Notes - Behavioural Design Workshop (HIF 2013)

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Notes - Behavioural Design Workshop (HIF 2013)

  1. 1. Behavioural Design Workshop 11th October 2013
  2. 2. We don’t always make rational decisions.
  3. 3. “We are to thinking as cats are to swimming, we can do it if we have to.” Daniel Kahneman, Author “Thinking Fast and Slow”
  4. 4. What influences our decisions? Why and when are we irrational? How can we influence behaviour (positively)?
  5. 5. Acknowledgements A Beginners Guide to Irrationality by Dan Ariely on Coursera Brains Behaviour and Design Group, Institude of Design Behaviour Economics and Neuroscience 101 by Tapestry Works
  6. 6. Which tower is leaning more to the right?
  7. 7. Which circle (in the middle) is bigger?
  8. 8. Are the tiles of the same color?
  9. 9. Are the tiles of the same color?
  10. 10. There are 100 people, of which 99 are librarians and 1 is a punk. Do you think this person is a librarian or a punk?
  11. 11. Do we use our ears to hear? McGurk Effect
  12. 12. We perceive what we see, hear and think according to what our brains expect...
  13. 13. Our Brain Cognitive System Limbic System
  14. 14. 2 Systems of Thinking From Daniel Kahneman
  15. 15. Always Doubt Our Instincts!
  16. 16. How and When Are We Irrational?
  17. 17. Motivation Self-Control Decision Making
  18. 18. Rational model of behaviour When our rationality fails How to better deal with irrationality
  19. 19. Rational Model of Motivation Behaviour MOTIVATION Expectation of Fulfillment Desired Behaviour
  20. 20. When We Are Not Motivated Sisyphus Condition is doing a task over & over again without meaning. People then experience cognitive dissonance.
  21. 21. Cognitive Dissonance The feeling of discomfort where our beliefs and behaviours are inconsistent. E.g. The fox & the sour grapes To reduce this discomfort, we Change our mindset or behaviour Justify our behaviour by rationalizing it Justify our behaviour by bargaining with ourselves
  22. 22. How Do You Motivate Unmotivated People? Money
  23. 23. Experiment By Dan Ariely In an experiment, participants were told build a series of Lego figures, paying them successively less for each one.
  24. 24. Experiment By Dan Ariely GROUP 1 GROUP 2 • Kept in a box • Broken down right in front of them • Disassembled after they left • Disassembled pieces given back to them to restart
  25. 25. Acknowledgement on performance can increase motivation. Team outings “Thanks for helping the team!” “I see you have lost some weight!” “Good job!”
  26. 26. Motivation Behavioural Concepts: Cognitive Dissonance Sisyphus Condition One of the strategies to change the behaviour: Acknowledgement
  27. 27. Self Control
  28. 28. Rational Model of Self-Control Desire SELF-CONTROL GIVE IN TO DESIRE Desirable Behaviour Undesirable Behaviour Reward or Desired consequence Punishment or Undesired consequence
  29. 29. Rational Model of Self-Control Should I have Should I have PRATA? salad? 700 calories 250 calories
  30. 30. When Our Self-Control Fails Present focus bias People make decisions based on their present feelings.
  31. 31. Present Focus Bias $49 $50 Now In a week $49 in ten years, or $50 in ten years and a week?
  32. 32. When Our Self-Control Fails Ego Depletion Our ability to resist temptation weakens over time.
  33. 33. When Our Self-Control Fails What-The-Hell Effect People give up trying once they have slipped up. E.g. Dieting
  34. 34. How Can We Control Our Desires? Reward Substitution Giving yourself an immediate reward for getting through each step towards a long-term goal. Example: “I want to lose 10kg at 1kg per month.” MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP 80kg 79kg 78kg 79kg 78kg OCT NOV DEC
  35. 35. How Can We Control Our Desires? PROBLEM: People find it difficult to stick by their decisions. Ulysses Contract A contract binding yourself now to prevent future misbehaviour.
  36. 36. Stickk.com “I pledge to lose 10kg at 1kg per month.” If you lose 1kg within a month, you get your money back. If you don’t lose 1kg within a month, you lose your money. It goes to a charity that you hate. People are reminded of the promise they made to themselves.
  37. 37. Self-Control Behavioural Concepts: Present Focus Bias Ego Depletion What The Hell Effect Strategies to change the behaviour: Reward Substitution Ulysses Contract
  38. 38. DECISIONS How badly do you need that toilet paper?
  39. 39. Rational Model of Decision-Making 1 List the options 2 Weigh pros and cons 3 Choose the best option
  40. 40. Which of these is more likely to happen? Death by shark attack? Death by falling airplane parts? 1 in 300 million 1 in 10 million
  41. 41. How Do We Make Decisions? People often use mental shortcuts to make decisions. Availability They tend to decide with the most recent/vivid examples that come to mind. Example: People tend avoid beach vacations after recent reports of shark attacks.
  42. 42. How Do We Make Decisions? People often use mental shortcuts to make decisions. Status Quo Bias People avoid making decisions if they can. Example: When credit card companies request you to mail in application forms if you want an upgrade of your account.
  43. 43. What Influences Decision Making? Choice Architecture Definition: The way stimuli are designed and presented to sway decisions Choice Sets Defaults
  44. 44. Choice Sets The Economist by Dan Ariely
  45. 45. Defaults Human Organ Transplant Act (Singapore) states: • “All Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents 21 years old and above, and are not mentally disordered, are included under HOTA.” • “Should you for any reason decide against donating your organs upon death, you can opt out by completing the opt-out form.”
  46. 46. Decision Making Behavioural Concepts: Availability Status Quo Bias Strategies to change the behaviour: Choice Sets Defaults
  47. 47. Hacking the Process Our decision making process: Wakes up with a splitting headache I have headache. Worry if it is a tumor Look at google map for Go to KTPH website for nearest A&E directions My friends told me better to go A&E What kind of behavioural pattern is this? Which is the nearest A&E? How do I get to KTPH? At which point can I influence and nudge this form of behaviour?
  48. 48. A New Lens to Understand Our Customers Understand Observe/ Interview Explain Explore Strategize Prototype Generate Ideas Prototype
  49. 49. Lots more here…
  50. 50. Thank you! If you have any feedback, kindly send them to ktph.innovation@alexandrahealth.com.sg

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