Plastic – a brief view
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  • 1. Plastic – A brief view
  • 2. Definition :- The word plastic is derived from the Greek word “plastikos” meaning capable of being shaped or moulded. A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi- synthetic organic solids that are mouldable. Plastic are organic polymers of high molecular mass.
  • 3. Classification Of Plastics :- Thermoplastic Polymer :- Thermoplastics are the plastics that do not undergo chemical change in their composition when heated and can be moulded again and again. Eg :- polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thermosetting Polymer :- Thermosets can melt and take shape once, after they have solidified, they stay solid. In the thermosetting process, a chemical reaction occurs that is irreversible.
  • 4. Common Plastics :- • Application :- Fibers, textiles. • Properties :- 1)It is wrinkle free. 2)It is easy to launder. 3)It dries quickly. 4)It is resistant to stretching and shrinking. Polyester (PES) • Application :- Carbonated drinks bottles, peanut butter jars, plastic film, microwavable packaging. • Properties :- • Good gas barrier properties • Good chemical resistance • Low moisture absorption • Food compatible Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
  • 5. Common Plastics Cont.. 1 :- •Application :- Wide range of inexpensive uses including supermarket bags, plastic bottles. •Properties :- •High impact strength •High heat resistant •Excellent weather ability •Excellent chemical resistance Polyethylene (PE) •Application :- Detergent bottles, milk jugs, and moulded plastic cases, luggage. •Properties :- •Low cost •Impact resistant from -40 C to 90 C •Moisture resistance •Good chemical resistance •Food grades available High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
  • 6. Common Plastics Cont.. 2 :- •Application :- Outdoor furniture, siding, floor tiles, shower curtains, clamshell packaging. •Properties :- •Low cost •Impact resistant from -40 C to 90 C •Moisture resistance •Good chemical resistance •Food grades available Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) •Application :- Plumbing pipes and guttering, shower curtains, window frames, flooring. •Properties :- •Weathering stability. PVC is resistant to aggressive environmental factors g. •Longevity. PVC products can last up to 100 years and even more.. •Barrier properties. PVC can be made impervious to liquids, vapours and gases. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  • 7. Common Plastics Cont.. 3 :- •Application :- Bottle caps, drinking straws, yogurt containers, appliances, car fenders (bumpers), plastic pressure pipe systems. •Properties:- •High chemical and corrosion resistance •Light weight and rigid •Easy to maintain and clean •High tensile strength •Low moisture absorption •Long life span Polypropylene (PP) •Application :- Packaging foam/"peanuts", food containers, plastic tableware, disposable cups, plates, cutlery, CD and cassette boxes. •Properties :- •High Impact Resistance •Flame Retardant •High Heat Resistance •Expandable Polystyrene (PS)
  • 8. Common Plastics Cont.. 4 :- •Application :- Refrigerator liners, food packaging, vending cups. •Properties :- •Good impact resistance •High dimensional stability •Easy to paint and glue. High impact polystyrene (HIPS) •Application :- Fibers, toothbrush bristles, tubing, fishing line, low strength machine parts: under-the-hood car engine parts or gun frames. •Properties:- •Flame Retardant •Good Dimensional Stability •High Strength •High Heat Resistance •Good Wear Resistance Polyamides (PA) (Nylons)
  • 9. Common Plastics Cont.. 5 :- •Application :- Electronic equipment cases (e.g., computer monitors, printers, keyboards), drainage pipe. •Properties:- •Dimensionally stable •Good strength, impact and toughness properties •Good resistance to abrasion and chemicals Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) •Application :- A slippery blend of PE and ABS used in low-duty dry bearings. •Properties:- •Impact resistance and toughness •ABS is flammable when it is exposed to high temperatures •light weight •shock absorbance Polyethylene/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PE/ABS)
  • 10. Common Plastics Cont.. 6 :- •Application :- Compact discs, eyeglasses, riot shields, security windows, traffic lights, lenses. •Properties :- •Heat and cold resistance •Can adapt to all kinds of bad weather change from cold to hot, at- 40 ° c to + 120 ° c •UV-resistant, anti-aging •80 times the impact strength of glass Polycarbonate (PC) •Application :- A blend of PC and ABS that creates a stronger plastic. Used in car interior and exterior parts, and mobile phone bodies. •Properties :- •High gloss surface finish •Low moisture absorption •High tensile strength •High dimensional stability •Excellent impact properties, even at low temperature •Flame retardant. Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PC/ABS)
  • 11. Common Plastics Cont.. 7 :- •Application :- Cushioning foams, thermal insulation foams, surface coatings, printing rollers. •Properties :- •Load bearing capacity •High tear resistant •Weather resistant •Excellent noise abatement properties •Good Heat and cold resistant Polyurethanes (PU) •Application :- Food packaging. •Properties:- •High levels of transparency •Excellent barrier qualities extend the shelf life and conservation of foods •Outstanding heat sealing properties •Highly flexible Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) (Saran)
