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    Pbl Presentation Pbl Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Problem-Based Learning Educational Psychology
    • Learning Objectives Behavior modeling in classroom Self-determination and social cognitive theory Self-efficacy Rewards and punishments Alternatives to punishments
    • Video Presentation
    • Questions?
    • Problem Analysis
    • Problem Identification Students Lacked respect for Mr Wong Oblivious to Mr Wong’s presence Lacked sense of urgency Peer influence Took advantage of Mr Wong
    • Problem Identification Mr Wong Lacked respect from students Lacked classroom management skills Lacked fairness in his treatment with students
    • the expert says... Modeling is a generic term in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) that refers to psychological changes (e.g. changes in thought, action, attitude and emotion) that can occur when a learner observes one or more models (Rosenthal & Bandura, 1987)
    • 4 types of observational learning Modeling Effect Eliciting Effect Identical imitation Similar imitation but not identical Disinhibitory Effect Inhibitory Effect Proceed with behavior after observing another Refrains from behavior person not punished for after observing someone that behavior being punished for the behavior
    • the expert says... In the social cognitive view, people are neither driven by inner forces nor automatically shaped and controlled by external stimuli. Rather, human functioning is explained in terms of a model of a triadic reciprocality in which behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants of each other (Bandura, 1986)
    • we say... Mr Wong did not assert enough authority in class and is not an exemplary role model to the students Kevin’s undesirable behavior could be inspired from external media and is thus an eliciting effect of observational learning Seeing no follow-up action from Mr Wong, the class turned rowdy. This is said to be an disinhibitory effect
    • we say... Mr Wong did not understand the pitfalls of accidental modeling Kevin was receiving reinforcement when Mr Wong offered him a deal Mr Wong’s decision to ignore the behavior in class is a result of accidental modeling
    • Observational Learning Processes Attention Allows observer to determine what is relevant or irrelevant in observational learning Retention In order to perform a modeled behavior, the student must be able to form a cognitive version of the model’s behavior
    • Observational Learning Processes Attention Allows observer to determine what is relevant or irrelevant in observational learning Retention In order to perform a modeled behavior, the student must be able to form a cognitive version of the model’s behavior
    • Observational Learning Processes Production Production processes are influenced by physical capabilities followed by self observation and feedback of the performance Motivation Direct, self and vicarious reinforcement
    • Observational Learning Processes Production Production processes are influenced by physical capabilities followed by self observation and feedback of the performance Motivation Direct, self and vicarious reinforcement
    • Teachers as Models A competent teacher must not only show enthusiasm in the subject but must also connect with the students at a personal level However... it may be insufficient
    • Teachers as Models A competent teacher must not only show enthusiasm in the subject but must also connect with the students at a personal level However... it may be insufficient
    • we say... 1. Start the lesson off gently 2.Be aware of the students’ concerns and worries 3.Think from the students’ point of view 4.Most importantly, set a realistic goal for the whole class to achieve
    • Self-Determination Theory States that everyone has a need for Autonomy (deCharms, 1986; Deci, 1975), Competence (Harter, 1978; White, 1963) and Relatedness (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Reis, 1994)
    • Self-Determination Theory States that everyone has a need for Autonomy (deCharms, 1986; Deci, 1975), Competence (Harter, 1978; White, 1963) and Relatedness (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Reis, 1994)
    • Competence ability to effectively perform the behavior person feels competent when he receives feedback Kevin may be a poor achiever, thus explaining his laid-back attitude in class. E.g. sleeping the “why bother” attitude “I’m already lousy, so why put in effort?”
    • Relatedness The need to feel a sense of belonging and connectedness with others Secure relational base = Higher self- determination Kevin cannot relate to the teacher or the lessons leads to no ownership of studies indifferent attitude
    • Social Cognitive Theory P(ersonal) E(nvironment) B(ehavior) Adapted from M.E. Bell-Gredler. Learning and Instruction. New York: Macmillan, 1986, p240
    • Social Cognitive Theory Environment Personal Behavior social and physical person’s perception actions taken of time, physical features and activities Kevin is more likely to pay attention (behavior) in class if he enjoys (personal) English lessons and if Mr Wong encourages him (environment).
