Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
PowerPoint Lectures for
Biology, Seventh Edition
...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Overview: Mighty Mushrooms
• Fungi
– Are divers...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Concept 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs that feed
...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Nutrition and Fungal Lifestyles
• Fungi are heter...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles
– Decomposers
...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Body Structure
• The morphology of multicellular ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Fungi consist of
– Mycelia, networks of branche...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Some fungi
– Have hyphae divided into cells by ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Some unique fungi
– Have specialized hyphae tha...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Mycorrhizae
– Are mutually beneficial relations...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Concept 31.2: Fungi produce spores through
sexu...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The generalized life cycle of fungi
Key
Haploid...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Sexual Reproduction
• The sexual life cycle invol...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The diploid phase following karyogamy
– Is shor...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Asexual Reproduction
• Many fungi can reproduce a...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Many fungi that can reproduce asexually
– Grow ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Other asexual fungi are yeasts
– That inhabit m...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual
stag...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Concept 31.3: Fungi descended from an
aquatic, ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Origin of Fungi
• Molecular evidence
– Suppor...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi
– Are on...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Move to Land
• Fungi were among the earliest ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Concept 31.4: Fungi have radiated into a
divers...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The phylogeny of fungi
Chytrids
Zygote
fungi
Ar...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• A review of fungal phyla
Table 31.1
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Chytrids
• Fungi classified in the phylum Chytrid...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Chytrids are unique among fungi
– In having fla...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Until recently, systematists thought that
– Fun...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Zygomycetes
• Fungi in the phylum Zygomycota, the...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Rhizopus
growing
on bread
ASEXUAL
REPRODUCTION
My...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus
– Can actua...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Zygosporangia, which are resistant to freezing
...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Microsporidia
• Microsporidia
– Are unicellular p...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Glomeromycetes
• Fungi assigned to the phylum Glo...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• All glomeromycetes
– Form a distinct type of en...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Ascomycetes
• Fungi in the phylum Ascomycota
– Ar...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Ascomycetes
– Vary in size and complexity from ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Ascomycetes reproduce
– Asexually by producing ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The life cycle of Neurospora crassa, an
ascomyc...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Basidiomycetes
• Fungi in the phylum Basidiomycot...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Basidiomycetes
(a) Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The life cycle of a basidiomycete
– Usually inc...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
PLASMOGAMY
Dikaryotic
mycelium
Basidiocarp
(dikar...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Concept 31.5: Fungi have a powerful impact on
e...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Decomposers
• Fungi are well adapted as decompose...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Symbionts
• Fungi form symbiotic relationships wi...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Mycorrhizae
• Mycorrhizae
– Are enormously import...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Fungus-Animal Symbiosis
• Some fungi share their ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Many species of ants and termites
– Take advant...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Lichens
• Lichens
– Are a symbiotic association o...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The fungal component of a lichen
– Is most ofte...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pathogens
• About 30% of known fungal species
– A...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Some of the fungi that attack food crops
– Are ...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Practical Uses of Fungi
• Humans eat many fungi
–...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Antibiotics produced by fungi
– Treat bacterial...
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Genetic research on fungi
– Is leading to appli...
