Biological controls<br />By<br />Jen H. and Amanda P.<br />
Biological controls are the use of living organisms<br /> to reduce the incidence of pest<br />organisms<br />Delphastuspusillis<br />Encarsiaformosa<br />These are two predatory insects in our tomato bay!<br />
Why use biological pest controls?<br /><ul><li>They are specific to the pest or pests we desire to control
They consist of insects or insect diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, viruses, or fungi, all natural</li></ul>-They are effective against the target insect but are generally nontoxic to humans, pets, wildlife, and beneficial insects<br /><ul><li>They typically break down quickly in the environment, which means shorter reentry times
They are less likely to produce resistance than chemical pesticides</li></li></ul><li>Disadvantages of using biological controls<br /><ul><li>It is management intensive
It requires more observation and knowledge than traditional pest management techniques
Proper pest species identification is critical to success in choosing right biological control
Release rate, timing, placement, temperature, and pesticide use affect performance of biological controls
Wide varieties of crops make the choice of biological controls more difficult as the numbers of pests increase and vary
Biological controls take more time to work than traditional methods
No single biological is 100% effective</li></li></ul><li>Biological controls can be used in both the greenhouse and the garden. <br />Examples of some common garden pests and their biological controls are<br />PEST BIOLOGICAL CONTROL<br />Aphid Hippodamiaconvergens(ladybug)<br />Chrysopacarnea(lacewing)<br />Tenoderaaridifoliasinensis(praying mantis)<br />ThripsAmblyseiuscucumeris<br />Mosquito Bacillus thuringiensis, Bt israeliensis<br />Grasshopper Nosema locustae, also chickens and ducks!<br />Goat head weed Microlarinuslareynii (puncturevine weevil)<br />
Examples of biological controls we use in our <br />greenhouse at Yavapai College<br />Encarsiaformosa– parasitic wasp which feeds on whitefly<br />Delphastuspusillus– small black beetle which also feeds on whitefly<br />Mycostop – a naturally occurring bacteria, creates a defense against Botrytis<br />Guardian – contains nematodes which kill fungus gnats and shore flies<br />BotaniGard – contains fungus that attacks aphids, whitefly, thrips, and <br />spider mites<br />Gnatrol – contains bacteria that kill fungus gnat larvae<br />
Mycostop<br /><ul><li>Contains dried spores and mycelium of Streptomycesgriseoviridis Strain K61
Comes in the form of dry powder, which can be mixed with water and used as a spray
When applied as a drench or a spray, the dried spores and mycelium germinate and begin to grow around the plant’s roots
The Streptomyces infects pathogenic fungi which cause diseases such as wilt and root rot. Mycostop is known by growers to kill Fusarium, Botrytis, Pythium, Alternaria, Phomopsis, and to a lesser extent, Rhizoctonia and Phytopthora</li></li></ul><li>Guardian/Gnat Patrol<br /><ul><li>Contains live nematodes Steinernemacarpocapsae and Steinernemafeltiae
Comes on small sponges, which are soaked in water. Use the water as a spray
Used to control fungus gnats but also kills more than 250 different insects
Very tough, can survive in the root zone of plants for 60-90 days without a host insect. Covered with a cuticle which makes them resistant to most chemicals, fungicides, insecticides, and environmental conditions
Detects insects by either a slight increase in temperature or by release of methane gas, and they can travel about 1” per hour to seek out insect hosts
Kills insects by entering the insect, shedding their cuticles, and releasing bacteria which actually kills the insect; kills insect in 16-28 hours </li></li></ul><li>BotaniGard<br /><ul><li>Contains spores of the fungus Beauveriabassiana
Comes in the form of a dry powder, which can be mixed as a spray
Known by growers to control aphids, whitefly, thrips, mealybugs, and spider mites
Spores attach to the insect, forming an enzyme which dissolves the insect’s cuticle. The fungus germinates and invades the insect’s body
Compatible with predators such as Encarsiaformosa</li></li></ul><li>Gnatrol<br /><ul><li>Contains Bacillus thuringiensisisraelensis
The bacteria disable fungus gnat larvae by paralysis. The gnat larvae then stop feeding on the plant and die, usually within 24 hours
Can be applied as a soil drench around the base of the plant, as a spray, or through an irrigation system</li></li></ul><li>Facts<br />Encarsiaformosa<br /><ul><li>used worldwide for commercial control of whiteflies
To successfully reproduce in greenhouses, E. formosa must locate potential hosts, assess host quality, and use nymphs appropriately for host feeding or parasitism. Following release into the hosts' habitat (i.e., greenhouses), E. formosa employs visual and olfactory cues to find infested host plants </li></li></ul><li>Facts<br />Delphastuspusillis<br /><ul><li>Is a small black 'ladybug' from Australia that will consume about 150 whitefly eggs per day.
They are about 1/8" diameter and will disappear into the plant canopy very quickly.
They are recommended for moderate to heavy infestations (10 - 15 whitefly larvae per leaf). This small beetle is used to provide control of the greenhouse, sweet potato and silverleaf whitefly.
They work well in areas with great diversity by hunting and eating immature whiteflies and especially, the eggs. This predatory beetle will sometimes consume spider mites. Both the adults and larvae are predacious. Delphastuspusillus beetles have a tremendous appetite.</li></li></ul><li>References<br />ATTRA Publication, “Integrated Pest Management For Greenhouse Crops” Pest Management Systems Guide<br />Bioworks<br />http://www.bioworksinc.com/products/shared/botanigard.pdf<br />Chem-Gro<br />http://www.chem-gro.com/PDF%20Files/GnatPaper.pdf<br />Cornell University<br />http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/parasitoids/eformosa.html<br />Hydro-Gardens<br />http://www.hydro-gardens.com/whitefly.htm<br />
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