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History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
History of Graffiti
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History of Graffiti

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presentation on graffiti by the University of Alabama. From this original source. No copyright infringement intended. …

presentation on graffiti by the University of Alabama. From this original source. No copyright infringement intended. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCYQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uofaweb.ualberta.ca%2Fcrsc%2Fpdfs%2FGraffiti-Public_version%28FINAL%29-Compressed_images.ppt&ei=drxGT8DkBIXrtgeApKSdDg&usg=AFQjCNFFFVQYhHc7o0WA3nuSFVY4LPj0Bg

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  • 1. What is graffiti? A definition: <ul><li>Words or drawings, especially humorous, rude or political, on walls, doors, etc. in public places. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 2. Graffiti A slideshow exploring what it is and issues surrounding it. Prepared by Ondine Park for City-Region Studies Centre, University of Alberta Presentation created and lifted from: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCYQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uofaweb.ualberta.ca%2Fcrsc%2Fpdfs%2FGraffiti-Public_version%28FINAL%29-Compressed_images.ppt&ei=drxGT8DkBIXrtgeApKSdDg&usg=AFQjCNFFFVQYhHc7o0WA3nuSFVY4LPj0Bg
  • 3. Graffiti <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the issues? </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 4. What is graffiti? Origins <ul><li>The word “graffiti” was first used in English in 1851 to refer to ancient wall inscriptions found in the ruins of Pompeii. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 5. What is graffiti? Other early examples <ul><li>There are examples of graffiti in the ruins of ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Syrians, Arabians, Vikings, Mayans, First Nations, and many other cultures, even going back 40,000 years … </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre … to the wall markings of the Lascaux caves in France
  • 6. What is graffiti? Other early examples <ul><li>Mayan markings, in Guatemala </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre <ul><li>Viking graffiti left in Hagia Sophia, Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Safaitic writing, in Middle East) </li></ul>
  • 7. What is graffiti? Other early examples <ul><li>From Writing-On-Stone Provincial Park, Alberta </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 8. What is graffiti? Modern <ul><li>In 1877, the term “graffiti” was extended to include recently made crude drawings and scribbling. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 9. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>There are many histories of “modern” graffiti </li></ul><ul><li>But many people see the immediate precursors in the various dynamic social changes of 1960s US urban life. In particular: </li></ul><ul><li>Political activism and protest (e.g. hippies) </li></ul><ul><li>(Re-)emergence of gangs (i.e. their territorial markers) </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 10. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>In the late 1960s, “tagging” began to emerge in the streets of Philadelphia. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 11. What is graffiti? Modern <ul><li>Tag </li></ul><ul><li>the writer's logo, his/her stylized personal signature. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 12. What is graffiti? Modern <ul><li>Influential early New York tags </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 13. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>1970s-1980s: </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti as both a form and a culture blossomed in New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti writers began by tagging subways. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 14. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>The tags began to proliferate on subways as writers tried to get their tags across the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti writers who had not met each other communicated and competed through the developing graffiti form. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 15. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>This evolution in graffiti was driven, in part, by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competition for recognition of writing skills in the developing graffiti community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the social, economic and political context. </li></ul></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 16. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>Graffiti writers strove to create ever more unique, more elaborate, and larger scale pieces. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 17. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>Graffiti became a key element in the expression of emerging sub-cultural music scenes, including rap/hip hop and punk. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 18. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>Authorities began cracking down on graffiti and graffiti writers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. consistent removal of any and all tags. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This led to increasing territorialism and even violence over available spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually, only the very ‘hard core’ continued writing. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 19. