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Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007   1   Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
SA Tourism is the Tourism Marketing Organisation of South Africa      South African Tourism is the official tourism market...
Agenda                     Market Overview                     Travel Patterns                     Channel                ...
Market Overview           Maturity of the Market           China, as an emerging travel market, is entering the growth pha...
Market Overview           General Statistics           China accounts for 20% of the worlds population                    ...
Market Overview           Age Characteristics           A fertility decline since the mid-1970s and the further increase i...
Market Overview           Regional Characteristics – Population and Income           Close to a third of the country’s pop...
Market Overview           Regional Characteristics – Income           Shanghai and Beijing residents enjoy the highest sta...
Market Overview           GDP and Relative Wealth           China remains a poor country with a relatively low GDP per cap...
Market Overview           Relative Market Attractiveness (Wealth)           The disposable income of the Chinese populatio...
Market Overview             Relative Market Attractiveness (Travel Propensity)                                            ...
Market Overview           Overseas Travel           The Chinese travel market has been growing rapidly and the WTO predict...
Market Overview           Vacation Participation           In 2004, outbound departures represented only two percent of th...
Agenda                     Market Overview                     Travel Patterns                     Channel                ...
Travel Patterns           Main Destinations           The market is dominated by travel to Hong Kong and Macao: outbound d...
Travel Patterns           Travel Purpose           The structure of the Chinese outbound market has changed dramatically o...
Travel Patterns                Importance to South Africa                 Chinese arrivals to South Africa are comparable ...
Travel Patterns           Importance to South Africa           Although Chinese arrivals to South Africa are higher than a...
Travel Patterns           Travel to South Africa           Chinese arrivals to South Africa grew at an annual average rate...
Travel Patterns           Travel to South Africa           Despite arrivals showing positive growth over the period 2002-2...
Travel Patterns           Growth in Arrivals           South Africa is not yet fully capitalising on the Chinese outbound ...
Agenda                     Market Overview                     Travel Patterns                     Channel                ...
Channel           Strategic Position of South Africa in the China Travel Market                      Low market           ...
Channel           Strategic Position of South Africa in the China Travel Market           South Africa as a travel product...
Channel            Market Characteristics            Fast changing market conditions drive marketing uncertainties        ...
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  1. 1. Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 1 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  2. 2. SA Tourism is the Tourism Marketing Organisation of South Africa South African Tourism is the official tourism marketing organisation of South Africa. South African Tourism is the official tourism marketing organisation of South Africa. We market across the world focusing on three groups of travellers: international We market across the world focusing on three groups of travellers: international leisure travellers, the domestic and regional traveller, and business tourists who leisure travellers, the domestic and regional traveller, and business tourists who travel to South Africa for conferences and incentives. A key part of our business is to: travel to South Africa for conferences and incentives. A key part of our business is to: Understand the Understand the Choose the Choose the Market the Market the market market attractive segments attractive segments destination destination This booklet is the result of research South African Tourism did in China since 2004 This booklet is the result of research South African Tourism did in China since 2004 and is to help market South Africa in China. The aim of the project was to understand and is to help market South Africa in China. The aim of the project was to understand the whole of the Chinese market and not the section we are currently seeing. We also the whole of the Chinese market and not the section we are currently seeing. We also did qualitative research in Hong Kong to understand its market and the links in the did qualitative research in Hong Kong to understand its market and the links in the trade channel. Against this research, the Asia Portfolio and our country office in trade channel. Against this research, the Asia Portfolio and our country office in China have developed activation plans for the market. These plans are available from China have developed activation plans for the market. These plans are available from our office in Beijing (see address on the back cover). our office in Beijing (see address on the back cover). Current information on arrivals from China to South Africa are available on our Current information on arrivals from China to South Africa are available on our website www.southafrica.net/research and www.southafrica.net/trade website www.southafrica.net/research and www.southafrica.net/tradeMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 2 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  3. 