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Chapter 31

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Chapter 31

  1. 1. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 31 Fungi
  2. 2. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Overview: Mighty Mushrooms • Fungi – Are diverse and widespread – Are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients Figure 31.1
  3. 3. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Concept 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption • Despite their diversity – Fungi share some key traits
  4. 4. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nutrition and Fungal Lifestyles • Fungi are heterotrophs – But do not ingest their food • Fungi secrete into their surroundings exoenzymes that break down complex molecules – And then absorb the remaining smaller compounds
  5. 5. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles – Decomposers – Parasites – Mutualistic symbionts
  6. 6. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Structure • The morphology of multicellular fungi – Enhances their ability to absorb nutrients from their surroundings Hyphae. The mushroom and its subterranean mycelium are a continuous network of hyphae. Reproductive structure. The mushroom produces tiny cells called spores. Spore-producing structures 20 µm Mycelium Figure 31.2
  7. 7. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Fungi consist of – Mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption • Most fungi – Have cell walls made of chitin
  8. 8. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Some fungi – Have hyphae divided into cells by septa, with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of materials • Coenocytic fungi – Lack septa Nuclei Cell wall Septum Pore (a) Septate hypha (b) Coenocytic hypha Cell wall Nuclei Figure 31.3a, b
  9. 9. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Some unique fungi – Have specialized hyphae that allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host Nematode Hyphae 25 µm (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey (b) Haustoria Fungal hypha Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Figure 31.4a, b
  10. 10. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Mycorrhizae – Are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots
  11. 11. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Concept 31.2: Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles • Fungi propagate themselves – By producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually
  12. 12. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The generalized life cycle of fungi Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores Figure 31.5
  13. 13. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sexual Reproduction • The sexual life cycle involves – Cell fusion, plasmogamy – Nuclear fusion, karyogamy • An intervening heterokaryotic stage – Occurs between plasmogamy and karyogamy in which cells have haploid nuclei from two parents
  14. 14. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The diploid phase following karyogamy – Is short-lived and undergoes meiosis, producing haploid spores
  15. 15. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Asexual Reproduction • Many fungi can reproduce asexually
  16. 16. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Many fungi that can reproduce asexually – Grow as mold, sometimes on fruit, bread, and other foods 2.5 µm Figure 31.6
  17. 17. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Other asexual fungi are yeasts – That inhabit moist environments – Which produce by simple cell division 10 µm Parent cell Bud Figure 31.7
  18. 18. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage – Mycologists have traditionally called these deuteromycetes, or imperfect fungi
  19. 19. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Concept 31.3: Fungi descended from an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist • Systematists now recognize Fungi and Animalia as sister kingdoms – Because fungi and animals are more closely related to each other than they are to plants or other eukaryotes
  20. 20. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Origin of Fungi • Molecular evidence – Supports the hypothesis that fungi and animals diverged from a common ancestor that was unicellular and bore flagella • Fungi probably evolved – Before the colonization of land by multicellular organisms
  21. 21. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi – Are only about 460 million years old 50 µm Figure 31.8
  22. 22. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Move to Land • Fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land – Probably as symbionts with early land plants
  23. 23. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Concept 31.4: Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages • The phylogeny of fungi – Is currently the subject of much research • Molecular analysis – Has helped clarify the evolutionary relationships between fungal groups, although there are still areas of uncertainty
  24. 24. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The phylogeny of fungi Chytrids Zygote fungi Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Sac fungi Club fungi Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota BasidiomycotaFigure 31.9
  25. 25. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • A review of fungal phyla Table 31.1
  26. 26. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chytrids • Fungi classified in the phylum Chytridiomycota, or chytrids – Are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats – Can be saprobic or parasitic