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>At the same time, the ‘legitimate’ art world started taking notice of this street art and the skills involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Art galleries began showing graffiti exhibits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Famously, Jean-Michel Basquiat and Keith Haring </li></ul></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 20. What is graffiti? A modern timeline <ul><li>Since 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti artists moved out of subways onto ‘street canvases’ </li></ul><ul><li>There has been increasing appreciation of graffiti as an art-form </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti has an increasing presence in commercial media </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 21. What is graffiti? Modern <ul><li>While some graffiti writers are glad to see that their work and skills are being appreciated </li></ul><ul><li>Many feel that commercial work is a betrayal of graffiti’s roots. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 22. What is graffiti? Modern <ul><li>Graffiti is constantly evolving: </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting to new environments, social contexts and material available. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 23. What is graffiti? Modern <ul><li>Contemporary graffiti includes a huge variety of different types of materials and styles. Including… </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 24. What is graffiti? Modern: Types of graffiti <ul><li>Applying marks directly onto a surface </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used material: spray paint, paint, marker, chalk, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done freehand or using pre-made stencils. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 25. <ul><li>Applying pre-made pieces to surfaces using adhesive </li></ul>What is graffiti? Modern: Types of graffiti City-Region Studies Centre
  • 26. What is graffiti? Modern: Types of graffiti <ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>3D, Sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Installations </li></ul><ul><li>Using light </li></ul><ul><li>Video projection </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed media </li></ul><ul><li>Other new media </li></ul><ul><li>Using materials in new ways (e.g. fabrics, knitting, living plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Even erasing to make mark </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre Experimental and Street Art
  • 27. A different history <ul><li>Some graffiti writers link graffiti writing to the illuminated letters of medieval manuscripts. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 28. Issues Is graffiti a problem? <ul><li>Why is it considered a problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of problem is it? </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 29. Issues Is graffiti a problem? <ul><li>Graffiti is sometimes seen as a sign, an indication of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social break down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impoverishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But, sometimes graffiti is understood to be more menacing than just a sign pointing to problems. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 30. Issues Is graffiti a problem? <ul><li>Some see graffiti as a threat -- something that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>actively contributes to increasing disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marks gang (or otherwise dangerous) territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases risk and vulnerability </li></ul></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 31. Issues Is graffiti a problem? City-Region Studies Centre <ul><li>Most extremely, graffiti writing is seen as a crime and graffiti writers and tools are seen as criminal. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, graffiti is understood to be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vandalism (destruction of private property) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>illegal individual expression versus the rights of individuals, the public, business, or property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deviant, anti-social, seditious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a criminal offense to be punished </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. Issues Is graffiti a problem? <ul><li>Why might it not be considered a “problem”? </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre <ul><li>Graffiti can give insight into problems of a city and the joys of a city. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of targeting graffiti, some feel authorities should try to tackle the real underlying issues that merely find expression in graffiti. </li></ul>
  • 33. Issues Is graffiti a problem? <ul><li>Graffiti as art </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti can be understood as </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre <ul><ul><li>legitimate (and legitimated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>artistic expression, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>artistic practice, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and artistic work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that demonstrate skill, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aesthetic considerations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and artistic integrity </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Issues Is graffiti a problem? <ul><li>Graffiti asks questions about real social, economic, political and cultural problems – even when it’s not directly “political”. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. graffiti tends to proliferate in poor neighbourhoods – why are these neighbourhoods poor? </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre <ul><li>Graffiti gives, finds, or takes a space for a ‘real’ public voice to speak, unfiltered by corporate media. </li></ul><ul><li>It can illustrate the discontent or joy of often marginalised, oppressed, or silenced voices and literally inscribe them into the public realm </li></ul>
