggestionthese c a n b e r e g a r d e d a s a s e x u a l a l l e g o r y . B u t of his d r e a m . In t h a t case, he w o u l d h a v e e n d e dthe fact t h a t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s for its o w n pur- w i t h o n e o f his s t a p l e c o m p l e x e s a complex,poses h a s c h o s e n o n e o f t h e s e s p e c i f i c i m a g e s p o s s i b l y , t h a t h a d n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h his w i f eit m a y b e t h e k e y , t h e s t i c k , o r t h e b a t t e r i n g and we should have learned nothing about theram is a l s o o f m a j o r significance. The real s p e c i a l m e a n i n g of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m .task is to u n d e r s t a n d why t h e k e y h a s beenpreferred t o t h e s t i c k , o r t h e s t i c k t o t h e r a m .And s o m e t i m e s t h i s m i g h t e v e n l e a d o n e t o d i s -cover t h a t it is n o t t h e s e x u a l a c t a t all t h a t isrepresented, b u t s o m e q u i t e different psycholo-gical p o i n t . F r o m this l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , I c o n c l u d e d t h a tonly t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t is c l e a r l y a n d v i s i b l y p a r tof a d r e a m s h o u l d b e u s e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g it.T h e d r e a m h a s its o w n l i m i t a t i o n . I t s s p e c i f i cOne of the c o u n t l e s s s y m b o l i c orallegorical i m a g e s of t h e s e x u a lact isa deer h u n t : R i g h t , a d e t a i lfrom a p a i n t i n g b y t h e 1 6 t h - c e n t u r yGerman artist C r a n a c h . T h e s e x u a limplication of t h e deer h u n t isunderlined b y a m e d i e v a l E n g l i s hfolk song called " T h e K e e p e r " :The first doe that he shot at hemissed.And the second doe he trimmed hekissed,And the third ran away in a youngmans heart.Shes amongst the leaves of thegreen 0
  25. 25. A key in a l o c k may be a s e x u a l s y m b o l — b u t n o t i n v a r i a b l y . Left, a s e c t i o n of an a l t a r p i e c e b y t h e 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y F l e m i s h artist C a m p i n . The door was intended to symbolize hope, the lock to symbolize charity, a n d t h e k e y to s y m b o l i z e t h e d e s i r e for G o d . B e l o w , a British b i s h o p d u r i n g the consecration of a c h u r c h carries o u t a t r a d i t i o n a l c e r e m o n y by k n o c k i n g o n t h e c h u r c h d o o r w i t h a s t a f f — w h i c h is o b v i o u s l y n o t a p h a l l i c s y m b o l b u t a s y m b o l of authority and the shepherds crook. N o i n d i v i d u a l s y m b o l i c i m a g e c a n be said t o h a v e a d o g m a t i c a l l y f i x e d , generalized m e a n i n g . The " a n i m a " is t h e f e m a l e e l e m e n t in t h e m a l e u n c o n s c i o u s . (It a n d t h e " a n i m u s " in t h e f e m a l e u n c o n s c i o u s are d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r 3.) T h i s i n n e r d u a l i t y is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d by a h e r m a p h r o d i t i c f i g u r e , like the c r o w n e d hermaphrodite, above right, from a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y alchemical manuscript. Right, a physical image of m a n s p s y c h i c " b i s e x u a l i t y " : a h u m a n cell w i t h its c h r o m o s o m e s . A l l o r g a n i s m s h a v e t w o sets of c h r o m o s o m e s — o n e f r o m each parent.,30
