View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Biological controls can be used in both the greenhouse and the garden. Examples of some common garden pests and their biological controls are PEST BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Aphid Hippodamiaconvergens(ladybug) Chrysopacarnea(lacewing) Tenoderaaridifoliasinensis(praying mantis) ThripsAmblyseiuscucumeris Mosquito Bacillus thuringiensis, Bt israeliensis Grasshopper Nosema locustae, also chickens and ducks! Goat head weed Microlarinuslareynii (puncturevine weevil)
Examples of biological controls we use in our greenhouse at Yavapai College Encarsiaformosa– parasitic wasp which feeds on whitefly Delphastuspusillus– small black beetle which also feeds on whitefly Mycostop – a naturally occurring bacteria, creates a defense against Botrytis Guardian – contains nematodes which kill fungus gnats and shore flies BotaniGard – contains fungus that attacks aphids, whitefly, thrips, and spider mites Gnatrol – contains bacteria that kill fungus gnat larvae
Contains dried spores and mycelium of Streptomycesgriseoviridis Strain K61
Comes in the form of dry powder, which can be mixed with water and used as a spray
When applied as a drench or a spray, the dried spores and mycelium germinate and begin to grow around the plant’s roots
The Streptomyces infects pathogenic fungi which cause diseases such as wilt and root rot. Mycostop is known by growers to kill Fusarium, Botrytis, Pythium, Alternaria, Phomopsis, and to a lesser extent, Rhizoctonia and Phytopthora
Contains live nematodes Steinernemacarpocapsae and Steinernemafeltiae
Comes on small sponges, which are soaked in water. Use the water as a spray
Used to control fungus gnats but also kills more than 250 different insects
Very tough, can survive in the root zone of plants for 60-90 days without a host insect. Covered with a cuticle which makes them resistant to most chemicals, fungicides, insecticides, and environmental conditions
Detects insects by either a slight increase in temperature or by release of methane gas, and they can travel about 1” per hour to seek out insect hosts
Kills insects by entering the insect, shedding their cuticles, and releasing bacteria which actually kills the insect; kills insect in 16-28 hours
Contains spores of the fungus Beauveriabassiana
Comes in the form of a dry powder, which can be mixed as a spray
Known by growers to control aphids, whitefly, thrips, mealybugs, and spider mites
Spores attach to the insect, forming an enzyme which dissolves the insect’s cuticle. The fungus germinates and invades the insect’s body
Compatible with predators such as Encarsiaformosa
Contains Bacillus thuringiensisisraelensis
The bacteria disable fungus gnat larvae by paralysis. The gnat larvae then stop feeding on the plant and die, usually within 24 hours
To successfully reproduce in greenhouses, E. formosa must locate potential hosts, assess host quality, and use nymphs appropriately for host feeding or parasitism. Following release into the hosts' habitat (i.e., greenhouses), E. formosa employs visual and olfactory cues to find infested host plants
Is a small black 'ladybug' from Australia that will consume about 150 whitefly eggs per day.
They are about 1/8" diameter and will disappear into the plant canopy very quickly.
They are recommended for moderate to heavy infestations (10 - 15 whitefly larvae per leaf). This small beetle is used to provide control of the greenhouse, sweet potato and silverleaf whitefly.
They work well in areas with great diversity by hunting and eating immature whiteflies and especially, the eggs. This predatory beetle will sometimes consume spider mites. Both the adults and larvae are predacious. Delphastuspusillus beetles have a tremendous appetite.
References ATTRA Publication, “Integrated Pest Management For Greenhouse Crops” Pest Management Systems Guide Bioworks http://www.bioworksinc.com/products/shared/botanigard.pdf Chem-Gro http://www.chem-gro.com/PDF%20Files/GnatPaper.pdf Cornell University http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/parasitoids/eformosa.html Hydro-Gardens http://www.hydro-gardens.com/whitefly.htm