Problem-Based Learning
     Educational Psychology
Learning Objectives
Behavior modeling in classroom

Self-determination and social cognitive
theory

Self-efficacy

Rewards ...
Video Presentation
Questions?
Problem Analysis
Problem Identification
Students

Lacked respect for Mr Wong

Oblivious to Mr Wong’s
presence

Lacked sense of urgency

Peer...
Problem Identification
Mr Wong

Lacked respect from
students

Lacked classroom
management skills

Lacked fairness in his
tr...
the expert says...

Modeling is a generic term in social cognitive
    theory (Bandura, 1986) that refers to
psychological...
4 types of observational
        learning
Modeling Effect           Eliciting Effect

Identical imitation       Similar im...
the expert says...
In the social cognitive view, people are neither driven
    by inner forces nor automatically shaped an...
we say...
Mr Wong did not assert enough authority in
class and is not an exemplary role model to the
students

Kevin’s und...
we say...
Mr Wong did not understand the pitfalls of
accidental modeling

Kevin was receiving reinforcement when Mr
Wong o...
Observational Learning
      Processes
Attention

Allows observer to determine what is relevant or
irrelevant in observati...
Observational Learning
      Processes
Attention

Allows observer to determine what is relevant or
irrelevant in observati...
Observational Learning
      Processes
Production

Production processes are influenced by physical
capabilities followed by...
Observational Learning
      Processes
Production

Production processes are influenced by physical
capabilities followed by...
Teachers as Models
A competent teacher must not only show
enthusiasm in the subject but must also
connect with the student...
Teachers as Models
A competent teacher must not only show
enthusiasm in the subject but must also
connect with the student...
we say...
1. Start the lesson off gently

2.Be aware of the students’ concerns and
  worries

3.Think from the students’ p...
Self-Determination
          Theory
  States that everyone
     has a need for
  Autonomy (deCharms,
    1986; Deci, 1975)...
Self-Determination
          Theory
  States that everyone
     has a need for
  Autonomy (deCharms,
    1986; Deci, 1975)...
Competence
ability to effectively perform the behavior

person feels competent when he receives
feedback

Kevin may be a p...
Relatedness
The need to feel a sense of belonging and
connectedness with others

Secure relational base = Higher self-
det...
Social Cognitive Theory
                       P(ersonal)




E(nvironment)                              B(ehavior)
      ...
Social Cognitive Theory
Environment                Personal              Behavior


social and physical     person’s perce...
Self-Efficacy

 makes a difference         belief in one’s ability
  to how individuals     to reach a particular goal
feel...
4 major processes
Cognitive

Motivational

Affective

Selection
Cognitive
High Self-Efficacy

higher goal sets and
commitment

demonstrate good
analytical thinking

strong resilience when...
Cognitive
Low Self-Efficacy

visualize failure
scenarios
Motivational
“Strength of motivation
is governed jointly by
 the expectation that
 particular action will
   produce speci...
Affective
1) Can exercise control
   over potential threats

2) Cope with emotional
   states

3) Do not come up with
   a...
Selection
People tend to avoid environment which they
believe is too much for them to handle

Environment is important as ...
What are the factors?
Experience

Modeling (Vicarious Learning)

Social persuasions

Physiological factors
Raising Self-Efficacy
Be specific with compliment to students on
abilities they have developed

Encourage them to believe in...
Punishment
Remove awkward,
dangerous and unwanted
behavior

Assumption: person
punished is less likely
behave the same way...
Ways to conceal
 punishable behavior
Fantasying/Dreaming

Sublimate: engage in
behavior that’s rather
similar to reinforci...
Problem
The students are
motivated extrinsically
and not intrinsically
(E.g. removal of
homework)

This leads to students
...
Problem
  The students are
  motivated extrinsically
  and not intrinsically
      “Self-rewarded
  (E.g. removal of
   be...
Bandura’s Theory
  “If actions were determined solely by
external rewards and punishments, people
would behave like weathe...
Solution
Motivate the class by
helping in goal setting

Help discover students
discover their
strengths and
weaknesses

Th...
Problem
Rewards were
introduced in the
wrong manner

The teacher is
sending out a signal
that “if you don’t
sleep in class...
Skinner’s Theory

Students should be rewarded
   for doing a good deed,
 and ignored for doing bad.
Solution
Mr Wong should have
punished Kevin
anyway

In this situation, his
ignoring had backfired
and gave the students
the...
Alternatives to
        Punishments
Letting subject
perform undesired
response until it is
sick of it
Alternatives to
        Punishments
Letting subject
perform undesired
response until it is
sick of it

Wait for the child ...
Alternatives to
        Punishments
Letting subject
perform undesired
response until it is
sick of it

