Thm 201 2 Tourism In Perspectives Chapter 1


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Thm 201 2 Tourism In Perspectives Chapter 1

  1. 1. Tourism In Perspectives Chapter 1 : 2 Hours THM-201 Tourism and Hospitality Management Ms. Sukhuman Klamsaengsai
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the components of tourism and tourism management. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the various approaches to studying tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the benefits and costs of tourism. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contents <ul><li>What is Tourism and Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Tourism and Tourism Management </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and Costs of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Life Cycle </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. What is Tourism <ul><li>Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tourists, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tourism suppliers, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>host governments, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>host communities, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>surrounding environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>that are involved in the attracting and hosting </li></ul><ul><li>of visitors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. What is Tourism <ul><li>นักท่องเที่ยว หรือผู้มาเยือน คือผู้ที่เดินทางหาประสบการณ์ทั้งที่สัมผัสได้ทางกายและจิตใจ ซึ่งวัตถุประสงค์จะเป็นตัวกำหนดกิจกรรมและแหล่งท่องเที่ยวที่นักท่องเที่ยวเลือก </li></ul><ul><li>ธุรกิจ ในอุตสาหกรรมท่องเที่ยว คือธุรกิจที่ผลิตสินค้าและการบริการเพื่อตอบสนองความต้องในการเดินทางของนักท่องเที่ยว ซึ่งจะได้ผลกำไรจากการขายสินค้าและบริการให้แก่นักท่องเที่ยว </li></ul><ul><li>ภาครัฐบาล ที่ดูแลการท่องเที่ยว คือองค์กรของรัฐที่จัดตั้งขึ้นเพื่อควบคุมดูแลการท่องเที่ยวให้เป็นไปตามนโยบายที่วางไว้ ซึ่งโดยส่วนใหญ่จะให้ความสำคัญกับการท่องเที่ยวเพราะเป็นแหล่งรายได้ที่สำคัญ </li></ul><ul><li>ชุมชนในพื้นที่ท่องเที่ยว คือประชาชนที่อาศัยอยู่ในพื้นที่สำหรับการท่องเที่ยว อาจจะมีส่วนร่วมในการเป็นเจ้าของบ้านที่ดีเพื่อต้อนรับนักท่องเที่ยว หรือให้บริการนักท่องเที่ยวโดยตรง </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1. What is Tourism <ul><li>Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>UNWTO </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. What is Tourism <ul><li>Tourism is the study of man (the tourist) away from his usual habitat, of the touristic apparatus and networks responding to his various needs, and of the ordinary (where the tourist is coming from) and nonordinary (where the tourist goes to) worlds and their dialectic relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>( Jafari, J. 2000. Encyclopedia in Tourism. London: Routledge.) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1. What is Tourism <ul><li>อุตสาหกรรมการท่องเที่ยว หมายถึง อุตสาหกรรมที่จัดให้มีหรือบริการเกี่ยวกับการท่องเที่ยวทั้งภายในและภายนอกราชอาณาจักร โดยมีค่าตอบแทน และหมายรวมถึง </li></ul><ul><li>ธุรกิจนำเที่ยว </li></ul><ul><li>ธุรกิจโรงแรมนักท่องเที่ยว </li></ul><ul><li>ธุรกิจภัตตาคาร สถานบริการและสถานที่ตากอากาศสำหรับนักท่องเที่ยว </li></ul><ul><li>ธุรกิจการขายของที่ระลึกหรือสินค้าสำหรับนักท่องเที่ยว </li></ul><ul><li>ธุรกิจกีฬาสำหรับนักท่องเที่ยว </li></ul><ul><li>การดำเนินงานนิทรรศการ งานแสดง งานออกร้าน การโฆษณาเผยแพร่ หรือการดำเนินงานอื่นใด โดยมีความมุ่งหมาย เพื่อชักจูงหรือส่งเสริมให้มีการเดินทางท่องเที่ยว </li></ul><ul><li>( พรบ . การท่องเที่ยวแห่งประเทศไทย , 2522) </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1. What is Tourism <ul><li>A “visitor” is defined as those persons who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1. What is Tourism
  11. 11. <ul><li>Traveler Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Same-day visitors : Visitors who do not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists : Visitors who stay in the country visited for at least one night </li></ul>1. What is Tourism
  12. 12. 1. What is Tourism <ul><li>..Hospitality is made up of two distinct services: the provision of overnight accommodation for people staying away from home (lodging), and the provision of sustenance for people eating away from home (food service)… (Jafari,2000) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lodging and Food service” / USA </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hotel and Catering” / UK </li></ul><ul><li>A typical dictionary defines it as………. </li></ul><ul><li>“ kindness in welcoming strangers or guests”. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Catering & Banquets Food Service Industry Lodging Industry Hospitality Industry Merchandise Component Travel & Tourism Transportation Industry Restaurant separate from other business clubs Beverage Establishments Ground Transportation Industry Maritime Industry Airline Industry F&B with other businesses Clubs Convention Hotels Resorts Hotels/ Motels Institutions Travel Agency Industry Tour Operator Industry Recreation, Sports and Entertainment Hospitality and Tourism Network
  14. 14. Contents <ul><li>What is Tourism and Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Tourism and Tourism Management </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and Costs of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Life Cycle </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2. Components of Tourism and Tourism Management <ul><li>Tourist </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources and Environment </li></ul><ul><li>The Built Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Sectors of the Tourism Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Planning, Development, Promotion, and Catalyst Organization </li></ul>
