Challenges to the Church, Part IITaking Root in Church - Reformation from Within
Objectives❖ Students will describe reasons why England formed a new church.❖ Students will analyze how the Catholic Church reformed itself.❖ Students will analyze the changes in European thought and culture resulting from the Renaissance.
Vocabulary❖ sect: a subgroup of a major religious group.❖ compromise: an agreement in which each side makes concessions; an acceptable middle ground.❖ Council of Trent: a group of Catholic leaders that met between 1545 and 1563 to respond to Protestant challenges and direct the future of the Catholic Church.❖ ghetto: separate section of a city where members of a minority group are forced to live.
Protestant Sects Grow❖ Hundreds of new sects of Protestants spring up throughout Europe ❖ Some followed variations of Luther or other leaders ❖ Some were more radical - Anabaptists felt that infants could not know what being baptized meant, so it was impossible to convey the faith ❖ Considered radical for the time
Anabaptists Push For Social Change❖ Some wanted to ❖ Abolish private property Speed up the coming of God’s ❖ judgement through violent means❖ Lutherans encouraged to join Catholics in suppressing Anabaptists❖ Most were peaceful and victims of harsh persecution❖ Today: Baptists, Mennonites, Amish
English Reformation ❖ English had long history of questioning authority, including the Church ❖ Protestantism has roots in England from 1300s with the clergy ❖ Eventual break with the Church happens with King Henry VIII
Henry VIII❖ Henry had only one surviving daughter with his wife ❖ Wanted an annulment so that he could marry another woman and have a son ❖ Pope refused❖ Henry, inﬂuenced by high ranking members of his advisors took steps to break with the church
Church of England ❖ With Parliament, Henry took control of the church ❖ 1534: Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, making Henry the “only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England” ❖ Caused inﬁghting between Protestants and Catholics ❖ 1534-1540: Strengthening of the Church of England through seizures and closing of Catholic churches
Swift Changes and Turmoil❖ 1547: Henry dies; Nine year old Edward takes over ❖ Attempt to create a strict Protestant nation with Parliament (Protestant)❖ Edward dies in his teens - half-sister Mary Tudor comes to the throne ❖ Determined to return England to Catholic faith ❖ Bloody revenge ❖ Mary dies - Throne passes to Elizabeth
Elizabeth: Age of Compromise ❖ Elizabeth had survived religious swing between Edward and Mary ❖ Determined to try to meet both faiths need ❖ Catholic structure (bishops and archbishops) kept ❖ Protestant customs; English replaces Latin at service ❖ Hallmark of Elizabeth was ﬁnding ways to satisfy the needs of her people
Catholic Reform - the Counter Reformation❖ Pope Paul III recognized that Protestantism could spread and ultimately threaten the Church in a much larger way❖ Called the Council of Trent in 1545 ❖ Lasted nearly 20 years ❖ Reaﬃrmed many of the traditional views that Protestants had challenged ❖ Salvation comes through faith and good works; Bible is not only source of truth ❖ Took steps to end abuses in the church and establish schools to better educate clergy
Inquisition❖ Church led court set up during the Middle Ages that was now being used to ﬁght back against Protestantism ❖ Secret testimony, torture and execution used to root out heresy ❖ Index of Forbidden books - including books by Luther and Calvin and other humanists❖ Pope Paul III strengthened the Inquisition
Jesuits❖ Ignatius of Loyola - vowed to become a soldier of God❖ Rigorous religious training with absolute obedience to the Church❖ Set up schools that taught humanist and Catholic beliefs and enforced discipline and obedience ❖ Spies and secret missionaries
Spread and Legacy of the Catholic Reformation❖ Response to the ends of abuse and changes in the church stopped the tide of conversion to Protestant❖ Majority of Europe is still Catholic❖ Protestants have foothold in Europe, though ❖ Divided faiths in Europe
Persecution❖ With major tensions and anger - ﬁghting and killing for religion heightened❖ Intolerance and persecution of outsiders - considered to be witches or Jews❖ Witch hunts targeted mostly women during the religious wars ❖ Came to an end at the end of the wars❖ Pressure on Jews to convert ❖ Venice - force all Jews to live together in one quarter of the city called the ghetto❖ Throughout, those Jews that refuse to convert would be persecuted and driven from their homes