PEHRS Presentation on ACM


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This presentation given to the Professional Exchange of HR Solutions in September 2012 covers the basics of ACM and the management shift we are seeing around us today.

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  • It is much the same with paramedics. When a paramedic arrives at work in the morning, they have no idea how their day will turn out. Of course, they are highly trained, and they know all the kinds of things they might do, but the precise decision on what to do when has to depend upon many specifics at the time. Even though you might expect medicine to be fairly well defined, the amount of approaches, and the subtlety of the evidence, makes it nearly impossible to express what the paramedic does in terms of a specific rule set.
  • These are stock traders. They need to be able to gather information from an open ended set of sources. There is no simple formula, like “read the NT Times and determine a purchasing plan for the day” Stock traders are constantly looking for new clues from new sources that are always chaning.
  • Another classic knowledge worker is the detective. Every case is different, and requires expert judgment to lead the investigation to a successful conclusion. It is the unpredictability of a course of events that make detective novels and movie so interesting.
  • These are legislators who are making up the rules, so clearly there are no predefined courses of action. They have to think outside of the box, because they are defining the box.
  • Judges and lawyers also must think on their feet and respond in creative ways to new and unexpected events.This is all just to give a feeling that knowledge workers are not stuck in the ivory tower, but are an increasing part of business today. Estimates are that the knowledge workers comprise 40% of the workforce today, but this percentage is growing, as automation efforts continue to eliminate the routine work. The good news is that knowledge work jobs are more satisfying jobs. However, to accomplish these jobs, the workers need a much higher level of autonomy than workers have needed in the past. It is not possible to predict exactly what a knowledge workers needs to do at a given time.
  • Reliable outcomes do not come from predictabilityPeople are amazingly good at handling ambiguous situations, and managing the process through to a successful conclusionThe idea that a reliable outcome requires a predictable path comes from Enlightenment age philosophy, reinforced by FW Taylor and Scientific Management.However, Lean and TPS is showing that adaptive systems can be more reliable and more stable in the long run.
  • Henry Ford’s assembly line was the same thing: predictability through breaking the job into a series of simple tasks.
  • How should we respond. John Hagel, John Seely Brown, and Lang Davison have written this excellent book comparing push systems to pull systems. Push systems are the centralized command and control forms of organizations of the past. Pull organization are more flexible. They can be more efficient, but the most important aspect of a pull organization is that it allows for a degree of autonomy for knowledge workers, and therefore is able to deal with uncertainty in a better way.
  • I also wanted to highlight this excellent source of ideas on the ways that organizations can change to be hyper-social by Francois Gosseaux and Ed Moran. The way Gosseaux puts it, hundreds and thousands of years ago, people interacted using natural social patterns. Such social behavior was natural for us, and he calls this Human 1.0.Then Newtonian thinking forced us to make organizations that required workers to work in a very unnatural way. Human 2.0 was more analytic, more predefined, and much less satisfying.He sees the advent of social business software as bringing us back to Human 1.0, back to a more natural state of social behavior.
  • IN the book, they make four important suggestions.Forget market segments, because these are classifications of people defined by a centralized control point, and as such are usually not very accurate. Market segments are a model of the world, but only that. Instead we should engage tribes which are groups of people that have themselves selected to relate to each other. Tribes are real, and they will give you information on how to make products if you have the adaptibility to engage and respond to them.Forget company centricity, but instead engage and respond directly to individual people.Forget information channels (like various media, publicity channels, etc) and instead tap into knowledge networks.Finally, and this is the one that is most controversial: forget processes and hierarchies. He says that the real potential to leverage social business will be a bit messy. Newtonian thinkers want everything tidy and organized (i.e. centrally controlled) but delegating to knowledge workers will appear messy to a centralized manager.
  • Margaret Wheatly wrote a wonderful book called “Leadership and the New Science” which reflects upon how the change of paradigm from Newtonian mindset parallels the change in paradigm that is needed in management of organizations. The book is full of quotes, but I picked this one because it is one aspect of Netwonian simplification that people often fall into: We assume that a role can be defined independently of everything else in the organization. But that is not actually the case. The actual role that a person plays depends very much on all the other people around them, and to design a system that ignores this will be a limitation.The reason I picked this photo is not just that the web symbolizes the relationships, but also to remind us that in an ecosystem, everything is dependent upon other. One might define the activities of spider, but clearly a spider is dependent upon flying insects, and on tree and such for structure. They in turn are dependent on other parts of the ecosystem. So it is with the roles that people play in organizations.