  16. 16. NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT BUILT ENVIRONMENT OPERATING SECTORS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY Travel Trade Sector Catalyst, Planning, Development, and Promotion Organizations Accommodation Sector Events Sector Transportation Sector Adventure & Outdoor Recreation Sector Food Services Sector Private Sector Components Public Sector Components National Travel Industry Associations National Government Tourism Offices State and Provincial Government Tourism Offices Local and City Government Tourism Departments Local & Regional Tourism Associations/ Convention & Visitor Bureaus State and Provincial Travel Industry Associations Attractions Sector Entertainment Sector Tourism Services PEOPLE CLIMATE PHSYIOGRAPHY INFORMATION SUPERSTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE CULTURE Philosophy Policy Vision Strategy Planning Development Marketing Stewardship Behaviors Experiences Monitoring Evaluation Organization Research Visitation Residents -- Visitors TECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE Impacts THE PROCESSES, ACTIVITIES, AND OUTCOMES OF TOURISM Tourist
  17. 17. Contents <ul><li>What is Tourism and Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Tourism and Tourism Management </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and Costs of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Life Cycle </li></ul>
  18. 18. 3. Benefits and Costs of Tourism <ul><li>Provides employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Generates foreign exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Increases Incomes </li></ul><ul><li>Increases GNP </li></ul><ul><li>Can be built on existing infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Develops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industry </li></ul>Benefits of Tourism - Economic
  19. 19. 3. Benefits and Costs of Tourism <ul><li>Can be developed with local products and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Diversifies the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be compatible with other economic activities </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads development </li></ul><ul><li>High multiplier impact </li></ul><ul><li>Increases governmental revenues </li></ul>Benefits of Tourism - Economic
  20. 20. 3. Benefits and Costs of Tourism <ul><li>Broadens educational and cultural horizons </li></ul><ul><li>Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of living </li></ul><ul><li>Justifies environmental protection and improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population </li></ul>Benefits of Tourism - Social
  21. 21. 3. Benefits and Costs of Tourism <ul><li>Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Visitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes a global community </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes international understanding and peace </li></ul>Benefits of Tourism - Cultural
  22. 22. 3. Benefits and Costs of Tourism <ul><li>Develops excess demand </li></ul><ul><li>Results in high leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Creates difficulties of seasonality </li></ul><ul><li>Causes inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in unbalanced economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes </li></ul>Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic
  23. 23. 3. Benefits and Costs of Tourism <ul><li>Creates social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Degrades the natural physical environment and creates pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Degrades the cultural environment </li></ul><ul><li>Threatens family structure </li></ul><ul><li>Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Creates misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><li>Creates conflicts in the host society </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, and transportation problems </li></ul>Disadvantages of Tourism - Social
  24. 24. Contents <ul><li>What is Tourism and Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Tourism and Tourism Management </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and Costs of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Life Cycle </li></ul>
  25. 25. 4. Types of Tourism <ul><li>International Tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound Tourism : Visits to a country by nonresidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outbound Tourism : Visits by residents of a country to another country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Tourism : Visits by residents and nonresidents of the country of reference </li></ul>
  26. 26. 4. Types of Tourism <ul><li>Domestic tourism : Visits by residents of a country to their own country </li></ul><ul><li>National tourism : Internal tourism plus outbound tourism (the resident tourism market for travel agents, airlines, and other suppliers) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Contents <ul><li>What is Tourism and Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Tourism and Tourism Management </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and Costs of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Life Cycle </li></ul>
  28. 28. 5. Tourism Life Cycle http :// bp1 . blogger . com / _SO9-ZWHfzb4 / SChvtPObZGI / AAAAAAAAAWk / 0lc4XETHeZs / s1600-h / TALC . png
  29. 29. 5. Tourism Life Cycle http :// www . emeraldinsight . com / fig / 0410180505001 . png Development
  30. 30. 5. Tourism Life Cycle <ul><li>Exploration : A secret spot is discovered, no amenities, must &quot; go feral &quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement : A few locally - run camps and a few concessions are established. </li></ul><ul><li>Development : A well defined tourism industry is developed with advertising the destination </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation : Tourism become a dominant feature of the local economy </li></ul><ul><li>Stagnation : Tourism growth slows and carrying capacity is reached, the area is no longer a new hotspot, maybe its overbuilt </li></ul><ul><li>Decline or rejuvination: Decline results as tourists choose other destinations, rejuvenation typically requires attracting a different kind of tourist . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusion <ul><li>What is Tourism and Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Tourism and Tourism Management </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and Costs of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Life Cycle </li></ul>