  • 35. Issues Public approaches to handling graffiti <ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression (erasure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegalisation (e.g. of the act) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graffiti as community building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graffiti as expressing community identity </li></ul></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 36. Issues Public approaches to handling graffiti <ul><li>The “Graffiti Art Programming Inc.” in Winnipeg </li></ul><ul><li>uses art as a tool for community, social, economic and individual growth. </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre <ul><li>They work for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the promotion of youth art as its own genre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing a place where young artists can take creative risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neighborhood beautification and community development through public art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fostering a sense of creative cooperation and self healing </li></ul></ul>
  • 37. Issues Public approaches to handling graffiti <ul><li>“ Spread the Paint”, Vancouver’s graffiti management program, works together with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>business and property owners; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community groups and residents; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graffiti artists </li></ul></ul>City-Region Studies Centre <ul><ul><li>A mural program provides sanctioned spaces for graffiti writers to display their work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property owners can donate a wall for the mural program. The City facilitates the process and provides the supplies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The City offers repair kits or financial assistance to property owners for graffiti removal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Community Paint Outs’ encourage community groups, businesses and residents to team up and improve the physical appearance of their neighbourhood. </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. City-Region Studies Centre
  • 39. Image Credits <ul><li>All images listed in order of appearance on slide (first to last or clockwise from top left). Images from Flickr and wikimedia are attributed to contributor's username. </li></ul><ul><li>Images may have been edited for presentation purposes. Where they exist, copyrights remain with original holders. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 2. (1) Ondine Park; (2) raptortheangel http://www.flickr.com/photos/raptortheangel/35500986/; (3) contessak http://flickr.com/photos/tree-tangled/3760617425/; (4) peterjohnchen http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjohnchen/2616726869/; (5) MTO http://www.fatcap.com/artist/mto.html; (6) Andre http://www.fatcap.com/artist/andre.html; (7) Edina Tokodi http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/05/23/eco-art-mosstika-gathers-more-moss/; (8) Invader http://www.fatcap.com/artist/space-invaders.html ;(9) Orticanoodles http://www.fatcap.com/artist/orticanoodles.html; (10) OH http://www.fatcap.com/article/oh-interview.html; (11) Jef Aerosol http://www.fatcap.com/artist/jef-aerosol.html; (12) Os Gemeos http://www.fatcap.com/artist/os-gemeos.html </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 3. Definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 4. Adapted from Online Etymology Dictionary © 2001 Douglas Harper; see also other histories listed in References. (1) http://arthistorymadness.blogspot.com/2007/10/graffiti-from-pompeii.html; (2) Vincent Ramos http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Graffiti_politique_de_Pompei.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 5. (1) MatthiasKabel http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reproduction_cave_of_Altamira_01.jpg; (2) HTO http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lascaux,_replica_05.JPG </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 40. Image credits (cont’d) <ul><li>Slide 6. (1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hagia-sofia-viking.jpg; (2) Barbara McKenzie http://mayaruins.com/tikal/graffiti.html; (3) Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, University of Oxford http://www.csad.ox.ac.uk/csad/Newsletters/Newsletter6/Newsletter6b.html </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 7. (both) Royal Alberta Museum http://www.royalalbertamuseum.ca/human/archaeo/faq/rockart.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 8. Adapted from Online Etymology Dictionary © 2001 Douglas Harper </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 10. (1) http://freshlyeducatedmen.wordpress.com/2009/06/19/hip-hop-graffiti-part-1-of-2/ </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 11. A dapted from The Words: A Graffiti Glossary www.graffiti.org. (1) Martha Cooper http://www.studionemo.com/2008/12/martha-coopers-tag-town/ </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 12. (both) Subway Outlaws http://www.subwayoutlaws.com/history/history.