Parallel constr notes powerpoint

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Parallel constr notes powerpoint

  1. 1. Parallel Constructions Grammar Notes
  2. 2. Parallelism Analogy #1 <ul><li>Think of ideas in a sentence as lanes on the highway. </li></ul><ul><li>Lanes are parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>While driving, you need to stay parallel to cars in other lanes. </li></ul><ul><li>Same in sentences. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Parallelism Analogy #2 <ul><li>Think of the phrases in a sentence as pieces in a jigsaw puzzle. </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces need to fit together properly to see the whole picture in the puzzle. </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces of a sentence (phrases) need to fit together properly to see the whole picture (sentence). </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is parallel construction? <ul><li>When writing sentences you want to make sure that the ideas are balanced (parallel) . This makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Parallel Construction Pattern of Words Pattern of Words
  6. 6. Keys to Parallelism <ul><li>1) Find the part of the sentence that needs to have parallel construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Series </li></ul><ul><li>Words joined by FANBOYS </li></ul><ul><li>Words joined by correlative conjunctions (either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also) </li></ul><ul><li>Words joined by THAN or AS </li></ul>
  7. 7. Keys to Parallelism <ul><li>2) To ensure a sentence is parallel you need to find the pattern in the phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She enjoys giving and receiving gifts. (pattern=-ing verbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark is a terrific father , excellent salesman and good friend . (pattern=adjective/noun) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1) Parallel Ideas in a Series <ul><li>Items in a series should be in parallel form. Whatever form you begin writing the list in is the way you should continue it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finn wants crayons, toys, and books for Christmas. (All items in series are single words in plural form) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holiday shoppers who want to have an enjoyable experience should plan on being cooperative, patient, and kind. (All items in series are adjectives) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Making Series Parallel <ul><li>WRONG: Hooked on romance novels, I learned that there is nothing more important than being rich, looking good, and to have a good time. (Last item in series does not use an -ing verb followed by an adjective) </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECTION: Hooked on romance novels, I learned that there is nothing more important than being rich, looking good, and having a good time. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2) Parallel Ideas Presented as Pairs <ul><li>When pairing ideas, show their connection by presenting them in the same form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired ideas usually joined using: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A pair of correlative conjunctions (either/or), (not only/but also) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A word introducing a comparison (than, as) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To locate the pair in the sentence--look on either side of the joining word </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Parallel Pairs w/ Coordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) connect ideas of equal importance. Keep the ideas in parallel form to show their equality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WRONG: At Wake Tech, plagiarism can result in suspension or even being expelled from school. (Pair is not in the same form--need to change so both items are nouns ending in -sion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CORRECTION: At Wake Tech, plagiarism can result in suspension or even expulsion from school. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Parallel Pairs w/ Correlative Conjunctions <ul><li>Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs in a sentence. Make sure words following each c.c. is in the same form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also, both/and, whether/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WRONG: The clerk told me either to change my flight or take the train . (Both verbs should begin with “to”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CORRECTION: The clerk told me either to change my flight or to take the train . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Parallel Pairs Linked with THAN or AS <ul><li>WRONG: It is easier to do your homework than getting a zero . (First verb begins with “to”, second verb should also.) </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECTION: It is easier to do your homework than to get a zero . </li></ul><ul><li>WRONG: Mother could not persuade me that giving is as much a joy as to receive . (First verb ends in -ing, second verb should also.) </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECTION: Mother could not persuade me that giving is as much a joy as receiving . </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3)Repeating Function Words to Clarify Parallels <ul><li>Function words such as prepositions (by, to) and subordinating conjunctions (that, because) signal the form of the word groups to follow. Repeat these function words to remind the reader of the parallel structure. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples: Repeating Function Words <ul><li>Business owners are motivated to mark down prices when sales slump in the month before a major holiday or when the competition introduces new products or discounts . </li></ul><ul><li>The easiest ways a student can earn a passing grade are by completing homework assignments on time and by studying for tests . </li></ul>

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