  • Dan Pink wrote a wonderful book called “A Whole New Mind” where he proposes that for the past century organizations have needed (and therefore valued) left-brined workers with strong analytical skills and procedural thinking. He sees the world shifting today in a new direction, where right brained thinkers will have an edge. I think this is very much like Gosseaux saying we are returning to Human 1.0.Dan Pink went on to say that in the future, there will be greater demand for workers with two types of skills: High concept - the capacity to detect patterns & opportunities, to create artistic and emotional beauty, to craft a satisfying narrative, and to combine seemingly unrelated ideas into something new.High touch - the ability to empathize, to understand the subtleties of human interaction, to find joy in one’s self and to elicit it in others, and to stretch beyond the quotidian, in pursuit of purpose and meaning.
  • PEHRS Presentation on ACM

    1. 1. Enhancing the Productivity ofan Evolving WorkforceKeith D SwensonVice President of R&DChairman of the Workflow Management CoalitionSeptember 13, 2012 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    2. 2. Table of ContentsKnowledge WorkUnpredictable ProcessesSystem Technology Key CapabilitiesManagement ShiftSummarySee Related Blog Post at: 2 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    3. 3. People who weigh many factors and determine courses of action3 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    4. 4. People whose actions are based on many sources of information4 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    5. 5. People who gather clues follow up, and discover things.5 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    6. 6. People who set the rules or think outside the box6 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    7. 7. People who face uncertain situations and courses that are not fixed7 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    8. 8. Knowledge Work is Everywhere Benefits Negotiation Mergers & Acquisitions Employee Performance Coordinating a meeting Mitigation Exceptions, such as a Billing Dispute Hiring Talent Rescue work, Fire Fighting Medical Treatment, Health Care Financial Audit Executive Management Help desk 8 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    9. 9. Unpredictable Processes All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    10. 10. What does it mean to be Unpredictable? Unpredictable Does Not Mean  Chaotic – completely without form  Random – direction can completely reverse at any time  Completely Unknown – like a completely dark, but dangerous, room  Planning is Impossible and Pointless It simply means:  The known initial conditions are not enough to determine the one single best path.  You can’t wait until enough is known to make a complete process  Planning is an ongoing activity as you do the work. Examples:  an Emergency Room Patient 10 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    11. 11. Fooled by Randomness Unpredictable Processes don’t always FEEL unpredictable. 20/20 Mental Hindsight “Interpreter” We forget how it We fill in missing really happened. details with narrative.11 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    12. 12. Spectrum of Predictability Routine Routine with ad Unpredictable with Completely Predictable hoc exceptions structured snippets Improvised  There is a spectrum of situations  Everyone does:  some routine work, and  some unpredictable work. 12 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    13. 13. System Support KeyCapabilitiesWhat you are going to need to get there. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    14. 14. The Industrial Revolution: … the Newtonian view in business. Henry Ford’s Assembly Line Frederick Winslow Taylor • Time and Motion Studies • Mass production office work14 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    15. 15. Business Process Management / WorkflowBPM: Make a precise definition of the work to be done Invest a lot in set up Recoup investment by running process thousands of times.  Effective for Routine Work15 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    16. 16. Definition of Case ManagementCase Management is  the management of long-lived collaborative processes that coordinate • knowledge, • content, • correspondence and • resources  to progress a case to achieve a particular goal;  where the path of execution cannot be predetermined in advance of execution;  where human judgment is required to determine how the end goal be achieved; and  where the state of a case can be altered by external out-of-band events. Attributed to Michael White, 2009 16 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    17. 17. Tasks  Goals; what is the difference? TASK Difference? GOAL (Something you do) (Something you do)Smaller in Scope Larger in ScopeProcedural, linear Collective, parallel  often one at a time  Sometimes overlappingThinking is Removed You must “figure it out”Focus on action to Focus on end result transform something produced Micro-managers give "tasks"; Good managers give "goals". 17 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    18. 18. Enforcement  Guidance Enforcement: Guardrails (on a road) prevent deviation, but also prevent anything not predicted. Guidance: Guidelines (on a road) show people where to go, but do not prevent deviations if they are necessary.18 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    19. 