  26. 26. W h a t , t h e n , w a s his u n c o n s c i o u s t r y i n g to f e m a l e e l e m e n t s in all o f u s , it w a s s a i d thatconvey by s u c h a n o b v i o u s l y u n t r u e s t a t e m e n t ? "every m a n carries a w o m a n within himselfC l e a r l y , it s o m e h o w expressed the idea of a It is t h i s f e m a l e e l e m e n t i n e v e r y m a l e t h a t Idegenerate female w h o w a s closely c o n n e c t e d have called the "anima." This "feminine"with t h e d r e a m e r s l i f e ; b u t s i n c e t h e p r o j e c t i o n a s p e c t is e s s e n t i a l l y a c e r t a i n i n f e r i o r k i n d ofof this i m a g e o n t o h i s w i f e w a s u n j u s t i f i e d and relatedness to the s u r r o u n d i n g s , a n d particu-factually untrue, I had to look elsewhere l a r l y t o w o m e n , w h i c h is k e p t c a r e f u l l y con-before I f o u n d o u t w h a t t h i s r e p u l s i v e image cealed from others as well as from oneself.represented. I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h o u g h a n i n d i v i d u a l s visible- In t h e M i d d l e A g e s , l o n g b e f o r e t h e p h y s i o - personality m a y seem quite n o r m a l , he maylogists d e m o n s t r a t e d that by reason of our well b e c o n c e a l i n g f r o m o t h e r s or even fromglandular structure there are both male and himself—the deplorable condition of "the woman within." That was the case with this particular patient: His female side w a s not nice. His d r e a m w a s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g t o h i m : " Y o u a r e in some respects behaving like a degenerate female," and thus gave him an appropriate shock. ( A n e x a m p l e of this k i n d , of c o u r s e , m u s t n o t be t a k e n as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s is c o n c e r n e d with "moral" injunctions. The d r e a m was not telling the p a t i e n t to "behave b e t t e r , " b u t w a s s i m p l y t r y i n g to b a l a n c e the l o p s i d e d n a t u r e of his c o n s c i o u s m i n d , which was maintaining the fiction that he was a perfect g e n t l e m a n throughout.) I t is e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d w h y d r e a m e r s tend to i g n o r e a n d e v e n d e n y t h e m e s s a g e of t h e i r dreams. Consciousness naturally resists any- thing unconscious and unknown. I have already pointed out the existence among primitive peoples of w h a t anthropologists call "miso- n c i s m , " a d e e p a n d s u p e r s t i t i o u s fear of n o v e l t y . T h e p r i m i t i v e s m a n i f e s t all t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e wild animal against untoward events. But " c i v i l i z e d " m a n r e a c t s to n e w i d e a s in much t h e s a m e w a y , e r e c t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s to p r o t e c t himself from the shock of facing s o m e - t h i n g n e w . T h i s c a n easily b e o b s e r v e d in a n y i n d i v i d u a l s r e a c t i o n to his o w n d r e a m s when obliged to a d m i t a surprising t h o u g h t . Many p i o n e e r s in p h i l o s o p h y , s c i e n c e , a n d e v e n l i t e r a - ture h a v e b e e n victims of t h e i n n a t e conserv- atism of t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Psychology is o n e o f t h e y o u n g e s t o f t h e s c i e n c e s ; b e c a u s e it a t t e m p t s to d e a l w i t h t h e w o r k i n g of t h e u n c o n - s c i o u s , it h a s i n e v i t a b l y e n c o u n t e r e d m i s o n e i s m in a n e x t r e m e f o r m . :5>