Wait for the child ...
“The best way to stop
 an undesirable habit
   is by ignoring it.”
“The best way to stop
 an undesirable habit
   is by ignoring it.”
References
B R Hergenhann, H Olson Matthew, “An introduction to theories of learning”,
7th edition, p. 85

Judy Cameron & ...
References
B.F Skinner (1971), “Beyond freedom and dignity”, Hackett Publishing Co

Meghan H. McDonough & Peter R.E. Crock...
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  1. 1. Problem-Based Learning Educational Psychology
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Behavior modeling in classroom Self-determination and social cognitive theory Self-efficacy Rewards and punishments Alternatives to punishments
  3. 3. Video Presentation
  4. 4. Questions?
  5. 5. Problem Analysis
  6. 6. Problem Identification Students Lacked respect for Mr Wong Oblivious to Mr Wong’s presence Lacked sense of urgency Peer influence Took advantage of Mr Wong
  7. 7. Problem Identification Mr Wong Lacked respect from students Lacked classroom management skills Lacked fairness in his treatment with students
  8. 8. the expert says... Modeling is a generic term in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) that refers to psychological changes (e.g. changes in thought, action, attitude and emotion) that can occur when a learner observes one or more models (Rosenthal & Bandura, 1987)
  9. 9. 4 types of observational learning Modeling Effect Eliciting Effect Identical imitation Similar imitation but not identical Disinhibitory Effect Inhibitory Effect Proceed with behavior after observing another Refrains from behavior person not punished for after observing someone that behavior being punished for the behavior
  10. 10. the expert says... In the social cognitive view, people are neither driven by inner forces nor automatically shaped and controlled by external stimuli. Rather, human functioning is explained in terms of a model of a triadic reciprocality in which behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants of each other (Bandura, 1986)
  11. 11. we say... Mr Wong did not assert enough authority in class and is not an exemplary role model to the students Kevin’s undesirable behavior could be inspired from external media and is thus an eliciting effect of observational learning Seeing no follow-up action from Mr Wong, the class turned rowdy. This is said to be an disinhibitory effect
  12. 12. we say... Mr Wong did not understand the pitfalls of accidental modeling Kevin was receiving reinforcement when Mr Wong offered him a deal Mr Wong’s decision to ignore the behavior in class is a result of accidental modeling
  13. 13. Observational Learning Processes Attention Allows observer to determine what is relevant or irrelevant in observational learning Retention In order to perform a modeled behavior, the student must be able to form a cognitive version of the model’s behavior
  14. 14. Observational Learning Processes Attention Allows observer to determine what is relevant or irrelevant in observational learning Retention In order to perform a modeled behavior, the student must be able to form a cognitive version of the model’s behavior
  15. 15. Observational Learning Processes Production Production processes are influenced by physical capabilities followed by self observation and feedback of the performance Motivation Direct, self and vicarious reinforcement
  16. 16. Observational Learning Processes Production Production processes are influenced by physical capabilities followed by self observation and feedback of the performance Motivation Direct, self and vicarious reinforcement
  17. 17. Teachers as Models A competent teacher must not only show enthusiasm in the subject but must also connect with the students at a personal level However... it may be insufficient
  18. 18. Teachers as Models A competent teacher must not only show enthusiasm in the subject but must also connect with the students at a personal level However... it may be insufficient
  19. 19. we say... 1. Start the lesson off gently 2.Be aware of the students’ concerns and worries 3.Think from the students’ point of view 4.Most importantly, set a realistic goal for the whole class to achieve
  20. 20. Self-Determination Theory States that everyone has a need for Autonomy (deCharms, 1986; Deci, 1975), Competence (Harter, 1978; White, 1963) and Relatedness (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Reis, 1994)
  21. 21. Self-Determination Theory States that everyone has a need for Autonomy (deCharms, 1986; Deci, 1975), Competence (Harter, 1978; White, 1963) and Relatedness (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Reis, 1994)
  22. 22. Competence ability to effectively perform the behavior person feels competent when he receives feedback Kevin may be a poor achiever, thus explaining his laid-back attitude in class. E.g. sleeping the “why bother” attitude “I’m already lousy, so why put in effort?”
  23. 23. Relatedness The need to feel a sense of belonging and connectedness with others Secure relational base = Higher self- determination Kevin cannot relate to the teacher or the lessons leads to no ownership of studies indifferent attitude
  24. 24. Social Cognitive Theory P(ersonal) E(nvironment) B(ehavior) Adapted from M.E. Bell-Gredler. Learning and Instruction. New York: Macmillan, 1986, p240