3. Agenda Market Overview Travel Patterns Channel Consumers – Our Target Market – Target Segments Current Chinese Travellers to South Africa – Demographics – Travel Behaviour Potential Market and Their Perceptions Activation Strategy Hong KongMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 3 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  4. 4. Market Overview Maturity of the Market China, as an emerging travel market, is entering the growth phase introduction growth maturity Tourism Industry Life % of Cycle population Italy Germany, Netherlands, travelling for Canada US France, UK, Japan leisure Australia South Africa China, India SADC Nigeria Kenya Botswana This phase may be very long Time* Uninformed, Price insensitive, Seek information & opportunity; Very informed, price sensitive, Consumer multi-purpose discover leisure focus on leisure Very individualized Emergence of packages Product Specialized packages Status oriented (seeking scale effects) Market Symptoms few High competition Competitor Emerging specialization / focus One-stop-shops Clear focus Unsophisticated, isolated, Integrate products; Specialization; Information Channel experience based information/choice provider provider “shout”: get as many as you Adapt trade and market to Tourism Marketing Combine with trade initiatives can select segments Authority Actions Facilitate scale effects (e.g., Understand segments and Overall strategy Develop positioning packages) select * The duration of the four phases of the life cycle may vary significantly; their graphical representation with equal distances may thus be misleading Note: Framework based on Michael Porter: Competitive Strategy, 1980, Chapter 8 (Industry Evolution)Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 4 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  5. 5. Market Overview General Statistics China accounts for 20% of the worlds population Facts about China Facts about China Geographic Characteristics Geographic Characteristics Beijing Heilongjiang Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Jilin China Sea, between North Korea and China Sea, between North Korea and Xinjiang Liaoning Vietnam Vietnam Gansu Inner Mongolia 9,596,960 Square Kilometers (slightly 9,596,960 Square Kilometers (slightly Hebei Tianjing smaller than the US) smaller than the US) Ningxia Shanxi Qinghai Shandong Population Population Tibet Shaanxi Henan Jiangsu 1,313,973,713 (July 2006 est.) 1,313,973,713 (July 2006 est.) Sichuan Hubei Anhui Shanghai Chongqing Jiangxi Zhejiang Annual population growth (2006): 0.59% Annual population growth (2006): 0.59% Hunan Guizhou Fujian Gross Domestic Product Gross Domestic Product Yunnan Guangxi Guangdong $10 Trillion (2006 est.) $10 Trillion (2006 est.) GDP per capita $7,198* GDP per capita $7,198* Hainan Annual GDP growth 10.5% (2006 est.) Annual GDP growth 10.5% (2006 est.) Note: * International dollars Source: CIA Fact Book, China, 2007; International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, September 2006; Time Magazine, 11 January 2007Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 5 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  6. 6. Market Overview Age Characteristics A fertility decline since the mid-1970s and the further increase in life expectancy gives rise to an ageing Chinese population Chinese Population by Age Group – Male and Female Source: www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/ChinaFood/data/anim/pop_ani.htm; United Nations (1999): World Population Prospects, The 1998 Revision, New YorkMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 6 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  7. 7. Market Overview Regional Characteristics – Population and Income Close to a third of the country’s population can be found in four provinces (Henan, Sichuan, Shandong, Guandong) while wealth is concentrated in the coastal regions Heilongjiang Pop: 38.2MM Annual Urban Disposable Income Tier 1: < 10,000 RMB Tianjin Jilin Inner Mongolia Pop: 27.1MM Tier 2: > 10,000 RMB Pop: Pop: 23.8MM 10.2MM Liaoning Pop: Xinjiang 42.2MM Pop: 19.6MM Beijing Hebei Pop: 14.9MM Pop: 68.1MM Shanxi Ningxia Pop: Shandong Pop: 5.9MM 33.4MM Pop: 91.8MM Qinghai Pop: 5.4MM Gansu Henan Pop: 26.2MM Shaanxi Jiangsu Pop: Pop: Pop: 74.3MM 97.2MM Anhui 37.1MM Pop: Xizang/Tibet Hubei 64.6MM Shanghai Pop: 2.7MM Chongqing Pop: 60.2MM Pop: Sichuan Pop: Pop: 17.4MM 31.2MM 87.3MM Jiangxi Hunan Pop: Zhejiang Pop: Pop: 67MM 42.8MM 47.2MM Guizhou Pop: 39MM Fujian Yunnan Pop: 35.1MM Pop: Guangxi Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China, China 44.2MM Pop: Statistical Yearbook, 2005; CLSA Asia-Pacific 48.9MM Guangdong Pop: 83MM Markets, Chinese Tourists: Coming, Ready or Not Special Report, September 2005; Tourism Australia, China Country Overview 2006; Dr Wang Guangzhou Hainan Xinjun, The Current Situation and the Pop: Characteristics of China’s Outbound Market 8.2MMMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 7 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  8. 