Shakespeare Powerpoint

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Shakespeare Powerpoint

  1. 1. William Shakespeare's World To be, or not to be, that is the question... This above all, to thine own self be true...
  2. 2. Queen Elizabeth I – ( 1558-1603 ) <ul><li>Ruled England for 45 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed “the Virgin Queen” </li></ul><ul><li>and produced no heir to the throne </li></ul><ul><li>Restored Protestantism and formalized the </li></ul><ul><li>Church of England </li></ul><ul><li>During her reign, the economy was weakened by inflation, food shortages, and high rent. </li></ul><ul><li>Outbreak of the black plague, food riots, Catholic conspiracies, threats of invasion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Elizabethan Period , hundreds of people were convicted as witches and executed </li></ul>
  3. 3. King James I – ( 1603-1628 ) <ul><li>Renamed Shakespeare’’s acting troupe “The King’s Men” </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in the supernatural and interested in witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>Religious and believed in the existence of supernatural evil </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned a translation of the bible from Latin to English </li></ul><ul><li>Published a book about witchcraft called “Demonologie“ in 1597 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Witches and witchcraft were a morbid fascination </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1560-1603, hundreds of people (nearly all women) were convicted as witches and executed </li></ul><ul><li>Witches could predict the future, bring on daytime and nighttime, cause fogs and storms, and change into animals </li></ul><ul><li>If convicted, people would be subjected to torture and death by hanging or burning at the stake </li></ul><ul><li>King James I was fascinated by witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of possession were: trance, change of appearance, inability to pray, visions, disturbed behavior, lack of fear, indifference to life, and invitations to evil spirits to possess one’s body. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare’s audience were religious Christians who believed in heaven and hell </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Plays <ul><li>Early plays, 1590’s, were mainly comedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comedy (and this could be extended to most of Shakespeare's history plays as well)  is social--leading to a happy resolution (usually a marriage or marriages) and social unification.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare began to focus on tragedy/dramatic themes in the early 1600’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tragedy is individual, concentrating on the suffering of a single, remarkable hero--leading to individual torment, waste and death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1608 marks a change in tone from tragedy to romance, light, magic, and reconciliation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Comedies Comedy of Errors 1592 The Taming of the Shrew 1592-94 Love's Labor's Lost 1594-95 Two Gentlemen of Verona 1594-95 A Midsummer Night's Dream 1595-96 The Merchant of Venice 1596-97 Much Ado About Nothing 1598-99 As You Like It 1599-1600 Twelfth Night 1599-1600 Merry Wives of Windsor 1601-02 Troilus and Cressida 1601-02 All's Well That Ends Well 1602-03 Measure for Measure 1604-05
  7. 7. Tragedies & Tragicomedies Titus Andronicus 1593-94 Romeo and Juliet 1594-95 Hamlet 1600-01 Othello 1604-05 The Tragedy of King Lear 1605-06 Macbeth 1605-06 Timon of Athens 1607-(?) Cymbeline 1609-10 The Winter's Tale 1610-11 Tempest 1611-12
  8. 8. Henry VI parts I, II, III 1590-92 Richard III 1590-92 King John 1594-96 Richard II 1597-(?) King Henry IV part I, part II 1597-98 Henry V (1599) 1598-99 Julius Caesar 1599-1600 Henry VIII 1613-(?) Antony and Cleopatra 1606-07 Coriolanus 1607-08 Historical
  9. 9. When in a play... <ul><li>Only men were permitted to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Boys or effeminate men were used to play the women </li></ul><ul><li>Costumes were often the company’s most valuable asset </li></ul><ul><li>Costumes were made by the company, bought in London, or donated by courtiers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Staging Areas <ul><li>Stage --  platform that extended into the pit </li></ul><ul><li>Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stage </li></ul><ul><li>Second-level gallery & upper stage --  famous balcony scene in R & J </li></ul><ul><li>Trap door -  ghosts </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heavens”-  angelic beings </li></ul>
  11. 11. English Theater <ul><li>Plays were most often performed in outdoor theaters </li></ul><ul><li>Performances took place during the day so that the stage would be illuminated by natural light </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Globe Theater
