Shifts notes 3 powerpoint

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Shifts notes 3 powerpoint

  1. 1. Shifts in Discourse <ul><li>Two types of discourse direct or indirect . </li></ul><ul><li>Direct discourse is quoted speech: the speaker’s exact words are enclosed in quotation marks. Note the basic patterns for writing direct quotations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane said, “My favorite actor is Brad Pitt.” (verb of saying at beginning of quote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ My favorite actor is Brad Pitt,” said Jane. (verb of saying at end of quote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ My favorite actor,” Jane said, “is Brad Pitt.” (verb of saying in middle of quote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Who’s your favorite actor?” asked Jane. (quote is a question) </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Discourse con’t <ul><li>Indirect discourse is reported speech; the writer is relating what someone said. No quotation marks are used. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane said that her favorite actor was Brad Pitt. (Someone is reporting what Jane said about herself.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I said that my favorite actor was Brad Pitt. (Jane is reporting what she herself said.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane asked me who my favorite actor was. (Someone is reporting what Jane asked him/her.) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Shifts in Discourse <ul><li>A shift in discourse occurs when a direct quote is used without quotation marks or other necessary punctuation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I need to know what time your plane arrives and are you going to be hungry when you get here . (goes from indirect to direct) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The instructor reminded us that our reports were due and you need to include your bibliography . (goes from indirect to direct) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fixing Shift in Discourse <ul><li>To fix this kind of discourse shift, writers usually write the entire sentence in indirect discourse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I need to know what time your plane arrives and if you are going to be hungry when you get here . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The instructor reminded us that our reports were due and that we needed to include our bibliography . </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Shifts in Discourse <ul><li>The most common shift in discourse is a sentence that shifts from indirect discourse to a mixed construction, which is a combination of both indirect and direct discourse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alex needed to make a phone call and asked could he be excused . (goes from indirect to mixed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaine wondered what would she do if she won the lottery . (goes from indirect to mixed) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fixing Shifts in Discourse <ul><li>To fix this kind of discourse shift, rewrite the mixed construction in indirect discourse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alex needed to make a phone call and asked if he could be excused . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaine wondered what she would do if she won the lottery . </li></ul></ul>

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