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  1. 1. United Nations Global Issues
  2. 2. How the UN Works <ul><li>Established on 24 October 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>51 countries were committed to preserving peace through international cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>UN Membership: 192 countries </li></ul><ul><li>States agree to accept obligations of the UN Charter , an international treaty that sets out basic principles </li></ul>
  3. 3. How the UN Works <ul><li>According to the Charter the UN has 4 basic principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Maintain international peace and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Develop friendly relations among nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Cooperate in solving international problems and promote respect for human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Be the center for harmonizing the actions of nations </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How the UN Works <ul><li>The UN is not a world government </li></ul><ul><li>It does not make laws </li></ul><ul><li>Large or small, rich or poor, and with differing political views and social systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All member states have a voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All member states have a vote </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Main Bodies <ul><li>General Assembly (New York) </li></ul><ul><li>Security Council (NY) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and Social Council (NY) </li></ul><ul><li>Trusteeship Council (NY) </li></ul><ul><li>Secretariat (NY) </li></ul><ul><li>International Court of Justice (Netherlands) </li></ul>
  6. 6. General Assembly <ul><li>The main deliberative organ of the UN </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of all member states </li></ul><ul><li>Each member has one vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions on important issues require two thirds majority vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace and Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admissions of new members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget matters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decisions on other issues: simple majority </li></ul>
  7. 7. Functions and Powers <ul><li>Maintain international peace and security (disarmament) </li></ul><ul><li>Make recommendations to the Security council </li></ul><ul><li>Promote international political cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop international law </li></ul><ul><li>Promote human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Over see international collaboration in the economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, and educational and health fields </li></ul>
  8. 8. Functions and Powers <ul><li>Receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other UN organs </li></ul><ul><li>Consider and approve UN budget </li></ul><ul><li>Establish financial assessments of Member States </li></ul><ul><li>Elect non-permanent members to SC and other UN councils and organs </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint Secretary General </li></ul>
  9. 9. General Assembly <ul><li>Subsidiary Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Committee on Information </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights Council </li></ul><ul><li>Candidacies </li></ul>
  10. 10. Security Council <ul><li>Primary responsibility to maintain peace and security </li></ul><ul><li>A representative of each member must be present at all times at the UN Headquarters </li></ul><ul><li>15 Council Members </li></ul><ul><li>Five permanent members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Federation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul>“Non Violence”
  11. 11. Security Council <ul><li>Ten non-permanent members elected by the General Assembly for two year terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congo (Republic of the) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qatar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slovakia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each member has one vote </li></ul>Japanese Peace Bell
  12. 12. Security Council <ul><li>In the event of fighting the Council: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tries to secure a ceasefire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May send peace keeping mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impose economic sanctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order an arms embargo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare occasions “all means necessary” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Council makes recommendations to the General Assembly on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appointment of Secretary General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>admission of new Members to the UN </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Economic and Social Council <ul><li>Council has 54 members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected by the General Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three year terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serves as central forum for discussing international economic and social issues </li></ul>
  14. 14. Economic and Social Council <ul><li>This Council is responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting higher standards of living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and social progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying solutions to international economic, social and health problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitating international cultural and educational cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ECOSOC </li></ul>
  15. 15. Trusteeship Council <ul><li>Suspended operation 1 Nov, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Palau: last remaining UN trust territory </li></ul><ul><li>Council amended rule to meet annually </li></ul><ul><li>Meet when required by President, General Assembly, Security Council or a majority of members </li></ul><ul><li>Established to promote the advancement of developing countries towards self-government or independence. </li></ul><ul><li>China, France, Russian Federation, UK and US </li></ul>
  16. 16. Secretariat <ul><li>International staff working in duty stations around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out diverse day to day work of the UN </li></ul><ul><li>Survey economic and social trends </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare studies on human rights and sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the media about work of the UN </li></ul>
  17. 17. Secretariat <ul><li>Organize international conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret speeches </li></ul><ul><li>Translate documents </li></ul><ul><li>Staff 8,900 under a regular budget from some 170 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Take oath not to seek or receive instructions from any government </li></ul>
  18. 18. International Court of Justice <ul><li>Hears cases involving legal disputes among governments </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies questions of international law </li></ul><ul><li>Interprets the UN Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of 15 judges, elected to office for 9 year terms by UN GA&SC </li></ul><ul><li>Official languages are English and French </li></ul>
  19. 19. Specialized Agencies <ul><li>Linked to the UN but remain autonomous (independent) </li></ul><ul><li>ILO – International Labor Organization: improve working conditions and employment agencies </li></ul><ul><li>WHO – World Health Organization: solve health problems, health education, immunizations </li></ul><ul><li>The World Bank – provides loans and economic assistance to nations </li></ul><ul><li>WTO – World Trade Organization: oversees world trade </li></ul>