    • Self-Efficacy makes a difference belief in one’s ability to how individuals to reach a particular goal feel, think and behave “the belief of being able to control challenging environment demands by means of taking adaptive action”
    • 4 major processes Cognitive Motivational Affective Selection
    • Cognitive High Self-Efficacy higher goal sets and commitment demonstrate good analytical thinking strong resilience when faced with challenges
    • Cognitive Low Self-Efficacy visualize failure scenarios
    • Motivational “Strength of motivation is governed jointly by the expectation that particular action will produce specified outcomes and the value placed on those outcomes.”
    • Affective 1) Can exercise control over potential threats 2) Cope with emotional states 3) Do not come up with apprehensive cognitions
    • Selection People tend to avoid environment which they believe is too much for them to handle Environment is important as it creates a direction towards personal development If an individual constantly selects easy tasks, over time, there will be low motivation.
    • What are the factors? Experience Modeling (Vicarious Learning) Social persuasions Physiological factors
    • Raising Self-Efficacy Be specific with compliment to students on abilities they have developed Encourage them to believe in their capabilities Provide constructive feedback Use models within the class Chart the growth and development
    • Punishment Remove awkward, dangerous and unwanted behavior Assumption: person punished is less likely behave the same way again Fact: punished behavior is likely to return after withdrawing punishment
    • Ways to conceal punishable behavior Fantasying/Dreaming Sublimate: engage in behavior that’s rather similar to reinforcing effects but is not punishable Direct punishable behavior towards things that cannot be punished
    • Problem The students are motivated extrinsically and not intrinsically (E.g. removal of homework) This leads to students becoming I. materialistic II.unmotivated
    • Problem The students are motivated extrinsically and not intrinsically “Self-rewarded (E.g. removal of behavior tends to be homework) maintained more effectively than if it has been This leads to students externally reinforced.” becoming I. materialistic II.unmotivated
    • Bandura’s Theory “If actions were determined solely by external rewards and punishments, people would behave like weathervanes, constantly shifting in different directions to conform to the momentary influences impinging on them. They would act corruptly with unprincipled individuals and honorable with righteous ones.”
    • Solution Motivate the class by helping in goal setting Help discover students discover their strengths and weaknesses This results in long- term motivation
    • Problem Rewards were introduced in the wrong manner The teacher is sending out a signal that “if you don’t sleep in class, I’ll not give you homework.”
    • Skinner’s Theory Students should be rewarded for doing a good deed, and ignored for doing bad.
    • Solution Mr Wong should have punished Kevin anyway In this situation, his ignoring had backfired and gave the students the impression that he doesn’t care and it doesn’t matter.
    • Alternatives to Punishments Letting subject perform undesired response until it is sick of it
    • Alternatives to Punishments Letting subject perform undesired response until it is sick of it Wait for the child to outgrow it
    • Alternatives to Punishments Letting subject perform undesired response until it is sick of it Wait for the child to outgrow it Let time pass
    • “The best way to stop an undesirable habit is by ignoring it.”
    • “The best way to stop an undesirable habit is by ignoring it.”
    • References B R Hergenhann, H Olson Matthew, “An introduction to theories of learning”, 7th edition, p. 85 Judy Cameron & W. David Pierce, Rewards and Intrinsic Motivations: Resolving the Controversy. Ann Gillard, Ph.D. Student, Self Determination Theory, Texas A&M University Rhett Diessner and Stacy Simmons (editors), Notable Selections in Educational Psychology. USA: Mc Graw Hill,2000 B.R. Hergenhahn and Matthew H. Olson (2001), An Introduction to Theories of Learning (sixth edition), New Jersey: Prentice- Hall  Albert Bandura (1992) and Ralf Schwarzer (editor), Self-efficacy- Thought Control of Action, Taylor and Francis
    • References B.F Skinner (1971), “Beyond freedom and dignity”, Hackett Publishing Co Meghan H. McDonough & Peter R.E. Crocker, The Role of Relatedness in Physical Activity Motivation, Behaviour, and Affective Experiences: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective, The University of British Columbia Richard M. Ryan & Edward L. Deci, 2000, Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being, University of Rochester http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/ Interpersonal%20Communication%20and%20Relations/ Social_cognitive_theory.doc/ http://www.idea.org/page110.html http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/SelfEfficacy/section0.html