  13. 13. THE GLOBE THEATER <ul><li>Built in 1599 </li></ul><ul><li>The most magnificent theater in London </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare was 1/5 owner </li></ul><ul><li>He earned 10% of the total profit, approximately £ 200-250 a year </li></ul><ul><li>The Bard retired to Stratford and lived on the profits he earned from the Globe </li></ul><ul><li>June 19, 1613 the Globe burned to the ground during a performance of Henry VIII </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Globe Theater – <ul><li>Many of Shakespeare’s plays were performed here </li></ul><ul><li>The stage was a large, rectangle that jutted out into the yard </li></ul><ul><li>Held 2,000-3,000 people tightly packed </li></ul><ul><li>An open playhouse with a wooden structure three stories high </li></ul><ul><li>It was shaped like a 16 sided polygon </li></ul><ul><li>General admission = 1 Penny entitled a spectator to be a “groundling”-someone who could stand in the yard. </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive seats were in the roofed galleries and most expensive seats were chairs set right on the stage along its two sides </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilt in 1900’s </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Aristocrats </li></ul><ul><li>The Queen/King </li></ul><ul><li>The Groundlings! </li></ul>
  16. 16. Actors <ul><li>Only men and boys allowed onstage </li></ul><ul><li>Young boys whose voices had not changed play women’s roles </li></ul><ul><li>It would have been considered indecent for a woman to appear on stage </li></ul>
  17. 17. Differences <ul><li>No scenery </li></ul><ul><li>Settings > references in dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate costumes </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of props </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-paced, colorful>2 hours! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Spectators <ul><li>Wealthy got benches </li></ul><ul><li>“ Groundlings”>poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard (“pit”) </li></ul><ul><li>All but wealthy were </li></ul><ul><li>uneducated/illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>Much more interaction than today </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Cost of a Show <ul><li>1 shilling to stand </li></ul><ul><li>2 shillings to sit in the balcony </li></ul><ul><li>1 shilling was 10% of their weekly income </li></ul><ul><li>Broadway Today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$85 Orchestra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$60 Balcony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of a teacher’s weekly salary </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Man That Would Be Shakespeare <ul><li>1563-1616 </li></ul><ul><li>Stratford-on-Avon, England </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote 37 plays & </li></ul><ul><li>154 sonnets </li></ul><ul><li>He started out as an actor </li></ul>William
  21. 21. Background of the Bard <ul><li>Born April, 1564 in Stratford on Avon </li></ul><ul><li>Parents John & Mary Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Educated at Stratford Grammar School </li></ul><ul><li>Learned business as an apprentice for his father </li></ul><ul><li>Married Anne Hathaway November 28, 1582 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She was 8 years his senior and 3 months pregnant when they married </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Tragic Hero
  23. 23. <ul><li>Aristotle’s Definition of Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>A man of high standard who falls from that high because of a tragic flaw that has affected many ” </li></ul><ul><li>***Macbeth is one of the most famous examples of the tragic hero. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Prose <ul><li>Ordinary writing that is not poetry, drama, or song </li></ul><ul><li>Only characters in the lower social classes speak this way in Shakespeare’s plays </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you suppose that is? </li></ul>
  25. 25. WHAT DID HE JUST SAY? Did people really talk this way? Prose - language without metrical structure Verse - poetic language and style Blank Verse :  unrhymed iambic pentameter. Iambic Pentameter :  five beats of alternating unstressed and stressed syllables; ten syllables per line. 'So fair / and foul / a day / I have / not seen '
  26. 26. What just happened? <ul><li>Shakespeare will be some of the most difficult reading you will ever attempt. BE PATIENT! </li></ul><ul><li>Middle English vs. Modern English </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Read the Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Read everything twice </li></ul><ul><li>First time- try reading without looking at footnotes, mark any interesting or difficult items </li></ul><ul><li>4. Try reading aloud </li></ul><ul><li>5. Look up words you don’t know </li></ul><ul><li>6. Keep a list of characters </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Set in Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Written for King James I (formerly of Scotland, now England) </li></ul><ul><li>Queen of Denmark (James’s sister) was visiting </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare researched The Chronicles – </li></ul><ul><li>Banquo is an ancestor of King James I </li></ul>Macbeth The tragedy of
  28. 28. The Curse!
  29. 29. “ The Scottish Play” <ul><li>It is believed to be bad luck to even squeak the word ‘ Macbeth ’ in a theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Legend has it you will lose all your friends involved in the production—horribly. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1606, hundreds of actors, stage crew, etc. have been hurt or have died during the production of this play. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that Shakespeare included black magic spells in the incantations of the weird sisters. </li></ul><ul><li>People refer to this play as “the Scottish Play” </li></ul><ul><li>The only remedy to get rid of this curse is that the offender must step outside, turn around three times, spit, and whisper a foul word, and wait for permission to re-enter the theater. </li></ul>

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