8. Market Overview Regional Characteristics – Income Shanghai and Beijing residents enjoy the highest standard of living in China Per Capita Annual Disposable Income of Urban Households, 2004 18,000 16,683 15,638 15,000 14,546 13,628 12,000 11,467 11,175 10,482 9,438 9,221 9,106 RMB 9,000 8,008 6,000 3,000 0 Shanghai Zhejiang Tianjin Jiangsu Chongqing Liaoning Beijing Guangdong Fujian Shangdong Tibet Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China, China Statistical Yearbook, 2005Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 8 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  9. 9. Market Overview GDP and Relative Wealth China remains a poor country with a relatively low GDP per capita even when compared to other developing nations Wealthiest Countries vs. Developing Composition of the GDP – 2001 vs. 2006 Countries, 2005 100% Agriculture Rank Country GDP per capita ($*) 12 18 1 Luxembourg 69,800 2 Norway 42,364 80% Industry 3 United States 41,399 (including 4 Ireland 40,610 construction) 5 Iceland 35,115 6 Denmark 34,740 48 Services 60% 7 Canada 34,273 49 8 Hong Kong 33,479 Percentage 9 Austria 33,432 Contribution 10 Switzerland 32,571 40% 38 Czech Republic 18,341 50 Argentina 14,109 55 South Africa 12,161 57 Chile 11,937 20% 40 58 Libya 11,523 33 65 Mexico 10,186 68 Brazil 8,561 69 Thailand 8,368 0% China (People’s 87 7,198 Republic) 2001 2006 122 India 3,320 Note: * International dollars Source: CIA World Factbook; International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, September 2006; www.asiasource.org/profilesMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 9 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  10. 10. Market Overview Relative Market Attractiveness (Wealth) The disposable income of the Chinese population is fractionally higher compared to that of India, but lower than fellow developing nation, Brazil Per Capita Personal Disposable Income per Annum1 (PPP), 2006 35,000 31,817 30,000 25,718 25,000 22,731 22,633 22,413 22,081 20,867 20,666 20,064 19,843 USD 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 2,962 1,010 651 0 Italy Belgium Germany Sweden Australia China India Brazil U.S. France Canada Japan UK 1 Personal Disposable Income is personal income after the deduction of personal direct taxes and fees, and current transfers abroad (such as gifts) – EIU Definition Source: EIU 2006Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 10 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  11. 11. Market Overview Relative Market Attractiveness (Travel Propensity) Top 40 Outbound Markets in the World — 2005 90 83 66 64 60 Million 38 33 30 22 22 22 21 19 18 17 16 16 14 14 12 10 10 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 0 Mexico Egypt USA Italy Turkey Hungary Norway Malaysia Switzerland Czech Germany UK China Japan Hong Kong Canada France Singapore Ukraine Sweden Rep Korea Taiwan Austria Poland India Finland Ireland Iran Spain Bulgaria Australia Saudi Lithuania Netherlands Belgium Belarus Denmark Romania Indonesia Russia Top 20 Long-Haul Outbound Markets — 2005 45 41 36 Million 27 14.8 18 12.4 9 5.1 4.7 4.3 3.9 3.8 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.1 0 Egypt USA UAE Italy Malaysia Brazil UK Germany Japan Sweden Canada China Australia France Singapore India Korea Indonesia Israel Russia Rep Long-Haul as a % of Total 64% 22% 56% 36% 14% 22% 10% 5% 83% 17% 19% 47% 60% 21% 10% 27% 8% 55% 34% 38% Outbound Note: Long-Haul outbound data was calculated using the proportions estimated from WTO data source and applying it to the Euromonitor data. It is the closest approximation as this data is not available. Data for the USA was sourced from U.S. Department of Commerce, ITA, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries, September 2006 as 2005 WTO data was incomplete and skewed the results. Source: EuromonitorMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 11 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  12. 12. Market Overview Overseas Travel The Chinese travel market has been growing rapidly and the WTO predicts it will be the biggest travel market in the world by 2020 Total Outbound Travellers, 1992–2006 40 ’92–’06 CAGR: 19.3% 34.5 31.0 30 28.5 Number of 20.2 Travellers 20 (Millions) 16.6 12.1 10.5 10 9.2 8.4 5.1 5.3 3.7 3.7 4.5 2.9 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Source: Dr Wang / Xinjun, A Study on the Development of China’s Outbound Tourism Market; International Forum on Chinese Outbound Tourism, 2006; Combined SAT Departure Survey Dataset, 2002–2005Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 12 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  13. 13. Market Overview Vacation Participation In 2004, outbound departures represented only two percent of the population of China Travel Intensity of the Chinese Population, 2004 12% 10% 10% 8% Percentage of 6% Population that Travel 4% 4% 2% 2% 0% Total Population Urban Population Population of Guangzhou, Shanghai and Beijing Source: CLSA Asia-Pacific Markets, Chinese Tourists: Coming, Ready or Not, September 2005Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 13 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  14. 