  27. 27. Past and future in the unconsciousS o far, I h a v e b e e n s k e t c h i n g s o m e of t h e p r i n - c o n t e n t s of t h e m i n d a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . T a k eciples o n w h i c h I a p p r o a c h e d the p r o b l e m of a n e x a m p l e w i t h w h i c h e v e r y o n e is f a m i l i a r .d r e a m s , for w h e n w e w a n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e m a n s S u d d e n l y y o u find y o u c a n n o t r e m e m b e r w h a tfaculty to p r o d u c e s y m b o l s , d r e a m s p r o v e to b e y o u w e r e g o i n g to say next, t h o u g h a m o m e n tt h e m o s t b a s i c a n d a c c e s s i b l e m a t e r i a l for t h i s ago the t h o u g h t was perfectly clear. O r p e r h a p sp u r p o s e . T h e t w o f u n d a m e n t a l p o i n t s in d e a l - y o u w e r e a b o u t t o i n t r o d u c e a f r i e n d , a n d hising w i t h d r e a m s a r e t h e s e : First, the dream n a m e e s c a p e d y o u a s y o u w e r e a b o u t t o u t t e r it.s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as a fact, a b o u t w h i c h one Y o u say y o u c a n n o t r e m e m b e r ; in fact, t h o u g h ,must m a k e no previous assumption except that the thought has become unconscious, or atit s o m e h o w m a k e s s e n s e ; a n d s e c o n d , t h e d r e a m least momentarily separated from conscious-is a s p e c i f i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . n e s s . W e find t h e s a m e p h e n o m e n o n w i t h o u r O n e could scarcely put these principles m o r e s e n s e s . If w e l i s t e n t o a c o n t i n u o u s n o t e o n t h em o d e s t l y . N o m a t t e r h o w low a n y o n e s o p i n i o n fringe of a u d i b i l i t y , t h e s o u n d s e e m s to stopof t h e u n c o n s c i o u s m a y b e , h e m u s t concede at r e g u l a r intervals a n d then start again. Sucht h a t it is w o r t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g ; t h e u n c o n s c i o u s oscillations a r e d u e to a p e r i o d i c d e c r e a s e a n dis a t l e a s t o n a l e v e l w i t h t h e l o u s e , w h i c h , a f t e r i n c r e a s e in o n e s a t t e n t i o n , n o t to a n y changeall, e n j o y s t h e h o n e s t i n t e r e s t of t h e e n t o m o l o - in t h e n o t e .gist. If s o m e b o d y with little e x p e r i e n c e and But w h e n s o m e t h i n g slips o u t o f o u r con-k n o w l e d g e of d r e a m s t h i n k s t h a t d r e a m s arc- s c i o u s n e s s it d o c s n o t c e a s e t o e x i s t , a n y morejust c h a o t i c o c c u r r e n c e s w i t h o u t m e a n i n g , he than a car that has disappeared r o u n d a corneris a t l i b e r t y t o d o s o . B u t if o n e a s s u m e s that h a s v a n i s h e d i n t o t h i n a i r . I t is s i m p l y o u t o ft h e y a r e n o r m a l e v e n t s ( w h i c h , as a m a t t e r of s i g h t . J u s t a s w e m a y l a t e r see t h e c a r again,f a c t , t h e y a r e ) , o n e is b o u n d t o c o n s i d e r that so w e c o m e across thoughts that were tem-they arc either causal i.e. that there is a p o r a r i l y lost t o u s .r a t i o n a l c a u s e for t h e i r e x i s t e n c e o r in a c e r - T h u s , p a r t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s c o n s i s t s of atain way purposive, or both. m u l t i t u d e of t e m p o r a r i l y obscured thoughts, L e t us n o w l o o k a l i t t l e m o r e c l o s e l y a t t h e i m p r e s s i o n s , a n d i m a g e s t h a t , in s p i t e o f b e i n gw a y s in w h i c h t h e c o n s c i o u s a n d unconscious lost, c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e o u r c o n s c i o u s m i n d s .