  27. 27. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Chytrids are unique among fungi – In having flagellated spores, called zoospores 25 µm 4 µm Hyphae Flagellum Figure 31.10
  28. 28. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Until recently, systematists thought that – Fungi lost flagella only once in their history • Molecular data – Indicate that some “chytrids” are actually more closely related to another fungal group, the zygomycetes Some chytrids Zygomycetes and other chytrids Glomeromycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes Common ancestor Key Loss of flagella Figure 31.11
  29. 29. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Zygomycetes • Fungi in the phylum Zygomycota, the zygomycetes – Exhibit a considerable diversity of life histories – Include fast-growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts – Are named for their sexually produced zygosporangia
  30. 30. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rhizopus growing on bread ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Dispersal and germination MEIOSIS KARYOGAMY PLASMOGAMY Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n + n) Diploid Sporangium Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) 100 µm Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Mating type (+) Mating type (−) Gametangia with haploid nuclei 50 µm Sporangia • The life cycle of Rhizopus stolonifer – Is fairly typical of zygomycetes Mycelia have various mating types (here designated +, with red nuclei, and −, with blue nuclei). 1 Neighboring mycelia of different mating types form hyphal extensions called gametangia, each walled off around several haploid nuclei by a septum. 2 A heterokaryotic zygosporangium forms, containing multiple haploid nuclei from the two parents. 3 The sporangium disperses genetically diverse, haploid spores. 7 4 This cell develops a rough, thick-walled coating that can resist dry environments and other harsh conditions for months. 5 When conditions are favourable, karyogamy occurs, followed by meiosis.6 The zygosporangium then breaks dormancy, germinating into a short sporangium. The spores germinate and grow into new mycelia. 8 9 Mycelia can also reproduce asexually by forming sporangia that produce genetically identical haploid spores. Figure 31.12
  31. 31. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus – Can actually “aim” their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources 0.5 mm Figure 31.13
  32. 32. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Zygosporangia, which are resistant to freezing and drying – Are capable of persisting through unfavorable conditions – Can undergo meiosis when conditions improve
  33. 33. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microsporidia • Microsporidia – Are unicellular parasites of animals and protists – Are now classified as zygomycetes 10µm Host cell nucleus Developing microsporidian Spore Figure 31.14
  34. 34. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Glomeromycetes • Fungi assigned to the phylum Glomeromycota – Were once considered zygomycetes – Are now classified in a separate clade
  35. 35. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • All glomeromycetes – Form a distinct type of endomycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizae 2.5 µm Figure 31.15
  36. 36. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ascomycetes • Fungi in the phylum Ascomycota – Are found in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats – Are defined by the production of sexual spores in saclike asci, which are usually contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps
  37. 37. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Ascomycetes – Vary in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to elaborate cup fungi and morels (a) The cup-shaped ascocarps (fruiting bodies) of Aleuria aurantia give this species its common name: orange peel fungus. (b) The edible ascocarp of Morchella esculenta, the succulent morel, is often found under trees in orchards. (c) Tuber melanosporum is a truffle, an ascocarp that grows underground and emits strong odors. These ascocarps have been dug up and the middle one sliced open. (d) Neurospora crassa feeds as a mold on bread and other food (SEM). 10 µm Figure 31.16a–d
  38. 38. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Ascomycetes reproduce – Asexually by producing enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia
  39. 39. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The life cycle of Neurospora crassa, an ascomycete Dispersal ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination Mycelium Conidiophore Germination Dispersal Mycelia Asci Eight ascospores Ascocarp Four haploid nuclei MEIOSIS KARYOGAMY PLASMOGAMY SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid nucleus (zygote) Ascogonium Ascus (dikaryotic) Dikaryotic hyphae Mating type (+) Conidia; mating type (−) Key Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Ascomycete mycelia can also reproduce asexually by producing haploid conidia. 7 Neurospora can reproduce sexually by producing specialized hyphae. Conidia of the opposite mating type fuse to these hyphae. 1 A dikaryotic ascus develops. 2 Karyogamy occurs within the ascus, producing a diploid nucleus. 3 The diploid nucleus divides by meiosis, yielding four haploid nuclei. 4 The developing asci are contained in an ascocarp. The ascospores are discharged forcibly from the asci through an opening in the ascocarp. Germinating ascospores give rise to new mycelia. 6 5 Each haploid nucleus divides once by mitosis, yielding eight nuclei. Cell walls develop around the nuclei, forming ascospores (LM).Figure 31.17
