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Kübra suran
 

Kübra suran

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    Kübra suran Kübra suran Presentation Transcript

    • 1 COMMA SPLİCE 2 RUN-ON SENTENCE3 NON-PARALLEL SENTENCE 4 SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
    •  A comma splice is the use of a comma to join two independent clauses. For example: It is nearly half past five, we cannot reach town before dark.[1] Although acceptable in some languages and compulsory in others, comma splices are usually considered style errors in English.
    •  Simply removing the comma does not correct the error, but results in a run-on sentence. There are several ways to correct a comma splice: Change the comma to a semicolon, colon, or dash: It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark. We cannot reach town before dark: it is nearly half past five. It is nearly half past five—we cannot reach town before dark.
    •  Write the two clauses as two separate sentence:  It is nearly half past five. We cannot reach town before dark. Insert a coordinating conjunction following the comma:  It is nearly half past five, and we cannot reach town before dark.  It is nearly half past five, so we cannot reach town before dark. Make one clause dependent on the other: Because it is nearly half past five, we cannot reach town before dark. It is nearly half past five, which means we cannot reach town before dark.  Use a semicolon plus a conjunctive adverb:  It is nearly half past five; hence, we cannot reach town before dark.
    •  A run-on sentence is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses are joined without appropriate punctuation or conjunction. It is generally considered a stylistic error, though it is occasionally used in literature and may be used as a rhetorical device. An example of a run-on is a comma splice, in which two independent clauses are joined with a comma without an accompanying coordinating conjunction.Some prescriptivists exclude comma splices from the definition of a run-on sentence,but this does not imply that they consider comma splices to be acceptable.
    •  The mere fact that a sentence is long does not make it a run-on sentence; sentences are run-ons only when they contain more than one independent clause. A run-on sentence can be as short as four words—for instance: I drive she walks. In this case there are two independent clauses: two subjects paired with two intransitive verbs. So as long as clauses are punctuated appropriately, a writer can assemble multiple independent clauses in a single sentence; in fact, a properly constructed sentence can be extended indefinitely.
    •  A run-on sentence, without any punctuation or conjunction between "gas" and "we":  My car is out of gas we cannot reach town before dark. A comma splice, which is considered a run-on sentence in English by some usage experts:  It is nearly half past five, we cannot reach town before dark.
    •  Use separate sentences. However, this may disconnect related independent clauses and cause some of the meaning to be lost:  It is nearly half past five. We cannot reach town before dark. Use a semicolon. This maintains the connection between the clauses while ensuring a pause between the two ideas:  It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark. Use a coordinating conjunction.  It is nearly half past five, so we cannot reach town before dark.
    • Understanding Parallel Structure Parallel structure (also called parallelism) is the repetition of a chosen grammatical form within a sentence.By making each compared item or idea in your sentence follow the same grammatical pattern, you create a parallel construction. Example Not Parallel: Ellen likes hiking, the rodeo, and to take afternoon naps. Parallel: Ellen likes hiking, attending the rodeo, and taking afternoon naps. OR Ellen likes to hike, attend the rodeo, and take afternoon naps
    •  Using Parallel Structure With Coordinating ConjunctionsWhen you connect two or more clauses or phrases with coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so), use parallel structure. ExampleNot Parallel: My best friend took me dancing and to a show.Parallel: My best friend took me to a dance and a show. With Correlative ConjunctionsWhen you connect two clauses or phrases with a correlative conjunction (not only…but also, either…or,neither…nor, if…then, etc.), use parallel structure.
    • Not Parallel: My dog not only likes to play fetch, but also chase cars. Parallel: My dog not only likes to play fetch, but he also likes to chase cars. OR My dog likes not only to play fetch, but also to chase cars. With Phrases or Clauses of Comparison When you connect two clauses or phrases with a word of comparison, such as than or as, use parallel structure. ExampleNot Parallel: I would rather pay for my education than financial aid.Parallel: I would rather pay for my education than receive financial aid
    • Some helpful hints on how to revise sentences for parallel structure: 1) Figure out what parts of the sentence are being compared. 2) Decide whether they are parallel, i.e. arranged or constructed in the same way. 3) If they are not, make them parallel by making the grammatical construction the same in each part. Bruce Wayne enjoys donning his Batman costume, answering the Commissioners phone calls, and saving Gotham City from cruel villains like the Penguin.
    • A SENTENCE FRAGMENT fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself. It does not contain even one independent clause. There are several reasons why a group of words may seem to act like a sentence but not have the wherewithal to make it as a complete thought. It may locate something in time and place with a prepositional phrase or a series of such phrases, but its still lacking a proper subject-verb relationship within an independent clause: EXAMPLE: In Japan, during the last war and just before the armistice.
    • This sentence accomplishes a great deal in terms of placing the reader in time and place, but there is no subject, no verb. It describes something, but there is no subject-verb relationship: EXAMPLE: Working far into the night in an effort to salvage her little boat.This is a verbal phrase that wants to modify something, the real subject of the sentence (about to come up), probably the she who was working so hard. It may have most of the makings of a sentence but still be missing an important part of a verb string:
    • EXAMPLE: Some of the students working in Professor Espinozas laboratory last semester.Remember that an -ing verb form without an auxiliary form to accompany it can never be a verb. It may even have a subject-verb relationship, but it has been subordinated to another idea by a dependent word and so cannot stand by itself:EXAMPLE: Even though he had the better arguments and was by far the more powerful speaker.This sentence fragment has a subject, he, and two verbs, had and was, but it cannot stand by itself because of the dependent word (subordinating conjunction) even though.