Multicultural And Bilingual Special Education


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Multicultural And Bilingual Special Education

  1. 1. Multicultural and Bilingual Special Education By Laura Acevedo
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Only about 3 percent of Americans can consider themselves true natives; the rest of us are immigrants or descendants or immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Children of these different cultures are at a greater risk of being overidentified as having disabilities or underidentified as being gifted </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Multicultural and Bilingual Special Education? <ul><li>Is a combination of the fields of multicultural education, bilingual education, and special education (Table 3.1 p. 81) </li></ul><ul><li>Students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are at greater risk of being identified as having a disability due to factors associated with poverty </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is multicultural education? <ul><li>All students regardless of their gender, social class, ethnic, racial or cultural characteristics should have an equal opportunity to learn in school </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Bilingual Education? <ul><li>To develop greater competency in English, more proficiency in the dominant language, and increased educational opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>It uses the child’s native language for primary instruction until sufficient command of English is attained. (Omar Chavez, p. 80) </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Bilingual Special Education? <ul><li>Begins with and individually designed educational program (IEP) that uses some home language and culture, along with English, as the foundation of delivering special instruction that emphasizes the academic and social needs of the child </li></ul>
  7. 7. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students <ul><li>Linguistically diverse students are students with limited English proficiency (LEP) also known as English language learners (ELL) </li></ul><ul><li>In classrooms where English is the language of instruction, these students’ ability to learn successfully is impaired </li></ul>
  8. 8. Challenges <ul><li>Students speak almost or no English </li></ul><ul><li>Those who can communicate are not proficient enough for academic instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough teachers that speak their native language are available </li></ul>
  9. 9. Culturally Diverse Students <ul><li>There are thousands of different cultures represented in our schools </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that by the year 2010 white students will be a minority </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity is not directly linked to having a disability, but culturally diverse students are more likely to live in poverty which poses a greater risk for developing a disability (Native Americans, p. 85) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Challenges of Identification <ul><li>Standardized testing – discriminate against the culturally and linguistically diverse population </li></ul><ul><li>IDEA requires that nondiscriminatory testing be established in each state (p. 86) </li></ul><ul><li>Results form these tests have resulted in overrepresentation in special education and underrepresentation in the gifted education </li></ul>
  11. 11. A possible solution <ul><li>Gardner’s multiple intelligences centers (p. 87) in problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Many students identified as gifted through this process, who fail to be recognized through traditional methods, do exceptionally well in special enrichment programs </li></ul><ul><li>Performance based assessments or portfolio evaluations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Background history <ul><li>Late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries there was total exclusion (separate language schools – p. 89) </li></ul><ul><li>Melting pot – cultural traditions and languages are abandoned for the new American culture and language </li></ul>
  13. 13. Background (cont.) <ul><li>Cultural pluralism (1960’s) – are cultural groups are valued members of society, and the language and traditions of the culture are maintained </li></ul><ul><li>This model was believed to provide enrichment to the nation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Background (cont.) <ul><li>1968 – 60 – 80 percent of special education classes for mental retardation came from AfroAmericans, American Indians, Mexicans and Puerto Rican Americans </li></ul><ul><li>1970 – The Six Hour Retarded Child exposed how cultural and linguistic differences where responsible for inappropriately labeling students as mentally retarded </li></ul><ul><li>Cases exposing bias in the assessment process began to surface </li></ul>
  15. 15. Jane Mercer (1973) <ul><li>Developed a test aimed at reducing bias in the identification process </li></ul><ul><li>Called, The System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA), it significantly decreased the number of African American and Hispanic children placed in special education classes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Causes and Prevention of Disabilities in Diverse Students <ul><li>More cause by socio-economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate health care </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of immunization </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of prenatal care </li></ul><ul><li>View on what constitutes a disability varies by culture. Some may believe it to be a curse, others may believe that person is blessed, etc. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Exceptional Children <ul><li>May be perceived as having a communication problem due to the dialect used in their home environment </li></ul><ul><li>May behave differently due to their culture (Hawaiian vs. White, p. 101) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior may be considered odd, but be completely normal in their culture </li></ul>
  18. 18. Difficulties in Proper Identification <ul><li>Mobility – children of migrant and seasonal farm workers </li></ul><ul><li>Homelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Time to transfer records, duplication of records, differences in the system </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate placement due to language </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of coordination with the proper agencies </li></ul>
  19. 19. Prevention <ul><li>Immunizations and better health care </li></ul><ul><li>More awareness of our cultural diversity beginning at the preschool years </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate cultural diversity into the day to day learning </li></ul>
  20. 20. Language and Instruction <ul><li>English as a Second language </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual transitional approach </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual maintenance approach </li></ul><ul><li>Total immersion </li></ul>