OUR POLITICAL BEGINNINGS Origins for our Founding Fathers
OBJECTIVESStudents will explain the significance of landmarkdocuments from British history.Students will describe the three types of colonies that theEnglish established in North America.
VOCABULARYlimited government: government is restricted in what it may do and each individualhas rights that government cannot take awayMagna Carta: established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute andguaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility.Petition of Right: document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I ofEngland in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that eventhe monarch was subject to the laws of the land.English Bill of Rights: document written by Parliament and agreed on by Williamand Mary of England in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs.charter: a written grant of authority from the king.bicameral: a legislative body composed of two chambers.unicameral: a legislative body with one chamber.
ENGLISH ORIGINSColonists came in waves, overwhelmingly from EnglandBrought with them English concept of law and government Origins derived from earlier civilizations, including the Romans Brought with them three basic concepts
THREE FOUNDATIONSOrdered Government: colonists recognized need fororganization to maintain peace and protectionLimited Government: Government is not all-powerful Government can not remove certain rightsRepresentative Government: government should serve thewill of the people “Government of, by, and for the people.”
THE MAGNA CARTA 1215: English Barons forced King John to sign the Magna Carta Frustrated with heavy taxes and pointless military campaigns of the King Included fundamental rights to trial by jury and due process of the law Intended at first only for the privileged classes ➙ over time for all
THE PETITION OFRIGHTA limit on the king’s power Parliament forced Charles I to sign in 1682 to allow for more taxes to be leviedMonarch can not imprison or otherwise punishany person without a trial by their peersLimited king’s authority to impose martial lawin peace timeChallenged the idea of the divine right of kings- they are not above the law
ENGLISH BILL OFRIGHTS1688 - after years of revolt, Parliament gave the throne to William andMary of Orange 1689 - Parliament drew up a list of provisions that William and Mary had to agree to in order to prevent abuse of power by the monarchyProhibits a standing army during peacetime and that all parliamentaryelections be free Cannot suspend the law or levy taxes without Parliament Subjects have the right to petition the king Free from cruel and unusual punishment
THE ENGLISHCOLONIESOriginal 13 colonies formed in North America under English rule Each colony setting up their government independently of each other - over 125 yearsInfluenced by the circumstances of the place and time Virginia: Commercial venture; Massachusetts: search for political and religious freedom; Georgia: haven for debtorsDifferent circumstances, but under an English charter Three types of colonies: royal, proprietary and charter
ROYAL COLONIES NH, MA, NY, NJ, VA, NC, SC, GA - 8 of the 13 formed as royal colonies King named a governor as the chief executive of the colony King also appointed an advisory board for the royal governor Eventually became the upper house of the colonial legislature & highest court Lower house of the bicameral legislature was elected by property owners who could vote Power to tax and spend; governor appointed judges All laws had to be approved by the governor and the Crown
PROPRIETARYCOLONIESMaryland, Pennsylvania & Delaware - organizedby a person to whom the king had made a grantof land MD - Lord Baltimore; PA & DE - William PennSimilar to Royal Colony - Governor appointed byproprietorPA had a unicameral legislature - elected body
CHARTER COLONIESConnecticut and Rhode Island were charter colonies Charter was to the colonists themselves; self-governingGovernors elected (approved by the king)Bicameral legislature elected; no vetopower by the governorJudges appointed by the legislature Liberal for their time (1818; 1843 - charter still around as the State’s constitution)