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# Chapter 27

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• Review chapter objectives.
• Discuss the uses of the period.
• Discuss the uses of the question mark.
• Discuss the uses of the comma.Share examples.
• Discuss other ways to use the comma.Share examples.
• Review comma.
• Discuss ways to use the semicolon.
• Discuss the colon.
• Discuss the apostrophe.
• Discuss the exclamation mark.
• Discuss the dash.
• Discuss parentheses.
• Discuss the hyphen.
• Discuss quotation marks.
• Discuss capital letters.
• Discuss capital letters.
• Discuss numbers.
• Discuss abbreviations.
• ### Chapter 27

3. 3. CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LEARNING OBJECTIVESIn this chapter, you will learn to: demonstrate proficiency in basic punctuation skills, including (but not limited to) the proper use of commas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, parentheses, numbers, capital letters, and abbreviations.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
4. 4. THE PERIOD Periods are used in two ways: 1. Use a period to mark the end of a sentence that makes a statement. 2. Use a period after abbreviations.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
5. 5. THE QUESTION MARK Use a question mark after a direct question. If a question is not a direct question, it does not get a question mark.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
6. 6. THE COMMA There are four main ways to use a comma: as a lister, a linker, an introducer, or an inserter. Use a Comma as a Lister  Commas support items in a series.  These items can be words, phrases, or clauses. Use a Comma as a Linker  A comma and a coordinating conjunction link two independent clauses.  The comma is placed in front of the coordinating conjunction.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
7. 7. THE COMMA Use a Comma as an Introducer  Put a comma after introductory words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. Use a Comma as an Inserter  When words or phrases that are not necessary are inserted into a sentence, put a comma on both sides of the inserted material. Kim, an awesome person, is my teacher. Other Ways to Use a Comma 1. Use commas with quotations.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
8. 8. THE COMMA 2. Use commas with dates and addresses. 3. Use commas in numbers. 4. Use commas for clarity.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
9. 9. THE SEMICOLON Two ways to use semicolons: 1. Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses. 2. Use semicolons to separate the items on a list that contains commas.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
10. 10. THE COLON A colon is used at the end of a complete statement. It introduces a list or an explanation. A colon may also introduce long quotations.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
11. 11. THE APOSTROPHE Use the apostrophe in the following ways: 1. Use an apostrophe in contractions to show that letters or numbers have been omitted. 2. Use an apostrophe to show possession. If a word does not end in s, show ownership by adding an apostrophe and s.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
12. 12. THE EXCLAMATION MARK The exclamation mark is used at the end of sentences that express strong emotion. Use it sparingly.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
13. 13. THE DASH Use a dash to interrupt a sentence. It usually indicates a dramatic shift in tone or thought. Two dashes set off dramatic words that interrupt a sentence. Use them sparingly.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
14. 14. PARENTHESES Use parentheses to enclose extra material and afterthoughts.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
15. 15. THE HYPHEN A hyphen joins two or more descriptive words that act as a single word. Use a hyphen in the written form of compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
16. 16. QUOTATION MARKS Use quotation marks for direct quotes, for the titles of short works, and for other special uses. 1. Put quotation marks around direct quotes, a speaker or writer’s exact words. 2. Put quotation marks around the titles of short works. 3. Put quotation marks around words mentioned as words in a sentence.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
17. 17. CAPITAL LETTERS Ten main situations in which you capitalize: 1. Capitalize the first word of every sentence. 2. Capitalize the first word in a direct quotation if the word begins a sentence. 3. Capitalize the names of persons. 4. Capitalize the titles of persons. 5. Always capitalize countries, cities, languages, nationalities, religions, races, months, days of the week, documents, organizations, holidays, and historical events or periods. 6. Capitalize the names of particular places.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
18. 18. CAPITAL LETTERS 7. Use capital letters for geographic locations. 8. Capitalize the names of specific products. 9. Capitalize the names of specific school courses. 10. Capitalize the first and last words in the titles of long or short works, and capitalize all other significant words in the titles.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
19. 19. NUMBERS Spell out numbers that take one or two words Use the numbers themselves if it takes more than two words to spell them out. Also, use numbers to write dates, times, addresses, and parts of a book.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
20. 20. ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviate Mr., Mrs., Ms., Jr., Sr., and Dr. when they are used with a proper name. You should abbreviate references to time and to organizations widely known by initials.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
21. 21. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT ONE OF THEFOUR MAIN WAYS TO USE A COMMA?A. Use comma as a listerB. Use comma as an introducerC. Use comma as a linkerD. Use comma as a listenerCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
22. 22. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT ONE OF THEFOUR MAIN WAYS TO USE A COMMA?A. Use comma as a listerB. Use comma as an introducerC. Use comma as a linkerD. Use comma as a listenerDemonstrate proficiency in basic punctuation skills,including (but not limited to) the proper use ofcommas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes,parentheses, numbers, capital letters, andabbreviations.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
23. 23. WHICH PUNCTUATION MARK IS USED TOJOIN TWO INDEPENDENT CLAUSES?A. commaB. colonC. parenthesesD. semicolonCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
24. 24. WHICH PUNCTUATION MARK IS USED TOJOIN TWO INDEPENDENT CLAUSES?A. commaB. colonC. parenthesesD. semicolonDemonstrate proficiency in basic punctuation skills,including (but not limited to) the proper use ofcommas, semicolons, colons, apostrophes,parentheses, numbers, capital letters, andabbreviations.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.