  • 12. Thermosetting Plastics :-  • Applications: Electrical components requiring strength, tools and dies, fiber reinforced epoxies are used in structural components, tanks, pressure vessels, rocket motor casing • Properties: • Good dimensional stability • Excellent mechanical and electrical properties • Good resistance to heat and chemicals. Epoxies • Applications: Laminated panels, handles, knobs, electrical components; connectors, insulators. • Properties: Good dimensional stability • Rigid • High resistance to heat, water, electricity, and chemicals. Phenolics
  • 13. Thermosetting Plastics Cont.. 1 :- • Applications: Electrical components requiring strength at high temp., waterproof materials, heat seals • Properties: • Excellent electrical properties over a wide rang of temperature and humidity • Good heat and chemical properties. Silicones
  • 14. Additives Used In Plastic :-  Additives are added to polymers in order to obtain or improve certain properties such as strength, stiffness, color, resistance to weather and flammability.  Plasticizers are added to obtain flexibility and softness, most common use of plasticizers are in PVC.  Fillers such as fine saw dust, silica flour, calcium carbide are added to reduce the cost and to increase harness, strength, toughness, dimensional stability.  Colorants are added to obtain a variety of colors. Colorants are either organic (dye) or inorganic (pigments). Pigments provide greater resistance to temperature and sunlight.  Flame retardants such as chlorine, phosphorus and bromine, are added to reduce polymer flammability. Teflon does not burn and nylon and vinyl chloride are self-extinguishing
  • 15. Types Of Moulding :- Blow moulding Compaction plus sintering Compression moulding Expandable bead moulding Extrusion moulding Foam moulding Injection moulding •Reaction injection mouldingLaminating Matched mould Matrix moulding Plastic moulding Pressure plug assist moulding Rotational moulding (or Roto moulding) Transfer moulding •Vacuum forming, a simplified version of thermoformingThermoforming Vacuum plug assist moulding
  • 16. Injection Moulding :- Injection moulding is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting material into a mould. Material for the part is fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mould cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity.
  • 17. Components :-
  • 18. Injection Process :- Granular plastic is fed by gravity from a hopper into a heated barrel. Granules are slowly moved forward by a screw-type plunger. Plastic is forced into a heated chamber, where it is melted. Plunger advances, and the melted plastic is forced through a nozzle that rests against the mould, allowing it to enter the mould cavity through a gate and runner system.
  • 19. Types Of Injection Moulding Process :- Metal injection moulding Thin-wall injection moulding Injection moulding of liquid silicone rubber Die casting
  • 20. Application :- Injection moulding is used to create many bottle caps, automotive dashboards, pocket combs, some musical instruments (and parts of them), one-piece chairs and small tables, storage containers, mechanical parts (including gears), and most other plastic products available today. Injection moulding is the most common modern method of part manufacturing, it is ideal for producing high volumes of the same object.
  • 21. Blow Moulding :- Blow moulding is a manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. In general, there are three main types of blow moulding: i. Extrusion blow moulding ii. Injection blow moulding iii. Stretch blow moulding.
  • 22. How It Works ? In blow molding a tube is extruded and clamped in a split mold. Air under pressure (50-100 psi) is injected into the tube blowing the plastic outward to fill the mold cavity.
  • 23. Application :- PET bottles, containers, drums , etc
  • 24. Rotational Moulding :- Rotational Moulding involves a heated hollow mould which is filled with a charge or shot weight of material.
  • 25. How It Works ?
  • 26. Process :- Preparing the Mould :- A pre-determined amount of polymer powder is placed in the mould. With the powder loaded, the mould is closed, locked and loaded into the oven. The powder can be pre-compounded to the desired colour. Heating & Fusion :- Once inside the oven, the mould is rotated around two axis, tumbling the powder .The ovens are heated by convection, conduction and, in some cases, radiation. As the mould becomes hotter the powder begins to melt and stick to the inner walls of the mould. As the powder melts, it gradually builds up an even coating over the entire surface. Cooling :- When the melt has been consolidated to the desired level, the mould is cooled either by air, water or a combination of both. The polymer solidifies to the desired shape. Unloading/Demoulding :- When the polymer has cooled sufficiently to retain its shape and be easily handled, the mould is opened and the product removed. At this point powder can once again be placed in the mould and the cycle repeated.
  • 27. Advantages :-  Molds are relatively inexpensive.  Rotational molding machines are much less expensive than other type of plastic processing equipment.  Different parts can be molded at the same time.  Very large hollow parts can be made.  Parts are stress free.  Very little scrap is produced
  • 28. To Be Continued…. Efforts By :- Shakeeb Shafi KSZ GM (Finance) +91-9958926325 kszexim@gmail.com