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The science of persuasive design | Capturing emotional triggers that transform exploration into action

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Today, interactions with prospective …

Today, interactions with prospective
customers start on the web. This means
to be useful, a website must be more
than usable. It must also be engaging
and persuasive, like a charismatic
salesman.
Persuasive designs do not „just happen“.
They are derived through rigorous
research identifying the emotional
triggers that drive a customer to commit
or fears that hinder a customer from
acting.
Once key emotional responses are
understood, organizations can
develop content and messaging
strategies which employ principles of
social psychology to amplifying
customers motivations and minimize
their concerns.
By extending the traditional usability
methods into the domains of
emotional response and human
decision making, designers can
create content that transform
exploration into commitment.

More in: Technology , Design
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  • Key takeaway: Increase your odds of persuading your customers to take a desired action by systematically removing 'barriers to commitment' from your web site's task flow.
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  • Wonderful presentation. Clear, engaging, and a nice historical perspective on the evolution of persuasion on the Internet. I especially liked the example on phone services, in German. Well tuned to the German audience.
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  • 1. The science of persuasive design Capturing  emo.onal  triggers  that   transform  explora.on  into  ac.on Kath  Straub Arno  Bublitz   Usability.ORG Human  Factors  Interna8onal
  • 2. Designing  persuasive  content  is  a  2  step  process 1.  Learn  your  user’s  mo.va.ons  and  barriers  to  commitment   2.  Apply  social  psych  principles  of  influence  to  amplify   mo.va.ons  and  reduce/remove  barriers
  • 3. What’s persuasive? circa 2000 Friends Domain   and  Family Professionals (Bricks  and  mortar) Media Internet consumer information ecosystem 3
  • 4. Website credibility circa 2000 Credibility  Killers Quick  response  to  ques.ons Slow  download Physical  address Has  ads   Contact  informa.on Typos Recently  updated Broken  links Professionally  designed . Arrangement  makes  sense . . Hard  to  navigate . Has  popup  ads .   No  updates Has  ads  that  match  the  topic . Requires  you  to  register Hard  to  tell  ads  from  content Credibility  Enhancers Fogg,  et.  al.,  2000
  • 5. Website credibility circa 2000 Credibility  Killers Technology Focus Credibility  Enhancers
  • 6. Early evolution of information consumers Quick  response  to  ques.ons Design  look Physical  address Informa.on  structure Contact  informa.on . Recently  updated . Professionally  designed Usefulness  of  informa.on Arrangement  makes  sense . . Func.onality . Customer  Service .   Iden.ty  of  sponsor Has  ads  that  match  the  topic . Requires  you  to  register Readability Affilia.ons 2002 2004 Fogg,  et.  al.,  2003 Credibility  Enhancers
  • 7. Early evolution of information consumers Quick  response  to  ques.ons Design  look Physical  address Informa.on  structure Contact  informa.on . Recently  updated . Usability Focus Professionally  designed Arrangement  makes  sense Usefullness  of  informa.on . . Func.onality . Customer  Service .   Iden.ty  of  sponsor Has  ads  that  match  the  topic . Requires  you  to  register Readability Afillia.ons 2002 2004 Credibility  Enhancers
  • 8. Consumers use different cues than professionals (2003) Name/Affilia.on Design  look Informa.on  source Informa.on  focus Business  mo.ve Informa.on  design Informa.on  focus Adver.sing Adver.sing 3 Company  mo.ve Design  look 1 Reputa.on/Affilia.on Informa.on  bias Informa.on  bias Informa.on  design Informa.on  accuracy Wri.ng  tone Wri.ng  tone Informa.on  Accuracy 2 Informa.on  source Professionals Non-­‐professionals Fogg,  et.  al.,  2003 Credibility  Enhancers
  • 9. What’s persuasive? circa 2000 Friends Domain   and  Family Professionals (Bricks  and  mortar) Media Internet consumer information ecosystem 9
  • 10. Consumers cues converge toward professional’s (2007) Name/Affilia.on Site  reputa.on Informa.on  source Source  reputa.on Business  mo.ve Content  quality Informa.on  focus Content  accuracy Adver.sing Content  usefulness Design  look Informa.on  bias Informa.on  design Wri.ng  tone Informa.on  Accuracy Professionals Non-­‐professionals Crawford  &  Straub,  (2008) Credibility  Enhancers
  • 11. Consumers cues converge toward professional’s (2007) Content Focus Crawford  &  Straub,  (2008) Credibility  Enhancers
  • 12. 1.  Consumers  have  become  more   sophis.cated  users 2.  Design  is  becoming  more  about CONTENT
  • 13. What’s persuasive? circa today Friends Domain   and  Family Professionals (Bricks  and  mortar) Media Internet consumer information ecosystem 13
  • 14. The  internet  is  may  be  your   first  (and  last)  chance   to  engage  a  new  customer.