14. Agenda Market Overview Travel Patterns Channel Consumers – Our Target Market – Target Segments Current Chinese Travellers to South Africa – Demographics – Travel Behaviour Potential Market and Their Perceptions Activation Strategy Hong KongMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 14 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  15. 15. Travel Patterns Main Destinations The market is dominated by travel to Hong Kong and Macao: outbound departures to these destinations constitute 71% of all Chinese outbound travel Regional Distribution of Outbound Top 10 Outbound Destinations, Travel, 2005 2005 SA represented 2% of Hong Kong 13,525 Europe “Other” arrivals and 0.5% of non-Hong 5% Other Macau 8,479 Kong/Macau arrivals 7% Japan 1,117 Vietnam 845 Other Asia Korea 843 17% Russia 770 Hong Kong Thailand 596 and Macau 71% USA 532 Singapore 477 WTO estimates WTO estimates 100MM outbound 100MM outbound Chinese tourists by Chinese tourists by Malaysia 355 2020 2020 0 6,000 12,000 18,000 Number of Travellers (Thousands) Source: Asia Travel Tips.com (www.asiatraveltips.com) “New ETC / UNWTO Study on Chinese Outbound Tourism Market to Be Launched at ITB 2007”; U.S. Dept. of Commerce “China Outbound Tourism Industry”Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 15 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  16. 16. Travel Patterns Travel Purpose The structure of the Chinese outbound market has changed dramatically over the last decade: in contrast to the situation in 1993, more than 70% of Chinese outbound tourists travelled for private reasons in 2003 Structure of Outbound Passengers, 1993 and 2003 100% 80% 40 Travel for private reasons 73 60% Percent Travellers 40% 60 Travel for non- private reasons 20% 27 0% 1993 2003 Source: Xu Fan, Marketing on China Outbound TourismMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 16 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  17. 17. Travel Patterns Importance to South Africa Chinese arrivals to South Africa are comparable to arrivals from Canada and India Total Volume by Market (excluding Africa), 2002 and 2006 600 2002 488 500 2006 443 Thousands of Arrivals 400 300 249 259 255 200 183 125 110 112 106 89 100 70 48 54 49 34 34 44 37 42 26 32 0 Netherlands Hong Kong) Italy Germany Australia India France Canada Japan UK USA China (inlc ‘02–‘06 2.46% 0.94% 8.68% 3.09% -1.36% 6.37% 2.93% 9.74% 6.81% 3.23% 5.08% CAGR Source: SATMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 17 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  18. 18. Travel Patterns Importance to South Africa Although Chinese arrivals to South Africa are higher than arrivals from Canada and India, the economic impact of Chinese travellers is currently smaller Importance to South Africa, 2005 Seasonality Spend Per Trip Market Distribution2 Arrivals Value (Rand)3 Index1 in SA (Rand)3 UK 8% 1.90 9,832 469,730 4,534,943,950 Germany 15% 2.25 11,142 249,504 2,762,411,837 USA 3% 1.90 10,348 233,418 2,409,343,703 Netherlands 21% 2.50 10,679 116,244 1,212,223,110 France 10% 2.50 7,179 101,139 720,711,128 Italy 43% 2.33 7,228 51,464 347,925,645 China 10% 1.89 8,705 44,352 389,525,834 Canada 6% 2.13 10,624 40,818 425,044,535 India 5% 1.70 13,058 36,045 393,259,799 1 Anindex value of 0% represents perfect seasonality, i.e. the market is not characterised by large fluctuations from month to month. A value of 100% means that seasonality is very poor, i.e. the market is characterised by large fluctuations month by month; 2 Average number of provinces visited by all foreign tourists; 3Total Foreign Direct Spend (excl capex) Source: Combined SAT Departure Survey Dataset, 2005Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 18 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  19. 19. Travel Patterns Travel to South Africa Chinese arrivals to South Africa grew at an annual average rate of 3% between 2002 and 2006 Chinese Inbound Tourists to SA, 2000–2006 60,000 ’02–’06 CAGR: 3.2% 51,265 50,000 44,352 42,991 41,962 40,000 37,129 Number of 30,595 29,804 Travellers 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Source: Dr Wang / Xinjun, A Study on the Development of China’s Outbound Tourism Market; International Forum on Chinese Outbound Tourism, 2006; Combined SAT Departure Survey Dataset, 2002–2005; SAT Arrivals, 2006Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 19 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  20. 20. Travel Patterns Travel to South Africa Despite arrivals showing positive growth over the period 2002-2005, spend has decreased considerably Arrivals from China to South Africa, 2002–05 Spend Per Trip from China to SA, 2002–05 60,000 20,000 51,265 (’02–’05) (’02–’05) 44,352 CAGR CAGR 42,991 14,019 15,000 40,000 37,129 Spend 11,872 6.1% -14.7% Arrivals per trip to SA to SA 10,000 9,458 8,705 (Rand) 20,000 5,000 0 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2002 2003 2004 2005 Length of Stay in SA, 2002–05 Spend per Day in SA, 2002–05 25 1,500 (’02–’05) 21.3 21.7 (’02–’05) 1,236 CAGR 20 CAGR 16.0 1,000 -24.6% 15 12.4 9.1% Spend No. of per day nights 10 in SA 551 530 451 (Rand) 500 5 0 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: Combined SAT Departure Survey Dataset, 2002–2005Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 20 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  21. 