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  • 1. GM Foods Around Us Kowloon Technical School Team Members Chan Kam Hung Chan Perth Chung Ka Leung Wong Tsun Man Yu Koon Ho CityU Project-based Outreach Programme 2009 19 September 2009
  • 2. What are GM foods?
    • Gene 基因
      • The basic unit of heredity in a living organism
      • A sequence of DNA governing a specific function of an organism
    • G enetic M odification 基因改造 (GM)
      • Using DNA technology to combine genes from different organisms.
      • The genetically modified organism is called as GMO in short.
    • GM Foods 基因改造食物
      • The food products arisen from GMO are GM foods. (Human Genome Project Information, 2008)
  • 3. What kinds of foods containing GMO?
  • 4. What are the advantages of GM-crops?
    • Increase crop yields
    • Increase the tolerance of crops to adverse growing conditions
    • Improve the nutrient composition of crops
    • Provide resistance to crop pests and reduce the use of pesticides
    • Improve sensory attributes of food
    • Eliminate allergy-causing properties in some foods
  • 5. What are the disadvantages of GM-crops?
    • Produce unintended harm to other organisms
    • Reduce the effectiveness of pesticides
    • Produce allergic reactions
    • Produce unknown effects on human heath
  • 6. What is the objective of our project?
    • To find out GM soybeans and their food products in Hong Kong.
  • 7. What are the food samples? Soybeans bought from City’super in Harbour City. (Origin: Canada) Soybeans bought from a market in Sham Shui Po. (Origin: USA) Sample 2 Sample 1
  • 8. Pakfook tofu Sample 4 San Sui tofu Vitasoy Sample 5 Sample 3
  • 9. Methodology
    • Two different approaches were employed to detect the GM soybeans.
    • Protein-based Method:
    • E nzyme- l inked I mmuno s orbent A ssay ( ELISA )
    • DNA-based Method:
    • P olymerase C hain R eaction ( PCR )
  • 10. 1. Protein-based Method - ELISA
    • It was used to detect the presence of GM protein produced by the GM gene (RR gene).
    • A piece of ELISA test strip.
    Eurofins TraitChek RoundupReady TM Bulk Soybean Grain was used for ELISA test.
  • 11. 1. Protein-based Method - ELISA
    • Samples were grounded into powder form.
    • Distilled water was added into the samples.
    • A piece of ELISA test strip was dipped into the each sample.
    • Wait for few minutes, until red band(s) can be seen on the strip.
  • 12. Principles of ELISA
    • (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 2009).
    • Animation of ELISA in Lateral Flow Strip
    • http://selectiveantibodies.com/
  • 13. ELISA Result -ve 5. San Sui tofu -ve 4. Pakfook tofu -ve 3. Vitasoy -ve 2. Soybean (Canada) -ve 1. Soybean (USA) Results Sample
  • 14. Discussion of ELISA
    • All samples showed –ve results. It may be due to:
    • 1.The protein concentrations produced by the target genes were too low.
    • 2.The proteins were denatured during the food processing. Therefore, they cannot be detected by the ELISA test strip.
    • 3.The sensitivity of ELISA test strip is low.
  • 15. 2. DNA-based Method
    • Procedures:
    • DNA Extraction
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (Qiagen, 2001;Lin et. al., 2000)
    • DNA Electrophoresis
    • Gel Documentation
  • 16. 2. DNA-based Method - PCR
    • Since the amount of extracted DNA is very small, PCR was employed to amplify the amount of DNA at certain specific regions.
      • Detection of soybean lectin (192 bp)
      • Detection of Roundup Ready resistance gene (356 bp)
  • 17. Principles of PCR
  • 18. Detection of soybean lectin (192 bp)
    • This gene is naturally present in soybeans.
    • It is used to make sure that DNA was successfully extracted from the samples and the samples are soybeans or contain soybean ingredients.
    GCC CAT CTG CAA GCC TTT TTG GM04 GAC CTC CTC GGG AAA GTT AC lectin 1a Sequence Primer
  • 19. Detection of Roundup Ready resistance gene (RR) (356 bp)
    • Roundup Ready resistance gene (RR) is a herbicide resistant gene transferred to soybeans.
    • In this project, Roundup Ready resistance gene is the GM target gene.
    CCC CAA GTT CCT AAA TCT TCA AGT RR04 TGG CGC CCA AAG CTT GCA TGG C RR01 Sequence Primer
  • 20. 2. DNA-based Method – DNA Electrophoresis
  • 21. Result of DNA Electrophoresis
    • Line 1 & Line 2: S1
    • Line 3 & Line 4: S2
    • Line 5 & Line 6: S3
    • Line 7 & Line 8: S4
    • Line 9 & Line 10: S5
    • Line 11: No Sample
    • Line 12 & Line 13:
    • Extraction Negatives
    • Line 14 & Line 15:
    • PCR Negatives
    • Line 16: DNA Marker (100bp)
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
  • 22. Conclusion
    • ELISA could not find any GM ingredients in the samples tested.
    • PCR method found that:
      • both USA soybean and Canada soybeans as well as the Pakfook tofu were containing the RR gene, whereas
      • the Vitasoy and San Sui tofu were found to have no RR gene.
  • 23. References
    • Abdullah, T., Radu, S., Hassan, Z., & Hashim, J. K. (2006). Detection of genetically modified soy in processed foods sold commercially in Malaysia by PCR-based method. Food Chemistry, 98(3), 575-579.
    • Human Genome Project Information. (2008). Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms . Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
    • Lin, H.Y., Chiueh, L.C., & Shih, Y.C. (2000). Detection of Genetically Modified Soybeans and Maize by the Polymerase Chain Reaction Method. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis , 8(3), 200-207.
    • Phoenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (2009). ELISA products . Retrieved from http://www.phoenixpeptide.com/catalog/upload/pnxhighlights/pnxhighlights_000000056/notes/ELISA2.gif
    • Qigan. (2001). GMO testing of food samples . Retrieved from http://www1.qiagen.com/literature/render.aspx?id=500
    • Sumanas, Inc. (2002). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Retrieved from http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/ELISA.html
    • Sumanas, Inc. (2004). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Retrieved from http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/pcr.html
  • 24. Acknowledgement
    • We would like to thank Dr. David Chiu for his precious advice and technical suggestions for this project.
    • We also thank College of Science and Engineering, CityU to provide this invaluable learning experience and finical support.
    • In addition, thank you very much for Science Union , Dept of Biology and Dept of Chemistry of Kowloon Technical School.
    • Last but not least, thank you very much for Mr. Lam K.H ., Assistant Principal of Kowloon Technical School, for his invaluable suggestion.