  25. 25. Social Cognitive Theory Environment Personal Behavior social and physical person’s perception actions taken of time, physical features and activities Kevin is more likely to pay attention (behavior) in class if he enjoys (personal) English lessons and if Mr Wong encourages him (environment).
  26. 26. Self-Efficacy makes a difference belief in one’s ability to how individuals to reach a particular goal feel, think and behave “the belief of being able to control challenging environment demands by means of taking adaptive action”
  27. 27. 4 major processes Cognitive Motivational Affective Selection
  28. 28. Cognitive High Self-Efficacy higher goal sets and commitment demonstrate good analytical thinking strong resilience when faced with challenges
  29. 29. Cognitive Low Self-Efficacy visualize failure scenarios
  30. 30. Motivational “Strength of motivation is governed jointly by the expectation that particular action will produce specified outcomes and the value placed on those outcomes.”
  31. 31. Affective 1) Can exercise control over potential threats 2) Cope with emotional states 3) Do not come up with apprehensive cognitions
  32. 32. Selection People tend to avoid environment which they believe is too much for them to handle Environment is important as it creates a direction towards personal development If an individual constantly selects easy tasks, over time, there will be low motivation.
  33. 33. What are the factors? Experience Modeling (Vicarious Learning) Social persuasions Physiological factors
  34. 34. Raising Self-Efficacy Be specific with compliment to students on abilities they have developed Encourage them to believe in their capabilities Provide constructive feedback Use models within the class Chart the growth and development
  35. 35. Punishment Remove awkward, dangerous and unwanted behavior Assumption: person punished is less likely behave the same way again Fact: punished behavior is likely to return after withdrawing punishment
  36. 36. Ways to conceal punishable behavior Fantasying/Dreaming Sublimate: engage in behavior that’s rather similar to reinforcing effects but is not punishable Direct punishable behavior towards things that cannot be punished
  37. 37. Problem The students are motivated extrinsically and not intrinsically (E.g. removal of homework) This leads to students becoming I. materialistic II.unmotivated
  38. 38. Problem The students are motivated extrinsically and not intrinsically “Self-rewarded (E.g. removal of behavior tends to be homework) maintained more effectively than if it has been This leads to students externally reinforced.” becoming I. materialistic II.unmotivated
  39. 39. Bandura’s Theory “If actions were determined solely by external rewards and punishments, people would behave like weathervanes, constantly shifting in different directions to conform to the momentary influences impinging on them. They would act corruptly with unprincipled individuals and honorable with righteous ones.”
  40. 40. Solution Motivate the class by helping in goal setting Help discover students discover their strengths and weaknesses This results in long- term motivation
  41. 41. Problem Rewards were introduced in the wrong manner The teacher is sending out a signal that “if you don’t sleep in class, I’ll not give you homework.”
  42. 42. Skinner’s Theory Students should be rewarded for doing a good deed, and ignored for doing bad.
  43. 43. Solution Mr Wong should have punished Kevin anyway In this situation, his ignoring had backfired and gave the students the impression that he doesn’t care and it doesn’t matter.
  44. 44. Alternatives to Punishments Letting subject perform undesired response until it is sick of it
  45. 45. Alternatives to Punishments Letting subject perform undesired response until it is sick of it Wait for the child to outgrow it
  46. 46. Alternatives to Punishments Letting subject perform undesired response until it is sick of it Wait for the child to outgrow it Let time pass
  47. 47. “The best way to stop an undesirable habit is by ignoring it.”
  48. 48. “The best way to stop an undesirable habit is by ignoring it.”
  49. 49. References B R Hergenhann, H Olson Matthew, “An introduction to theories of learning”, 7th edition, p. 85 Judy Cameron & W. David Pierce, Rewards and Intrinsic Motivations: Resolving the Controversy. Ann Gillard, Ph.D. Student, Self Determination Theory, Texas A&M University Rhett Diessner and Stacy Simmons (editors), Notable Selections in Educational Psychology. USA: Mc Graw Hill,2000 B.R. Hergenhahn and Matthew H. Olson (2001), An Introduction to Theories of Learning (sixth edition), New Jersey: Prentice- Hall  Albert Bandura (1992) and Ralf Schwarzer (editor), Self-efficacy- Thought Control of Action, Taylor and Francis
  50. 50. References B.F Skinner (1971), “Beyond freedom and dignity”, Hackett Publishing Co Meghan H. McDonough & Peter R.E. Crocker, The Role of Relatedness in Physical Activity Motivation, Behaviour, and Affective Experiences: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective, The University of British Columbia Richard M. Ryan & Edward L. Deci, 2000, Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being, University of Rochester http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/ Interpersonal%20Communication%20and%20Relations/ Social_cognitive_theory.doc/ http://www.idea.org/page110.html http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/SelfEfficacy/section0.html

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