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Shifts notes 2a powerpoint

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Transcript

  • 1. Review
    • What is a shift?
    • When a writer moves from one form to another in a sentence.
    • Writers should AVOID shifts.
  • 2. Review
    • Types of Shifts:
    • Shifts in Person
      • When change from one form of person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) to another.
      • Example: Our family had a party. We ate cake. You played games.
    • Shifts in Number
      • When switch from singular or plural to the opposite.
      • Example: A person should always wear a seatbelt or they are in danger of being injured during a car accident.
  • 3. Review
    • Types of Shifts:
    • 3) Shifts in Verb Tense
      • When change one verb form (past or present) to another.
      • Example: I went to the outlet mall last Saturday. While there, I buy a whole new wardrobe.
  • 4. Shifts Notes #2 Mood, Voice
  • 5. 4) Shifts in Mood
    • Three types of mood in sentences
    • The indicative mood expresses a fact , opinion , or question . Most writing is in the indicative. EX: He is a jerk.
    • The imperative mood expresses a direct command or request . The subject is usually “you understood.” EX: Don’t be a jerk.
    • The subjunctive mood expresses a requirement or a desire . The subjunctive is often used after certain verbs or clauses, which are usually followed by the word that . EX: It is essential that he stops being a jerk.
  • 6. Mood Practice
    • What mood is each of these sentences in?
    • It is important that students study for the grammar test.
    • When are you going to the beach?
    • Never give up!
    • The final exam is sooner than you think.
    • I wish the semester was over!
  • 7. Shifts in Mood
    • A shift in mood occurs when a sentence starts out in one mood and changes to another.
    • AVOID shifts in mood!
    • Stay in mood you start in
  • 8. Shift in Mood
    • Example:
      • Go to the store , and would you please get me some ice cream ?
        • Begins in indicative --Switches to subjunctive
      • Correct version:
        • Go to the store and please get me some ice cream.
  • 9. 5) Shifts in Voice
    • RULE:
    • Sentences can be written in either the active voice or the passive voice.
      • Active voice =shows subject DOING action
      • Passive voice =shows subject RECEIVING action
    • In other words:
      • Active voice emphasizes the DOER
      • Passive voice emphasizes the DOING
  • 10. Active vs. Passive Voice
    • Active:
    • She sees a lot of movies.
    • She was inviting a lot of friends.
    • We planted the garden.
    • Sam has gotten several speeding tickets.
    • Passive:
    • A lot of movies are seen by her.
    • A lot of friends were being invited by her.
    • The garden was planted.
    • Several speeding tickets were gotten by Sam.
  • 11. Active vs. Passive Voice
    • Note that a sentence in the passive voice may have a “by-phrase”
      • Passive: The garden was planted by the neighbors.
    • The by-phrase is not always expressed: Passive: My wallet was stolen (by somebody).
  • 12. Shifts in Voice
    • A shift in voice occurs, for example, when a sentence starts out in one voice and changes to the other.
    • Examples:
      • I made the pies , but the rest of the dinner was made by my wife . (shifts from active to passive)
      • Mike’s paper was written by his girlfriend , but he put his name on it . (shifts from passive to active)
  • 13. Correcting Shifts in Voice
    • To correct a shift in voice, rewrite the sentence so that all of it is in the active voice.
    • Examples:
      • I made the pies , but my wife made the rest of the dinner . (both in active voice)
      • Mike’s girlfriend wrote his paper , but he put his name on it . (both in active voice)