2. DefinitionPronouns take the place of nouns. The word or phrase replaced by a pronoun is called an antecedent.
3. Example:Halloween is one of Americas holidays. It is celebrated in October.(Halloween is a noun. Itis a pronoun that refers to the antecedent, Halloween.)
4. ExampleWhen Robert was fixing thecar, he cut his hand.(Robertis a noun. He is apronoun that refers to theantecedent, Robert.)
5. Pronouns have the same functions as nouns do, but they are used toavoid repetition, and to set/clarify nouns categories of number, person, and gender.
6. There are eight categories of pronouns, Thecategories of pronouns are:1. Personal Pronouns2. Possessive Pronouns3. Demonstrative Pronouns4. Reflexive5. Interrogative Pronouns6. Relative Pronouns7. Reciprocal Pronouns8. Indefinite Pronouns
8. Personal pronouns represent specific people orthings. We use them depending on:number: singular (I) or plural ( we).person: 1st person (I), 2nd person (you) or 3rdperson(he).gender: male (he), female (she).case: subject (we) or object (us). We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about.
9. Here are the personal pronouns, followed by some example sentences: personal pronouns number person gender subject object 1st male/female I Me, mine 2nd male/female you you singular male he him 3rd female she her it it 1st male/female we us plural 2nd male/female you you 3rd male/female they themExamples (in each case, the first example shows a subject pronoun, the secondan object pronoun):
10. - Ilike coffee. - John helped me. - Do you like coffee? - John loves you. - He runs fast. - Did Ram beat him? -She is clever. - Does Mary know her? - Wewent home. -Anthony drove us. -It doesnt work. ME! -Can the engineer repair it?-Do you need a table for three?-Did John and Mary beat youat doubles?-They played doubles.-John and Mary beat them
11. We often use it to introduce a remark:-It is nice to have a holiday sometimes.-It is important to dress well..We also often useitto talk about theweather, temperature, time and distance: -Its raining. -It will probably be hot tomorrow. -Is it nine oclock yet? -Its 50 kilometers from here to Cambridge.
12. Possessive Pronouns
13. We use possessive pronouns to refer to something or - someone specific belonging to something or someone. They are used to show ownership, but they never have an apostrophe. Examples:-Look at these pictures. Mineis the big one. (subjectpro/antecedent =mine/picture)-I like your artwork. Do you like mine? (object pro=mine/artwork)These possessive pronouns are away from the nouns they are replacing.His essaywas the best. (his = possessive pronoun)-Mary couldnt find her homework. (her= homework)These possessive pronouns are next to the nouns to show ownership.
14. Below are the possessive pronouns, followed by someexample sentences. Each possessive pronounis used accordingto number, person, or gender:- be subject or object.-refer to a singular or plural antecedent. gender (of possessive number person "owner") pronouns 1st male/female mine 2nd male/female yours singular male his 3rd female hers 1st male/female ours 2nd male/female yours plural 3rd male/female theirs
15. Singular Plural Used my our before your your nouns his, her, its their Used mine ours alone yours yours his, hers, its theirsWrite a sentence using each pronoun as a possessive. The onesIn the top row will be used before the noun to show ownership andthe ones in the bottom row will be used away from the noun.
17. -Reflexive pronounis used with an active voice verb in order toreflect the action of the verb back on the subject--the antecedent. ** We use a reflexive pronoun when we want to refer back to the subject of the sentence or clause. Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural). There are eight reflexive pronouns: reflexive pronoun myself singular yourself himself, herself, itself ourselves plural yourselves themselves
18. the underlined words are theSAME person/thing-Isaw myself in the mirror.-Why do you blame yourself?-Johnsent himself a copy.
19. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
20. A demonstrative pronoun is used to single out one or morenouns referred to in a sentence. *near in distance or time (this, these) *far in distance or time (that, those) near far singular this that plural these those*This tastes good.*These are bad times.*Thatis beautiful.*Those were the days!
21. ATTENTIONThe word "that" has four mainfunctions:1. demonstrative pronoun or adjective:Thatbook is good.2. relative pronoun:Anything thatyou remember could help alot.3. conjunction:He said thathe had been there before.4. adverb:The snow wasthathigh.
22. -Do not confuse demonstrative pronouns withdemonstrative adjectives. They are identical, but ademonstrative pronoun stands alone,while a demonstrative adjective qualifies a noun.-Thatsmells really good. (demonstrative pronoun)-That bookis good. (demonstrative adjective + noun) Normally we use demonstrative pronouns for things only. But we can use them for people when the person is identified. Look at these examples: -This is Joseph speaking. Is that Mary? -Thatsounds like John.
23. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN
24. We use interrogative pronouns to ask questions. The interrogative pronoun represents the thing that we dont know (what we are asking the question about). There are four main interrogative pronouns: who, whom, what, which. -The possessive pronoun whose can also be an interrogative pronoun (an interrogative possessive pronoun). subject object person who whom thing whatperson/thing which person whose (possessive)
25. Examples: question answer Who told you? John told me. subject Whom did you I told Mary. object tell? Whats An accidents subject happened? happened.
26. INDEFINITE PRONOUN
27. An indefinite pronoun doesnot refer to any specificperson, thing or amount. Itis vague and "not definite.”Some typical indefinitepronouns are:
28. Some Indefinite Pronouns Singular Pluralanother everybody no one bothanybody everyone nothing fewanyone everything one manyanything much somebody otherseach neither someone severaleither nobody somethingAll, any, most, none and some can be singular or plural, depending on the phrase that follows them.
29. Note that many indefinite pronouns also functionas other parts of speech. Look at "another" in thefollowing sentences:- He has one job in the day and another at night.(pronoun)- Id like another drink, please. (adjective)
30. Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. However, some of them can be singular in one context and plural in another. Notice that : A singular pronoun takes a singular verb AND that any personal pronoun should also agree (in number and gender).- Allis forgiven.-Allhave arrived.- We can start the meeting because everybodyhas arrived.- John likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good.