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Fragments notes 2 powerpoint
 

Fragments notes 2 powerpoint

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    Fragments notes 2 powerpoint Fragments notes 2 powerpoint Presentation Transcript

    • Repairing Fragment Sentences Fragments Notes Set #2
    • Repairing Sentence Fragments
      • Two main ways to repair fragments:
        • Attach fragment to nearby sentence
        • Add missing words to the fragment to make it into a complete sentence.
    • Helpful Hints for Attaching Fragments to Nearby Sentences
    • Subordinate Clauses
      • Subordinate clause =phrase looks like a sentence (has a subject and verb), but begins w/ word that makes it subordinate (can’t stand on it’s own..not complete thought)
      • Example:
        • Even though (subordinate “clue”) we (subject) had lunch (verb)
          • Missing information…isn’t a complete thought
    • Subordinate Clauses
      • “Clue” words hint at a subordinate clause
        • Main words: BECAUSE, ALTHOUGH, IF, SINCE, THAN, THAT, THOUGH, WHETHER, WHICH
        • Full list on p. 151 of Hacker
    • Repairing Fragment with Subordinate Clause
      • Attach subordinate clause fragment to nearby sentence
        • Although my spoken Spanish is not very good. (fragment) I can read the language with ease.
        • CORRECT: Although my spoken Spanish is not very good, I can read the language with ease.
    • When NOT to attach subordinate clause
      • Do NOT attach the subordinate clause fragment to a nearby sentence if it would be awkward. Instead add words to make the fragment complete
        • Population increases and uncontrolled development are taking a deadly toll on the environment. So that in many parts of the world, fragile ecosystems are collapsing.
        • AWKWARD: Population increases and uncontrolled development are taking a deadly toll on the environment so that in many parts of the world, fragile ecosystems are collapsing.
        • CORRECT: Population increases and uncontrolled development are taking a deadly toll on the environment. In many parts of the world, fragile ecosystems are collapsing.
    • Phrases w/ Coordinating Conjunctions
      • “Sentences” beginning with coordinating conjunctions are usually fragments
        • Coordinating Conjunctions: AND, BUT, OR, NOR, FOR, YET
      • Example:
        • The temperature outside was extremely cold. And I forgot my coat. (fragment)
    • Repairing Phrases w/ Coordinating Conjunctions
      • Attach phrase w/ coordinating conjunction to nearby sentence
        • The temperature outside was extremely cold. And I forgot my coat.
        • CORRECT: The temperature outside was extremely cold and I forgot my coat.
    • Lists that are Fragments
      • A list can be a fragment sentence.
        • Example: Listening to a CD her sister had sent, Mia was overcome with a mix of emotions. Happiness, homesickness, nostalgia. (fragment)
    • Repairing Lists that are Fragments
      • Attach list to nearby sentence w/ colon (:)
        • Example: Listening to a CD her sister had sent, Mia was overcome with a mix of emotions: happiness, homesickness, nostalgia.
      • Attach list to nearby sentence using a connecting term
        • Connecting terms: ESPECIALLY, NAMELY, LIKE, SUCH AS
        • Example: Listening to a CD her sister had sent, Mia was overcome with a mix of emotions especially happiness, homesickness, and nostalgia.
    • Examples that are Fragments
      • Example “sentences” can be fragments.
      • “Clue” words introduce an example
        • ALSO, AND, BUT, FOR EXAMPLE, FOR INSTANCE, IN ADDITION, MAINLY, OR, THAT IS
      • Example:
        • Janie shoveled her elderly neighbors’ driveway. Also brought in their mail and shopped for groceries. (fragment)
    • Repairing Examples that are Fragments
      • Add words to fragment to turn it into a complete sentence.
        • Janie shoveled her elderly neighbors’ driveway. She also brought in their mail and shopped for groceries.
    • WARNING!
      • The Hacker handbook says fragments can be used deliberately for effect.
      • DO NOT use fragments for effect in your papers!