Comma notes 1 powerpoint


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Comma notes 1 powerpoint

  1. 1. Commas Notes Set #1
  2. 2. Reason for using commas <ul><li>Commas help us understand sentences by keeping parts from “colliding”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While eating a rattlesnake approached our campsite. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Misusing Commas <ul><li>It’s important to know WHERE to use commas. Placing them incorrectly can change the meaning of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The panda eats, shoots, and leaves. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. When to Use Commas--Part I
  5. 5. 1) Coordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating conjunction =word that joins two or more independent ideas (FANBOYS. and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent clause =word group that can stand on its own (could be a sentence by itself--has subject, verb and complete thought) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Coord. Conjunctions--Example <ul><li>WRONG: Nearly everyone has heard of love at first sight but I fell in love at first dance. </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECT: Nearly everyone has heard of love at first sight , but I fell in love at first dance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comma shows one thought ends and another begins </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exceptions to Coord. Conj. Rule <ul><li>Don’t need to use a comma when clauses are short </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The plane took off and we were on our way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t use comma when one idea is NOT an independent clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good money manager controls expenses and invests surplus dollars to meet future needs . (underlined phrase is a dependent clause) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2) Introductory Clauses and Phrases <ul><li>Use a comma after an introductory clause or phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introductory clause/phrase=idea that begins a sentence--usually a dependent clause (can’t stand on own) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Near a small stream at the bottom of the canyon , the park rangers discovered an abandoned mine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buried under layers of younger rocks , the earth’s oldest rocks contain no fossils. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 3) Series of Words <ul><li>Use a comma between all items in a series and before AND. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series=list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncle David wiled me all of his property, houses, and warehouses. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bubbles of air, leaves, ferns, bits of wood, and insects are often found trapped in amber. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: commas come after item is complete, not after each word </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 4) Commas used w/ adjectives <ul><li>REVIEW: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjective=descriptive word that modifies a noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finn is a sweet boy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet=adjective </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finn/boy=noun </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This novel is both engaging and thrilling. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging/thrilling=adjectives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novel=noun </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 4a) Coordinate Adjectives <ul><li>Use a comma between coordinate adjectives not joined by AND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate adjective=adjectives that could be joined by AND because they describe the noun separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She was warm and friendly and kind. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When not joined by AND use a comma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She was a warm, friendly, kind woman. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 4b) Cumulative Adjectives <ul><li>DO NOT use a comma between cumulative adjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative adjective=adjectives that do not modify a noun separately--Have to all stay together to make understand phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rich dark chocolate cake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three large gray squirrels </li></ul></ul></ul>