  28. 28. A m a n w h o is d i s t r a c t e d o r "absent-minded"" b e h a v i o r b e c a u s e t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s is l i a b l ewill w a l k a c r o s s t h e r o o m t o f e t c h something. to u n p r e d i c t a b l e eclipse by a n i n t e r f e r e n c e fromHe s t o p s , s e e m i n g l y p e r p l e x e d ; h e h a s f o r g o t t e n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . E v e n their skin s e n s a t i o n s m a ywhat he was after. His hands grope about reveal similar f l u c t u a t i o n s of a w a r e n e s s . At o n ea m o n g t h e o b j e c t s o n t h e t a b l e a s if h e were m o m e n t t h e h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n m a y feel a n e e d l esleepwalking; he is o b l i v i o u s of his original p r i c k in t h e a r m ; a t t h e n e x t it m a y p a s s u n n o -p u r p o s e , yet h e is u n c o n s c i o u s l y g u i d e d b y it. t i c e d . If h i s a t t e n t i o n c a n b e f o c u s e d o n a c e r -T h e n h e r e a l i z e s w h a t it is t h a t h e w a n t s . H i s tain point, the whole of his body can beunconscious has p r o m p t e d him. completely anesthetized until the tension that If y o u o b s e r v e the b e h a v i o r of a neurotic c a u s e s this b l a c k o u t of t h e senses h a s b e e n re-person, y o u c a n s e e h i m doing many things laxed. Sense perception is t h e n immediatelythat h e a p p e a r s t o b e d o i n g c o n s c i o u s l y and r e s t o r e d . All t h e t i m e , h o w e v e r , h e h a s beenp u r p o s e f u l l y . Y e t if y o u a s k h i m a b o u t them, u n c o n s c i o u s l y a w a r e of w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g .you will d i s c o v e r t h a t h e is e i t h e r u n c o n s c i o u s The physician can see this process quiteof t h e m o r h a s s o m e t h i n g q u i t e different in clearly w h e n he hypnotizes such a patient. Itmind. H e h e a r s a n d does not h e a r ; h e sees, is e a s y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e p a t i e n t h a s b e e nyet is b l i n d ; h e k n o w s a n d is i g n o r a n t . Such a w a r e o f e v e r y d e t a i l . T h e p r i c k in t h e a r m o re x a m p l e s a r e so c o m m o n t h a t t h e s p e c i a l i s t s o o n the remark made during an eclipse of c o n -realizes t h a t u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s o f t h e m i n d s c i o u s n e s s c a n b e r e c a l l e d as a c c u r a t e l y as ifb e h a v e as if t h e y w e r e c o n s c i o u s a n d t h a t y o u there had been no anesthesia or "forgetfulness."can never be sure, in such cases, whether I recall a w o m a n w h o w a s o n c e a d m i t t e d to t h et h o u g h t , s p e e c h , o r a c t i o n is c o n s c i o u s o r n o t . c l i n i c in a s t a t e of c o m p l e t e s t u p o r . W h e n s h e It is this k i n d of b e h a v i o r that makes so r e c o v e r e d consciousness next d a y . she k n e w w h omany physicians d i s m i s s s t a t e m e n t s by h y s t e r i - she was but did not k n o w w h e r e she was. howcal p a t i e n t s as u t t e r lies. S u c h p e r s o n s c e r t a i n l y or w h y she h a d c o m e there, or even the d a t e .produce m o r e u n t r u t h s t h a n m o s t of us, b u t Yet after I h a d h y p n o t i z e d h e r , she told m e w h y" l i e " is s c a r c e l y t h e r i g h t w o r d t o u s e . I n f a c t , s h e h a d f a l l e n ill. h o w s h e h a d g o t t o t h e c l i n i c ,their m e n t a l state causes an uncertainty of and who had admitted h e r . All t h e s e details " M i s o n e i s m . " an u n r e a s o n i n g fear a n d h a t r e d of n e w ideas, w a s a m a j o r b l o c k to p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e of m o d e r n p s y c h S t o g y It also o p p o s e d D a r w i n s t h e o r i e s of e v o l u t i o n — as w h e n an American schoolteacher named S c o p e s w a s t r i e d in 1 9 2 5 for t e a c h i n g e v o l u t i o n . Far left, at t h e trial, t h e lawyer Clarence Darrow defending S c o p e s ; c e n t e r left, S c o p e s h i m s e l f E g u a l l y a n t e D a r w i n is t h e c a r t o o n , left, f r o m an 1 8 6 1 issue of B r i t a i n s m a g a z i n e Punch Right, a light- h e a r t e d l o o k at m i s o n e i s m by t h e American humorist James Thurber, w h o s e aunt (he w r o t e ) w a s afraid t h a t e l e c t r i c i t y w a s "leaking all over the place. 33

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