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    Comma notes 1 powerpoint Comma notes 1 powerpoint Presentation Transcript

    • Commas Notes Set #1
    • Reason for using commas
      • Commas help us understand sentences by keeping parts from “colliding”.
        • Example:
        • While eating a rattlesnake approached our campsite.
    • Misusing Commas
      • It’s important to know WHERE to use commas. Placing them incorrectly can change the meaning of a sentence.
        • Example:
          • The panda eats, shoots, and leaves.
    • When to Use Commas--Part I
    • 1) Coordinating Conjunctions
      • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses
        • Coordinating conjunction =word that joins two or more independent ideas (FANBOYS. and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet)
        • Independent clause =word group that can stand on its own (could be a sentence by itself--has subject, verb and complete thought)
    • Coord. Conjunctions--Example
      • WRONG: Nearly everyone has heard of love at first sight but I fell in love at first dance.
      • CORRECT: Nearly everyone has heard of love at first sight , but I fell in love at first dance.
        • Comma shows one thought ends and another begins
    • Exceptions to Coord. Conj. Rule
      • Don’t need to use a comma when clauses are short
        • The plane took off and we were on our way.
      • Don’t use comma when one idea is NOT an independent clause
        • A good money manager controls expenses and invests surplus dollars to meet future needs . (underlined phrase is a dependent clause)
    • 2) Introductory Clauses and Phrases
      • Use a comma after an introductory clause or phrase
        • Introductory clause/phrase=idea that begins a sentence--usually a dependent clause (can’t stand on own)
        • EXAMPLES:
          • Near a small stream at the bottom of the canyon , the park rangers discovered an abandoned mine.
          • Buried under layers of younger rocks , the earth’s oldest rocks contain no fossils.
    • 3) Series of Words
      • Use a comma between all items in a series and before AND.
        • Series=list
        • Examples:
          • Uncle David wiled me all of his property, houses, and warehouses.
          • Bubbles of air, leaves, ferns, bits of wood, and insects are often found trapped in amber.
          • NOTE: commas come after item is complete, not after each word
    • 4) Commas used w/ adjectives
      • REVIEW:
        • Adjective=descriptive word that modifies a noun
          • Finn is a sweet boy.
            • Sweet=adjective
            • Finn/boy=noun
          • This novel is both engaging and thrilling.
            • Engaging/thrilling=adjectives
            • Novel=noun
    • 4a) Coordinate Adjectives
      • Use a comma between coordinate adjectives not joined by AND
        • Coordinate adjective=adjectives that could be joined by AND because they describe the noun separately
          • She was warm and friendly and kind.
        • When not joined by AND use a comma
          • She was a warm, friendly, kind woman.
    • 4b) Cumulative Adjectives
      • DO NOT use a comma between cumulative adjectives
        • Cumulative adjective=adjectives that do not modify a noun separately--Have to all stay together to make understand phrase
          • Rich dark chocolate cake
          • Three large gray squirrels