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  • 1. Commas Notes Set #1
  • 2. Reason for using commas
    • Commas help us understand sentences by keeping parts from “colliding”.
      • Example:
      • While eating a rattlesnake approached our campsite.
  • 3. Misusing Commas
    • It’s important to know WHERE to use commas. Placing them incorrectly can change the meaning of a sentence.
      • Example:
        • The panda eats, shoots, and leaves.
  • 4. When to Use Commas--Part I
  • 5. 1) Coordinating Conjunctions
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses
      • Coordinating conjunction =word that joins two or more independent ideas (FANBOYS. and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet)
      • Independent clause =word group that can stand on its own (could be a sentence by itself--has subject, verb and complete thought)
  • 6. Coord. Conjunctions--Example
    • WRONG: Nearly everyone has heard of love at first sight but I fell in love at first dance.
    • CORRECT: Nearly everyone has heard of love at first sight , but I fell in love at first dance.
      • Comma shows one thought ends and another begins
  • 7. Exceptions to Coord. Conj. Rule
    • Don’t need to use a comma when clauses are short
      • The plane took off and we were on our way.
    • Don’t use comma when one idea is NOT an independent clause
      • A good money manager controls expenses and invests surplus dollars to meet future needs . (underlined phrase is a dependent clause)
  • 8. 2) Introductory Clauses and Phrases
    • Use a comma after an introductory clause or phrase
      • Introductory clause/phrase=idea that begins a sentence--usually a dependent clause (can’t stand on own)
      • EXAMPLES:
        • Near a small stream at the bottom of the canyon , the park rangers discovered an abandoned mine.
        • Buried under layers of younger rocks , the earth’s oldest rocks contain no fossils.
  • 9. 3) Series of Words
    • Use a comma between all items in a series and before AND.
      • Series=list
      • Examples:
        • Uncle David wiled me all of his property, houses, and warehouses.
        • Bubbles of air, leaves, ferns, bits of wood, and insects are often found trapped in amber.
        • NOTE: commas come after item is complete, not after each word
  • 10. 4) Commas used w/ adjectives
    • REVIEW:
      • Adjective=descriptive word that modifies a noun
        • Finn is a sweet boy.
          • Sweet=adjective
          • Finn/boy=noun
        • This novel is both engaging and thrilling.
          • Engaging/thrilling=adjectives
          • Novel=noun
  • 11. 4a) Coordinate Adjectives
    • Use a comma between coordinate adjectives not joined by AND
      • Coordinate adjective=adjectives that could be joined by AND because they describe the noun separately
        • She was warm and friendly and kind.
      • When not joined by AND use a comma
        • She was a warm, friendly, kind woman.
  • 12. 4b) Cumulative Adjectives
    • DO NOT use a comma between cumulative adjectives
      • Cumulative adjective=adjectives that do not modify a noun separately--Have to all stay together to make understand phrase
        • Rich dark chocolate cake
        • Three large gray squirrels