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Scientific Revolution

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    • 1. Scientific Revolution Turning the Universe On Its Head
    • 2. Objectives❖ Students will explain how new discoveries in astronomy changed the way people viewed the universe.❖ Students will analyze the changes in European thought and culture resulting from the Renaissance.
    • 3. Vocabulary❖ heliocentric: based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe.❖ scientific method: careful, step-by-step process used to confirm findings and confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis.❖ hypothesis: an unproved theory accepted for the purposes of explaining certain facts or to proved a basis for further investigation.❖ gravity: force that pulls objects in Earths sphere to the center of the Earth.❖ calculus: a branch of mathematics in which calculations are made using special symbolic notations; developed by Isaac Newton
    • 4. Challenge to Conventional Wisdom: Ptolemy❖ Greek scientists and philosophers had influenced scientific thought for over 1000 years❖ Aristotle and Ptolemy - the earth was the center of the universe ❖ Church supported this idea ❖ Renaissance and Reformation - challenge to the church ❖ New challenges arise
    • 5. Nicolaus Copernicus ❖ Polish scientist who proposed a new view of the universe ❖ Earth orbited the Sun - not other way around; heliocentric model ❖ Massively radical - if this were true, what other assumptions about the world and the universe were wrong? ❖ Tycho Brahe - provided evidence that supported Copernicus’ finding ❖ Astronomical observatory - watched movement of heavenly bodies
    • 6. Galileo Galilei❖ Italian scholar who assembled an astronomical telescope❖ Observed moons of Jupiter; moved at different speed around the planet ❖Proved that Copernicus’ observations were true; about the Earth as well❖ Uproar in the Christian world - challenged idea that Earth was ‘perfect’ and center of the universe❖ Charged with heresy and threatened with death to change his views
    • 7. Bacon and Descartes ❖ Examination of how truth is determined by Francis Bacon and René Descartes ❖ Reject assumptions of Aristotle and wanted to find a mechanism for how best to come to truth❖ Questions and search for answers to those questions through systematic examination of what is true and not true❖ “I think, therefore I am”
    • 8. Scientific Method❖ Step-by-step process of discovery❖ Collection of data and evidence that is measurable ❖ To explain data, form a hypothesis ❖ Test and retest these assumptions ❖ Use mathematical calculations to quantify information and finally form an expression of understanding to establish scientific laws
    • 9. Isaac Newton❖ Developed a theory to explain the way that planets moved❖ Used mathematics, demonstrated how a single force keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun - gravity❖ Published a book explaining the law of gravity and other workings of the universe ❖ Nature has rules and follows them ❖ All motion in the universe can be measured and described through mathematics ❖ Newton developed calculus to be able to do this