  • 15. Modified belief  or  behavior The  goal  of  a  website  is   to  change  a  set  of   beliefs  and  behaviors,   driving  target  ac.ons. ===  Website  === Exis*ng Motivation belief  or  behavior
  • 16. Modified belief  or  behavior Commitment barrier Commitment barrier Commitment Commitment barrier barrier Commitment barrier Commitment The  goal  is  o^en   barrier thwarted  by  consumers’   barriers  to  commitment. ===  Website  === Exis*ng Motivation belief  or  behavior
  • 17. Human  to  human   interac.ons  are   different  from  reading   web  content  because   face  to  face   interac.ons  support   empathy  &  message   tuning  real  .me
  • 18. To  make  content  persuasive.... Modified belief  or  behavior Commitment barrier Commitment barrier Commitment Commitment barrier barrier Commitment barrier Commitment Increasing  mo.va.on barrier is  one  way  to  make   content  persuasive. ===  Website  === Exis*ng Motivation Increase belief  or  behavior Mo.va.on
  • 19. To  make  content  persuasive.... Modified belief  or  behavior Commitment barrier Reduce/remove Commitment Commitment barrier Commitment                            barriers barrier barrier Commitment barrier Reducing/removing   Commitment barrier barriers  is  another. ===  Website  === Exis*ng Increase Motivation belief  or  behavior Mo.va.on
  • 20. Designing  persuasive  content  is  a  2  step  process 1.  Learn  your  user’s  mo.va.ons  and  barriers  to  commitment   2.  Apply  social  psych  principles  of  influence  to  amplify   mo.va.ons  and  reduce/remove  barriers
  • 21. PERSUASIVE  CONTENT  INTERVIEWS      1.  Are  about  topics  not  tasks      2.  Are  (guided)  free  form      3.  Take  longer        4.  Typically  require  some  laddering* You  will •  listen  for  mo.va.ons  and  barriers  to  commitment •  watch  for  body  language  /  fidge.ng  that  indicates  emo.onal   change *Having  some  therapeu3c  training  helps
  • 22. Usability  tes3ng wants  this  level   of  descrip3on What  I  am  doing Most  people  are   comfortable   here How  is  it  working What  I  am  feeling          Empathe3c  content   interviews  need  to  tap   into  this
  • 23. PERSUASIVE  CONTENT  DESIGN Ψ                                applies  the  social  psychology  of  influence  to                    amplify  mo.va.ons  and  reduce/remove  barriers
  • 24. Ψ   A  few  of  the  principles  of  of  INFLUENCE Scarcity   Authority   Consistency Contrast Dissonance   WriNen  commitment Reciprocity Social  Proof Social  Valida8on Loss  Aversion Impression  Management Framing
  • 25. Mapping Influence Principles to Design Want to keep number Cost to change Phone plans are too complex Painful to change Uncertain of choice This  is  just  an  example  of   using  good  marke8ng.  9¢/ minute.  No  maNer  what.   Want to Save $$ understand Simple.  Simple.Simple. Want to appear consistent
  • 26. Mapping Influence Principles to Design Simyo  has  a  help  system  that   takes  in  personal  account   info  and  helps  you  kill/end   Want to keep other  accounts  simply  ...   number Cost to even  if  the  process  is   Phone plans change challenging.  The  link  is   are too complex prominent  on  the   homepage.   Painful to change Uncertain of choice Want to Save $$ understand Want to appear consistent
  • 27. Mapping Influence Principles to Design Customer  tes8monials  ...   Social Proof hundreds  ....  by  real   Want to keep number (People like me) customers  ...  these  are  not   Cost to change marke8ng  photos.  Surely   Phone plans someone  in  here  looks  like   are too complex you  ... Painful to change Uncertain of choice Want to Save $$ understand Want to appear consistent
  • 28. Mapping Influence Principles to Design Social Proof? Want to keep number Can  you  iden8fy   Cost to with  this  guy? change Phone plans are too complex Painful to change Uncertain of choice Want to Save $$ understand Want to appear consistent
  • 29. Mapping Influence Principles to Design Potential Subscribers Visible Commitment reciprocity Want to keep (Dissonance) number Cost to change Phone plans are too complex Painful to change Uncertain of choice If  you  tell  them  when  your   Save $$ Want to current  contract  ends,  they   understand will  nudge  you  to  remind   Want to you  that  simyo  is  there.   appear consistent WriNen  commitment  +   reciprocity.
  • 30. Mapping Influence Principles to Design Current Subscribers Visible Commitment Want to keep (Dissonance) number Cost to change Phone plans are too complex Painful to change Uncertain of choice Current  customers  provide   Save $$ Want to support  to  new  customers.  This   understand public  tes8monia  is  a  form  of   Want to public  commitment  -­‐-­‐  this  8me  to   appear consistent deepen  rela8onships  with   current  customers.
  • 31. PERSUASIVE  CONTENT  DESIGN 1.  Learn  your  user’s  mo.va.ons  and  barriers  to  commitment   2.  Apply  social  psych  principles  of  influence  to  amplify   mo.va.ons  and  reduce/remove  barriers
  • 32. Author  Contact  Informa3on Kath  Straub Arno  Bublitz kath@usability.org arno@humanfactors.com kas abublitz kstraub abublitz kstraub researchdrivebys.usability.org