The End of the Cold WarRise of Global Terrorism
ObjectivesExamine rise of global terrorism.Investigate biographical background of terrorleader, Osama bin Laden.
Vocabularymujahideen - Afghanistan guerilla fighter, “people doingjihad”Sunni/Shia Islam - sects of Islam determined by choices ofMohammed’s followersAyatollah Khomeini - religious leader in Iran who oversawthe Iranian Revolution of 1979terrorism - acts of violence intended to cause fearSaddam Hussein - leader of Iraq from 1979-2003jihad - “struggle”; call for Islamic followers to strive forsome change
Cold War EndsEvidence: Berlin Wall falls(1989)Germany Reunites - East andWest (1990)Communist governments fallacross East Europe (1989-90)Communist government falls inRussia (1991)USA ➙ still selling Big Macs
Why? Major factor: Money American economy stronger, able to grow through difficult times (market economy); Soviet economy inefficient (command economy) Arms Race Technology Innovation 1980s: US President Ronald Reagan
Afghanistan (Soviet “AfghanTrap”)Vietnam: US fails to win; unpopular; expensive(1950-1975) ➙ economically able to recover1979 - USSR invades Afghanistan to ‘liberate’ Afghanistan Ill-prepared; local mujahideen prove stronger than expected Receive aid and support from many other countries, including US1988 - USSR retreats ➙ failed to win; unpopular;expensive ➙ not able to economically recoverMiddle East ➙ chess board for superpowers
Middle East: IslamMiddle East - many nations withdifferent beliefs Most popular religion - IslamFundamental difference in Islamicbelief: Sunni and ShiaSunni: Believe that after Muhammaddied, the Islamic faith was led by anelected leader (Abu Bakr)Shia: Believe that after Muhammaddied, his family should lead (cousinAli (Shia-t-Ali - party of Ali)
US Involvement Afghanistan - secret aid: military, money and training Iran - Long time US supported leader (Shah Rezi Pahlavi) overthrown; Ayatollah Khomeini ➙ Iran Hostage Crisis (1979) Iraq - US back Iraq in Iran-Iraq War (1984) ➙ retribution Israel & Palestinian conflict - consistently support Israel Net effect: Rising resentment of US
TerrorismActs of violence intended to cause fearGoals can be political, religious orideological; domestic or international 1970s - IRA (North Ireland) 1972 - Munich Olympics; ‘Black September’ (Palestine) 1983 - Beirut Bombing (Lebanon) 1988 - Pan Am Flight 103 (Libya) 1995 - Tokyo Subway - Sarin Gas (Japan) 1995 - Oklahoma City (US)
US - Gulf War I Iraq invades Kuwait US leads UN coalition of forces (1990-91) Did not invade Iraq or remove Saddam Hussein Why not? ➙ fear of more radical Shia government replacing Sunni government under Hussein (Buffer) US Troops in Saudi Arabia ➙ close to Mecca US Support of Israel ➙ their control of Jerusalem Net effect ➙ rising ANGER against US
Global Terrorism Strikes USAl Qaeda - political organizationfrom mujahideen; other groups riseup too (Hamas, Islamic Jihad, etc.)Call for jihad 1993 - World Trade Center ➙ truck bomb 1998 - US Embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania & Nairobi, Kenya ➙simultaneous bombing 2000 - USS Cole in Aden, Yemen ➙ bombing 2001 - World Trade Towers, Pentagon ➙ 9/11
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