  40. 40. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Basidiomycetes • Fungi in the phylum Basidiomycota – Include mushrooms and shelf fungi – Are defined by a clublike structure called a basidium, a transient diploid stage in the life cycle
  41. 41. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Basidiomycetes (a) Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), a common species in conifer forests in the northern hemisphere (b) Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat (c) Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood (d) Puffballs emitting spores Figure 31.18a–d
  42. 42. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The life cycle of a basidiomycete – Usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium, which can erect its fruiting structure, a mushroom, in just a few hours Figure 31.19
  43. 43. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PLASMOGAMY Dikaryotic mycelium Basidiocarp (dikaryotic) KARYOGAMY Key MEIOSIS Gills lined with basidiaSEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mating type (−) Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dispersal and germination Basidiospores Basidium with four appendages Basidium containing four haploid nuclei Basidia (dikaryotic) Diploid nuclei Basidiospore1 µm Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) • The life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete Each diploid nucleus yields four haploid nuclei. Each basidium grows four appendages, and one haploid nucleus enters each appendage and develops into a basidiospore (SEM). 6 Two haploid mycelia of different mating types undergo plasmogamy. 1 A dikaryotic mycelium forms, growing faster then, and ultimately crowding out, the haploid parental mycelia. 2 3 Environmental cues such as rain or temperature changes induce the dikaryotic mycelium to form compact masses that develop into basidiocarps (mushrooms, in this case). The basidiocarp gills are lined with terminal dikaryotic cells called basidia. 4 Karyogamy in the basidia produces diploid nuclei, which then undergo meiosis. 5 When mature, the basidiospores are ejected, fall from the cap, and are dispersed by the wind. 7 In a suitable environment, the basidiospores germinate and grow into short-lived haploid mycelia. 8 Figure 31.20
  44. 44. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Concept 31.5: Fungi have a powerful impact on ecosystems and human welfare
  45. 45. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Decomposers • Fungi are well adapted as decomposers of organic material – Performing essential recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving world
  46. 46. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Symbionts • Fungi form symbiotic relationships with – Plants, algae, and animals
  47. 47. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mycorrhizae • Mycorrhizae – Are enormously important in natural ecosystems and agriculture – Increase plant productivity RESULTS Researchers grew soybean plants in soil treated with fungicide (poison that kills fungi) to prevent the formation of mycorrhizae in the experimental group. A control group was exposed to fungi that formed mycorrhizae in the soybean plants’ roots. EXPERIMENT The soybean plant on the left is typical of the experimental group. Its stunted growth is probably due to a phosphorus deficiency. The taller, healthier plant on the right is typical of the control group and has mycorrhizae. CONCLUSION These results indicate that the presence of mycorrhizae benefits a soybean plant and support the hypothesis that mycorrhizae enhance the plant’s ability to take up phosphate and other needed minerals.Figure 31.21 RESULTS
  48. 48. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fungus-Animal Symbiosis • Some fungi share their digestive services with animals – Helping break down plant material in the guts of cows and other grazing mammals
  49. 49. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Many species of ants and termites – Take advantage of the digestive power of fungi by raising them in “farms” Figure 31.22
  50. 50. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lichens • Lichens – Are a symbiotic association of millions of photosynthetic microorganisms held in a mass of fungal hyphae (a) A fruticose (shrub-like) lichen (b) A foliose (leaf-like) lichen (c) Crustose (crust-like) lichensFigure 31.23a–c
  51. 51. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The fungal component of a lichen – Is most often an ascomycete • Algae or cyanobacteria – Occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface Ascocarp of fungus Fungal hyphae Algal layer Soredia Algal cell Fungal hyphae 10µm Figure 31.24
  52. 52. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pathogens • About 30% of known fungal species – Are parasites, mostly on or in plants (a) Corn smut on corn (b) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves (c) Ergots on rye Figure 31.25a–c
  53. 53. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Some of the fungi that attack food crops – Are toxic to humans
  54. 54. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Practical Uses of Fungi • Humans eat many fungi – And use others to make cheeses, alcoholic beverages, and bread
  55. 55. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Antibiotics produced by fungi – Treat bacterial infections Staphylococcus Penicillium Zone of inhibited growth Figure 31.26
  56. 56. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Genetic research on fungi – Is leading to applications in biotechnology
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