21. Travel Patterns Growth in Arrivals South Africa is not yet fully capitalising on the Chinese outbound tourism boom Chinese Travellers: Total Outbound vs. Inbound to South Africa, 2002–2006 100,000 40,000,000 China Inbound to SA 34,500,000 China Outbound 35,000,000 31,000,000 80,000 28,500,000 30,000,000 25,000,000 60,000 20,200,000 51,265 Travellers 44,352 20,000,000 16,602,300 42,991 41,962 40,000 37,129 15,000,000 10,000,000 20,000 5,000,000 0 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Inbound to SA Total Outbound ’02–’06 CAGR 3.2% 20.1% Source: Combined SAT Departure Survey Dataset, 2002–2005; Dr Wang / Xinjun, A Study on the Development of China’s Outbound Tourism Market; International Forum on Chinese Outbound Tourism, 2006; SAT Arrivals, 2006Marketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 21 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  22. 22. Agenda Market Overview Travel Patterns Channel Consumers – Our Target Market – Target Segments Current Chinese Travellers to South Africa – Demographics – Travel Behaviour Potential Market and Their Perceptions Activation Strategy Hong KongMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 22 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  23. 23. Channel Strategic Position of South Africa in the China Travel Market Low market penetration Increasing high growth rates High price levels South Africa is a low Low Low market scale product within a maturity of transparency market which has not yet Chinese travel developed sophisticated Low consumer market demand or supply sophistication SA as a tourist structures and experience product in China Low tendency of channel to specialize low Profitability driven by low high market access Low maturity of Product Low Low High Low Low number of variety of relative price frequency of knowledge of pax (market packages tour groups sales staff re share) productMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 23 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  24. 24. Channel Strategic Position of South Africa in the China Travel Market South Africa as a travel product in China remains in its emerging phase Tourism Product and Market Life Cycles in Group Package Tour Prevalent Markets Mature Invention / Scale Reinvention Strategy SA Product Strategy SA Product in Hong in Japan Kong Market Evolution SA Product in China Concentration Strategy Emerging New Established Product EvolutionMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 24 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
  25. 25. Channel Market Characteristics Fast changing market conditions drive marketing uncertainties Current Structural Characteristics of Current Structural Characteristics of Emerging and Fast Changing Market Emerging and Fast Changing Market the Market the Market Leisure travel is concentrated in 3 golden Highly fragmented market with large number Consumers Leisure travel is concentrated in 3 golden Highly fragmented market with large number weeks weeks of players at city level of players at city level Group tour is the dominant form of leisure Group tour is the dominant form of leisure No true national players, largest travel No true national players, largest travel travel travel agencies have regional influences agencies have regional influences Organization sponsored leisure travel is Organization sponsored leisure travel is Little differentiation, all players are very Little differentiation, all players are very significant significant similar in structure and selling commodity similar in structure and selling commodity products products ADS positively influences choices of outbound ADS positively influences choices of outbound travel destinations travel destinations No universally well recognized brand in the No universally well recognized brand in the market market There are 3 distinct regional markets There are 3 distinct regional markets Intense competition due to large number of Intense competition due to large number of Integrated travel agencies dominate the self- Integrated travel agencies dominate the self- players and little differentiation players and little differentiation funded leisure travel market funded leisure travel market Channels Particularly for smaller volume destinations, Particularly for smaller volume destinations, Foreign companies participate mostly Foreign companies participate mostly group failure is prevalent so scale is key group failure is prevalent so scale is key through HK through HK Consumer Insights and Activation Strategies should be recalibrated earlier than in other Consumer Insights and Activation Strategies should be recalibrated earlier than in other markets markets Source: Development of Chinese Travel Agencies; Monitor AnalysisMarketing SA in China Second Edition 2007 25 Copyright © 2007 SA Tourism – not to be used without permission
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