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 16. Midnite Run http://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/graffiti/midniterun/flix/ny/ </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 19. Keith Haring http://ahappyplace.wordpress.com/2009/03/10/keith-haring-guaranteed-to-send-you-to-a-happy-place/ </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 21. (1) Fat Cap http://www.fatcap.com/article/43.html; (2) http://blog.sellsiusrealestate.com/business/guerilla-marketing-with-graffiti-style-ads/2006/09/08/; (3) http://sarahleey.wordpress.com/2009/01/19/stephen-sprouse-triubte-collection/ </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 24. (1-3, 5) Ondine Park; (4) peterjohnchen http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjohnchen/2578100116/in/photostream/; (6) Banksy http://www.indymedia.ie/article/90538; (7) http://www.graffiti.org/war/war_18.html </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 41. Image credits (cont’d) <ul><li>Slide 25. (1, 3-5, 8, 9) Ondine Park; (2) Noah Sussman http://www.flickr.com/photos/thefangmonster/141590736/; (6, 7) peterjohnchen http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjohnchen/2568434123/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjohnchen/2571110751/ </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 26. (1) Noah Sussman http://www.flickr.com/photos/thefangmonster/1123146758/; (2) Edina Tokodi http://www.woostercollective.com/2008/11/the_as_to_our_qs_edina_tokodi_aka_mossti.html; (3) Alexandre Orion http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/01/11/reverse-graffiti/; (4) Noah Sussman http://www.flickr.com/photos/thefangmonster/1353101148/ </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 27. (1) Ministère de la Culture et Communication, France, Enluminures http://www.enluminures.culture.fr ; (2) Schmoo http://www.graffiti.org/la/la_10.html; (3) from The British Library http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Woman_teaching_geometry.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 28. Jinks http://www.fatcap.com/graffiti/6322-jinks-nantes.html </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 37. (all) City of Vancouver Graffiti Management Program http://vancouver.ca/engsvcs/streets/graffiti/ </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 38. Banksy http://www.fatcap.com/graffiti/13622-banksy-london.html </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 42. References <ul><li>On 'What is graffiti?' </li></ul><ul><li>Art Crimes. http://www.graffiti.org </li></ul><ul><li>Black, Shona. 2009. 'What Makes Graffiti Art? Museums Bring Street Artists inside Fine Arts Establishment.' http://specialartgalleryexhibits.suite101.com/article.cfm/what_makes_graffiti_art#ixzz0U8M7jYNvhttp://specialartgalleryexhibits.suite101.com/article.cfm/what_makes_graffiti_art </li></ul><ul><li>Edmonton Alberta Graffiti, Stencils and such! http://www.flickr.com/groups/edmontonstreetart/ (Flickr group pool) </li></ul><ul><li>Fatcap. http://www.fatcap.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Freshly.Educated.Men. 'Hip Hop Graffiti.' http://freshlyeducatedmen.wordpress.com/2009/06/19/hip-hop-graffiti-part-1-of-2/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ganz, Nicholas. 2004. Graffiti World: Street art from five continents, edited by Tristan Manco. NY: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Pub. </li></ul><ul><li>Gavin, Francesca. 2007. Street Renegades: New Underground Art. London: Lawrence King Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti Grapher (from Dr. Ron Eglash, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) http://csdt.rpi.edu/subcult/grafitti/culture/Graffiti_History.html </li></ul><ul><li>Lewisohn, Cedar. 2008. Street Art: The Graffiti Revolution. New York: Abrams. </li></ul><ul><li>New York City Graffiti @ 149 St. http://www.at149st.com/ </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 43. References (cont’d) <ul><li>Parkin, Anna. 2009. 'The Rise of Street Art.' http://runninginheels.co.uk/articles/rise-street-art/ </li></ul><ul><li>Peiter, Sebastian. 2009. Guerilla art; with additional text by Goetz Werner. London: Laurence King Pub. </li></ul><ul><li>Saffer, Angela. 2008. 'Fighting Graffiti: History of The War on Street Wall Art.' </li></ul><ul><li>http://outsider-art.suite101.com/article.cfm/fighting_graffiti </li></ul><ul><li>Streets of Dublin (Infomatique). 'Graffiti: Public art on the streets of Dublin.' http://www.streetsofdublin.com/graffiti/1_ancient_graffiti.html </li></ul><ul><li>Subway Outlaws. http://www.subwayoutlaws.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Art Warfare. http://urbanartwarfare.com/blog </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia. ''Graffiti.' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graffiti </li></ul><ul><li>Wooster Collective. http://www.woostercollective.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/search/?w=all&q=edmonton+graffiti&m=text (Flickr photoset of graffiti in Edmonton) </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre
  • 44. References (cont’d) <ul><li>On graffiti as an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabet City blog. 2008. '1970's NYC Subway Graffiti.' http://www.alphabetcityblog.com/2008/12/1970s-nyc-subway-graffiti.html </li></ul><ul><li>Callinan, Rachel. 2009. 'Dealing with Graffiti in New South Wales' briefing paper. Parliament of New South Wales (Australia). http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/publications.nsf/key/ResearchBf082002 </li></ul><ul><li>City of Edmonton. Graffiti Management Program. http://www.edmonton.ca/environmental/capital_city_cleanup/graffiti-management-program.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>City of Vancouver. Spread the Paint: Graffiti Management Program. http://vancouver.ca/ENGSVCS/streets/graffiti/ </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti Art Programming (based in Winnipeg). http://www.graffitigallery.ca/ </li></ul><ul><li>Negley, Erin. 2008. 'Former Philadelphia graffiti artist now arts advocate.' http://readingeagle.com/article.aspx?id=79200 </li></ul><ul><li>Nickle, David. 2008. ' Community: Graffiti crackdown on public structures in place.' Inside Toronto . http://www.insidetoronto.com/article/57382 </li></ul><ul><li>Northampton Borough Council. 'Dealing with Graffiti: What is graffiti?' http://www.northampton.gov.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?documentID=168&pageNumber=3 </li></ul><ul><li>Vandal Watch Society (Coquitlam, BC). 'Getting educated about graffiti.' http://www.vandalwatch.citysoup.ca/Graffiti/default.htm </li></ul>City-Region Studies Centre

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