19. Diagrams  Checklists For Routine Work For Knowledge Work Created ahead of time Created when needed, by specialist crafted to by the person doing the work. automatically respond Manually adjusted for to many situations. changing situations. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    20. 20. Prescribed  AdaptibleWhen you hear about an adaptive system, think about muscles.  To increase the size or strength of a muscle, you exercise it.  Conversely, lack of use causes muscle atrophy.Adaptiveness is not simply the capability to increase or decrease muscle size.Instead it is more about the ability of the muscle to self-modify to fit the situation; the ability to sense a need, & to respond to it in a kind of feedback loop. 20 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    21. 21. Individual  Social Technology self-forming relationships everything is relative bring your own identity 21 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    22. 22. Process Centric  Data Centric Data Process Process Data The process is the Data (a case folder) central focus for becomes the central focus organizing work. and permanent record. Data comes to and from Processes can cooperate. the process. 22 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    23. 23. BPM / Workflow ACM Factory, Mass Production Skill, Professional Small savings on each of a Custom work appropriate to large volume produced particular circumstances Highly Repeatable Unpredictable Routine Processes Unique Processes Efficiency and cutting costs Providing unique high value through automation service to customers23 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    24. 24. Management ShiftIt’s not just technology that is changing All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    25. 25. The Power Of Pull “Pull platforms are emerging as a response to growing uncertainty.” “They seek to expand the opportunity for creativity by local participants dealing with immediate needs.” 25 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    26. 26. <<Push>> vs. >>Pull<<treat public as passive loosely coupled and modular consumers embrace exceptions notmake centralized decisions eliminate themtop-down approach to enhance the potential for planning productive frictionworkers perform dictated continually expand choices activities available help find the most relevant resources allow initiative and creative opportunities 26 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    27. 27. Returning to “Human 1.0” All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    28. 28. Forget market segments • engage tribes Forget company centricity • think human centricity Forget information channels • think knowledge networks Forget processes • embrace social and hierarchies messiness28 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    29. 29. Roles mean nothing without understanding the network of relationships and the resources that are required to support the work of that person. – Margaret Wheatley29 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    30. 30. Important worker qualities will be: • High Concept • High Touch -Daniel H. Pink30 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    31. 31. Knowledge Worker Autonomy SIX major factors determine knowledge-worker productivity  Knowledge worker productivity demands that we ask the question: "What is the task?“  It demands that we impose the responsibility for their productivity on the individual knowledge workers themselves. Knowledge workers have to manage themselves. They have to have autonomy.  Continuing innovation has to be part of the work, the task, and the responsibility of knowledge workers.  Knowledge work requires continuous learning on the part of the knowledge worker, but equally continuous teaching on the part of the knowledge worker.  Productivity of the knowledge worker is not -- at least not primarily -- a matter of the quantity of output. Quality is at least as important.  Finally, knowledge-worker productivity requires that the knowledge worker is both seen and treated as an "asset" rather than a "cost." It requires that knowledge workers want to work for the organization in preference to all other opportunities. -Peter Drucker, “Management Challenges for the 21st Century” (p142) 31 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    32. 32. Summary All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    33. 33. In an unpredictable world, the best investments are those that minimize the importance of predictions. - Sargut & McGrath All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    34. 34. Management Shift Summary1. Understand the limits of Newtonian view – and Scientific Management2. Beware of over-simplifying the job – Don’t just “pick a process”3. Focus on providing the right information – Promote a culture of sharing4. Embrace complexity – Don’t de-skill the workplace5. Empower people to respond to customers – Decentralize, but monitor6. Hire/promote right-brained people34 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    35. 35. Summary Adaptive Case Management is for Knowledge Workers with Unpredictable Process to Adapt & Innovate with Teams of Experts to Accomplish Goals.35 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    36. 36. Questions and Answers Slides: Blog: All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012
    37. 37. 37 All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Fujitsu Limited 2012